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The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety
Healthy employee sleep is important for occupational safety, but the mechanisms that explain the relationships among sleep and safety-related behaviors remain unknown. We draw from Crain, Brossoit, and Fisher's (in press) work, nonwork, and sleep (WNS) framework and Barnes' (2012) model of sleep and self-regulation in organizations to investigate the influence of construction workers' self-reported sleep quantity (i.e., duration) and quality (i.e., feeling well-rest upon awakening, ability to fall asleep and remain asleep) on workplace cognitive failures (i.e., lapses in attention,...
Risk Perception Key to Workplace Safety and Health
A recent study of 1,334 workers from 20 mine sites found that miners who avoid risk were less likely to experience near-miss incidents, according to a paper published in the Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Why is it important to know about near-miss incidents? Previous NIOSH research showed that the likelihood of future injury may increase with the number of near misses. A near miss, otherwise known as a “close call,” is an occurrence that could have caused harm but did not. In high-risk occupations, near-miss incidents must be reported. Risk management, including...
Safety climate and safety outcomes
A meta-analytic comparison of universal vs. industry-specific safety climate predictive validity Previous research has demonstrated that safety climate is a robust predictor of safety-related outcomes. However, there is little consensus about the optimal strategy to measure safety climate. One of the main issues has been whether safety climate measures should be universal or industry-specific. As such, this study was designed to examine the criterion-related validity of universal and industry-specific safety climate measures by conducting a meta-analytic comparison of their relationships with a...
Pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire, stratégie de faire face et stratégie de défense chez les enseignants débutants
Un autre regard sur les éléments contributifs d'une vulnérabilité au phénomène de décrochage professionnel Cet article porte sur la pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire dans l'enseignement secondaire en France. À partir de présupposés issus d'une approche transactionnelle du stress et d'une psychodynamique du travail son originalité est d'en documenter la complémentarité pour analyser les facteurs contributifs de cette pénibilité et pour comprendre les stratégies...
Zero Accident Vision based strategies in organisations: Innovative perspectives
The Zero Accident Vision (ZAV) is a promising approach developed in industry, but not so much addressed by the safety science research community. In a discussion paper in Safety Science (2013) a call was made for more research in this area. Three years later is a good time to take status of developments in this field. A first set of empirical studies has been published, several authors see new perspectives with the vision, while misunderstandings still flourish with a focus on ‘zero incidents' as a ‘goal', rather than the ‘vision' that all occupational incidents are...
Association Between Organization Culture, Health Status, and Presenteeism
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships of organizational culture and health behaviors with presenteeism. Method: Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 816 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis, in seven enterprises in northern Taiwan. Results: Organizational culture and health behaviors were found to be significantly associated with presenteeism. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of health complaints seemed to be more suitable than chronic diseases in predicting presenteeism. Conclusions: This study result implied that...
Reasons Why Physicians and Advanced Practice Clinicians Work While Sick
A Mixed-Methods Analysis Importance: When clinicians work with symptoms of infection, they can put patients and colleagues at risk. Little is known about the reasons why attending physicians and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) work while sick. Objective: To identify a comprehensive understanding of the reasons why attending physicians and APCs work while sick. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a mixed-methods analysis of a cross-sectional, anonymous survey administered from January 15 through March 20, 2014, in a large children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Data...
Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries
A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour...
General self-efficacy and the effect of hospital workplace violence on doctors' stress and job satisfaction in China
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at exploring associations of general self-efficacy (GSE), workplace violence and doctors' work-related attitudes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study a cross-sectional survey design was applied. Questionnaires were administrated to 758 doctors working in 9 hospitals of Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, between June and October 2010. General information on age, gender, and years of working was collected, and the doctors' experience and witnessing workplace violence, job satisfaction, job initiative, occupational stress as well as GSE were measured. General linear...
The case for research into the zero accident vision
This discussion paper is written out of a concern. We noticed that many companies with a good safety reputation have adopted a zero accident vision, yet there is very little scientific research in this field. The zero accident vision addresses the accidents causing deaths and severe injuries among company staff. In Finland, where more than 280 companies are currently a member of the Finnish ‘Zero Accident Forum', we see that this has supported the member companies to realize significant safety improvements over time, even though their safety performance was already much better than the...
Effect of safety investments on safety performance of building projects
The construction industry is increasingly reliant on the voluntary effort of contractors to reduce accidents on construction sites. This study aims to investigate the effects of contractors’ safety investments on safety performance and identify the factors influencing the effects of safety investments on safety performance. To fulfill the research aims, a regression/correlation research design was adopted. Data were collected using multiple techniques (structured interviews, archival data and questionnaires) with 47 completed building projects. Bivariate correlation and moderated regression...
Do cultural dimensions predict prevalence of fatal work injuries in Europe?
Work injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet, countries differ dramatically on the prevalence of fatal work injuries (FWIs). Are these differences only a function of national economies and infrastructure or also related to entrenched cultural differences? This study tested whether the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, assessed in the 1970s, predict recent FWI in 22 European countries. We hypothesized that Power-Distance Index (PDI) and Masculinity would be positively correlated with FWI, while Individualism and Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) would be inversely correlated...
Near Misses in High–Risk Occupations
In this study, the authors hypothesize that safety-specific job engagement is important to prevent occupational near misses in high-risk occupations. The authors also hypothesize that safety program–focused justice perceptions and the absence of job distractions provide the workplace conditions necessary to support this engagement. Further, safety-specific job engagement mediates the prediction of occupational near misses by justice perceptions and job distractions. Results of a survey administered to 2,488 full-time employees working in the manufacturing, nuclear research and production...
Lack of sleep linked to 274,000 workplace accidents a year
Context : Insomnia is a common and seriously impairing condition that often goes unrecognized. Objectives : To examine associations of broadly defined insomnia (ie, meeting inclusion criteria for a diagnosis from International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, DSM-IV, or Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition) with costly workplace accidents and errors after excluding other chronic conditions among workers in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Design/Setting: A national cross-sectional telephone survey (65.0% cooperation...
The effect of challenge and hindrance stressors on safety behavior and safety outcomes
The significance of occupational stressors as a risk factor in accidents has long been recognized; however, the behavioral mechanisms underlying this relationship are currently not well-understood. Meta-analysis was utilized to test the relationships between occupational stressors (challenge and hindrance), safety behaviors (compliance and participation), and safety outcomes (occupational injuries and near-misses). It was hypothesized that hindrance stressors would have negative effects on both safety compliance and safety participation, and subsequently, safety outcomes, whereas challenge stressors...
An Evaluation of the Impact of the WorkSafeNB Focus Firms Intervention on reported Safety Behaviour and Injury Outcomes
WorkSafe New Brunswick implemented the Focus Firms initiative in 2002 to reduce workplace injuries and build health and safety infrastructure in workplaces with poor safety records. The study evaluated the impact of the Focus Firms Initiative on safety performance at participating firms. Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/research_results/res_60_10_1140.asp http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/funding_decisions/assets/pdf/2010/RS2010-DG01.pdf
Assessing Employee Safety Motivation
Safety experts estimate that 80-90% of all industrial accidents are attributable to ‘human factors’. Addressing the social and organizational factors that have an impact on safety would therefore seem to be an effective way of reducing accidents. Evidence suggests that workers’ self-reported safety behaviours are associated with fewer injuries and accidents, and research indicates that employees who report higher levels of safety motivation are more likely to engage in safety behaviours at work. To date, safety motivation research has been somewhat limited by its focus on the...
Training promotes safer practices
A systematic review led by the Institute for Work & Health shows that training positively influences worker practices, making it an important part of multi-component health and safety programs. The review concluded that health and safety training promotes safer practices among workers and, as such, should be delivered by workplaces as part of a larger OHS program. On its own, however, training will not necessarily prevent injuries and illnesses. Source : At Work, Issue 69, Summer 2012: Institute for Work & Health, Toronto. https://www.iwh.on.ca/at-work/69/training-promotes-safer-practices
Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors
Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various...
Human factors in the major hazard industries
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has recently published two significant reports assisting both it and other organisations sharing the aim of using human factors to better manage and prevent the risk of major accident hazards. In the first report, (RR758) the authors, Greenstreet Berman Ltd consider the extent to which those with influence within high hazard industries take account of Human factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) when making decisions about ‘process safety'. The second report, from Oxford University (RR772) details the offshore working time arrangements in operation in the...
Infirmières de nuit
Isolement et rôle de l'expérience Souvent méconnu et mal reconnu, même au sein de l'hôpital, le travail des infirmières de nuit n'en tient pas moins une place importante dans la continuité des soins. L'observation de cette activité dans deux unités de pneumologie permet d'en voir les particularités et les difficultés. La recherche en ergonomie, présentée ici, montre en effet que l'isolement des équipes de nuit (peu de contacts avec les médecins et le personnel de jour) ainsi...
Influences on safe/unsafe practices
Farmers' perspectives The agriculture industry has been identified as a priority area by the HSC/E due its high rate of fatal and major injury accidents (Revitalising Health and Safety Strategy Statement, June 2000). Agriculture has the highest fatal accident rate of any other sector and this rate continues to rise, which is of particular concern in an industry where the workforce is declining year on year. The farmers most at risk are the self-employed, although as with all areas of industry small businesses are particularly hard for the HSE to target through the usual contact methods such...
Understanding and influencing farmers’ attitudes
Agriculture, of all UK industries, has the highest rate of fatal accidents. This study has examined farmers' attitudes, and the underlying influences, to identify how these might be changed to help improve safety in the industry. A literature review showed that people's perceptions of risk are influenced by social, cultural and group processes but no studies look specifically at perceptions of risk and attitudes to safety among farmers. http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr700.htm

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