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Safety Culture: An Integration of Existing Models and a Framework for Understanding Its Development
Objective: This study reviews theoretical models of organizational safety culture to uncover key factors in safety culture development. Background: Research supports the important role of safety culture in organizations, but theoretical progress has been stunted by a disjointed literature base. It is currently unclear how different elements of an organizational system function to influence safety culture, limiting the practical utility of important research findings. Method: We reviewed existing models of safety culture and categorized model dimensions by the proposed function they serve in safety...
Common human factors underlying worker fatalities in the waste and recycling industry
Research was carried out to identify common human factors underlying fatal incidents and to provide insights into possible options for concerted action to help reduce the likelihood of serious incidents or fatalities. The research reviewed 18 fatal incidents and included in-depth interviews with HSE inspectors involved in the incident investigations. Of these incidents, 12 were in ‘small and medium enterprises', SMEs (with less than 250 employees) and 6 in large enterprises (250 or more). The research identified two priority human factors areas to tackle to reduce worker fatalities: equipment...
A cross-sectional study of factors influencing occupational health and safety management practices in companies
Companies need to ensure a functioning occupational health and safety management (OHSM) system to protect human health and safety during work, but generally there are differences in how successful they are in this endeavor. Earlier research has indicated that factors like company size, safety culture, and different measures of financial performance may be related to the quality of OHSM practices in companies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these factors are associated with OHSM practices in companies. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of...
The importance of commitment, communication, culture and learning for the implementation of the Zero Accident Vision in 27 companies in Europe
In this paper the findings are presented of a multinational study involving 27 companies that have adopted a ‘Zero Accident Vision’ (ZAV). ZAV is the ambition that all accidents are preventable, and this paper focuses on how companies implement ZAV through ZAV commitment, safety communication, safety culture and safety learning. Managers and workers took part in a survey (8,819 respondents), company interviews and national workshops in seven European countries. A common characteristic of all the companies was the high ZAV commitment of their managers and workers, which often were embedded...
Diagnosis of poor safety culture as a major shortcoming in OHSAS 18001-certified companies
The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared...
Mind the gap: a qualitative approach to assessing why different sub-cultures within high-risk industries interpret safety rule gaps in different ways
Measuring the distance between the performance of safety rules as imagined and safety rules as enacted in high-risk environments has been an area of great interest and debate in recent years. Yet a significant gap in our understanding remains. Some authors have even advised us to “stop bitching about the gap” and start closing it (Hale and Borys, 2013a, p. 218). In this paper, we follow this call by investigating the relationship between safety rules as imagined, and enacted, in a rule-driven organization working in the oil and gas industry in Norway. Specifically, we investigate how...
Safety climate and accidents at work
Cross-sectional study among 15,000 workers of the general working population Methods: In the 2012 round of the Danish Work Environment and Health Study, 15,144 workers from the general working population of Denmark replied to questions about safety climate and accidents at work. Mutually adjusted logistic regression analyses determined the association between variables. Results: Within the last year, 5.7% had experienced an accident resulting in sickness absence. The number of safety climate problems was progressively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for accidents. For one safety climate problem...
Does Worksite Culture of Health (CoH) Matter to Employees?
Empirical Evidence Using Job-Related Metrics Objectives: This study examines the relationships between the workplace culture of health (CoH), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. We also examined the moderating effect of job classification. Methods: Structural equation modeling analysis was performed on data from employees of a Korean life insurance company (N=880). Results: Workplace CoH directly influenced job satisfaction (β=0.32; P<0.001) and was indirectly associated with intention to leave. Job satisfaction was directly associated with intention to leave (β=−0.42;...
Improving safety climate through a communication and recognition program for construction
A mixed methods study We evaluated the efficacy of a novel safety communication and recognition program (B-SAFE), designed to encourage improvement of physical working conditions and hazard reduction in construction. Using mixed methods, we determined that B-SAFE led to many positive changes, including an improvement in safety climate, awareness, team-building, and communication. The study has important implications for both research and practice. Source: Sparer EH, Catalano PJ, Herrick RF, Dennerlein JT. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3569
Promoting Healthy Workplaces by Building Cultures of Health and Applying Strategic Communications
Objective: The aim of the study was to identify key success elements of employer-sponsored health promotion (wellness) programs. Methods: We conducted an updated literature review, held discussions with subject matter experts, and visited nine companies with exemplary programs to examine current best and promising practices in workplace health promotion programs. Results: Best practices include establishing a culture of health and using strategic communications. Key elements that contribute to a culture of health are leadership commitment, social and physical environmental support, and employee...
Association Between Organization Culture, Health Status, and Presenteeism
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships of organizational culture and health behaviors with presenteeism. Method: Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 816 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis, in seven enterprises in northern Taiwan. Results: Organizational culture and health behaviors were found to be significantly associated with presenteeism. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of health complaints seemed to be more suitable than chronic diseases in predicting presenteeism. Conclusions: This study result implied that...
Reasons Why Physicians and Advanced Practice Clinicians Work While Sick
A Mixed-Methods Analysis Importance: When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick. Objective: To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional, anonymous survey administered from January 15 through March 20, 2014, in a large children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Data...
Organizational Safety Climate and Supervisor Safety Enforcement
Multilevel Explorations of the Causes of Accident Underreporting According to national surveillance statistics, over 3 million employees are injured each year; yet, research indicates that these may be substantial underestimates of the true prevalence. The purpose of the current project was to empirically test the hypothesis that organizational safety climate and transactional supervisor safety leadership would predict the extent to which accidents go unreported by employees. Using hierarchical linear modeling and survey data collected from 1,238 employees in 33 organizations, employee-level supervisor...
Les très petites entreprises
Une équation à plusieurs inconnues On les appréhende comme un ensemble, mais la réalité des très petites entreprises, celles de moins de dix salariés, est plurielle. Aussi les enjeux en matière de conditions de travail réclament-ils de nouvelles approches, plus globales, territoriales et pragmatiques. Source: Travail & changement , No 356, septembre-octobre 2014. http://bourgognefranchecomte.aract.fr/download/site-principal/document/pdf/parutions/tc356.pdf
Les motivations au travail sur 4 continents
Le professeur Jacques Forest, de l'École des sciences de la gestion (ESG UQAM), vient de publier, à titre de cochercheur, un article sur les motivations au travail dans le European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Intitulée « The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale : Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries », cette étude, entamée il y a sept ans, a été menée par un groupe de 20 chercheurs provenant des quatre coins de la planète. Elle démontre principalement que les motivations...
Industrial relations practices related to psychosocial constraints at work in the steel sector
This report looks at industrial relations practices regarding health and safety strategies in the European steel sector. The findings are based on desk research and a comparative analysis of company practices in three company case studies: ArcelorMittal in France, Rautaruukki in Finland and Salzgitter AG in Germany. The report offers a transversal analysis, examining the main findings on the role of social dialogue and company practices regarding prevention while also highlighting some specific company and sectoral features triggering psychosocial risks and their prevention. Each of the three case...
La SNCF met le cap sur la qualité de vie au travail
Améliorer la qualité de vie au travail, c'est préserver la santé des salariés. Mais c'est aussi garantir une plus grande qualité de service et de meilleurs résultats économiques. Source : Travail & changement , Hors-série, Décembre 2013. http://fr.calameo.com/read/000088155bea63dc36738
Toward an understanding of the impact of production pressure on safety performance in construction operations
It is not unusual to observe that actual schedule and quality performances are different from planned performances (e.g., schedule delay and rework) during a construction project. Such differences often result in production pressure (e.g., being pressed to work faster). Previous studies demonstrated that such production pressure negatively affects safety performance. However, the process by which production pressure influences safety performance, and to what extent, has not been fully investigated. As a result, the impact of production pressure has not been incorporated much into safety management...
A hierarchical factor analysis of a safety culture survey
Introduction Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin et al., 2000 and Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. Method A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered...
Effect of safety investments on safety performance of building projects
The construction industry is increasingly reliant on the voluntary effort of contractors to reduce accidents on construction sites. This study aims to investigate the effects of contractors’ safety investments on safety performance and identify the factors influencing the effects of safety investments on safety performance. To fulfill the research aims, a regression/correlation research design was adopted. Data were collected using multiple techniques (structured interviews, archival data and questionnaires) with 47 completed building projects. Bivariate correlation and moderated regression...
Understanding safety in the context of business operations: An exploratory study using case studies
This exploratory research employs a series of cases studies and a multi-stakeholder perspective to examine safety practices and outcomes in the wider context of business operations. The aims of the research include enhancing the understanding of the practices critical for safe workplaces and of the business value (positive or negative) of safety. Four research questions related to safety practices and outcomes and operational practices and outcomes were addressed. The results provide new and novel insights into safety's role in the organization and show that when safety is examined in the wider...
A review of the literature on effective leadership behaviours for safety
There is widespread agreement between industry, regulators, academics and the press that leadership is a key component of a safe organisation. While there is considerable literature on leadership, very little of this addresses the issue of safety, particularly in the major hazard sector. This research aims to identify specific leadership styles, attitudes, behaviours and practices. Source . http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr952.pdf
Worker participation practices: a review of EU-OSHA case studies : literature review
U-OSHA publishes case studies of good practices to prevent workplace risks. The cases are analysed and effective worker participation consistently appears as a basic requirement for the successful identification of problems and implementation of practical solutions, regardless of the size or type of workplace or type of problem. Many of the cases describe how worker participation took place in practice and its role in introducing successful prevention measures. This report compiles these worker participation components to provide an overview of how worker participation featured in the various cases...
Pre-conditioning for success: Characteristics and factors ensuring a safe build for the Olympic Park
This research has looked to identify factors which have contributed to the London 2012 Olympic Park being delivered on time, on budget and with an exemplary health and safety record. Where other research has captured 'how' things were done, this research has explored 'why' and focused on the underpinning human and organisational interactions. The research has tapped in to the close-out and lessons learnt activities for six of the venue and infrastructure projects. In addition interviews were conducted with executives from the Olympic Delivery Authority as client, their Delivery...
Leadership and Occupational Safety and Health: case studies and literature review
This report examines how good leadership practices can promote better occupational safety and health (OSH) behaviour amongst employees. It considers what are the necessary corporate leadership factors on which success depends. It does so by reviewing existing literature on OSH leadership. It also examines 16 detailed case studies from companies across the EU highlighting good practice, the type of activities that deliver achievements, innovative approaches, success factors and the role of stakeholders. In this report recommendations for improving OSH leadership are also made and explored. Source...
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