2019-08-01 12:00 - Messages

Télépression au travail, relation entre l’utilisation de la messagerie électronique au travail et les échanges leader-membres

Rôles de la reconnaissance et de la charge de travail
La messagerie électronique (ME) au travail est l’outil de communication le plus utilisé au sein des entreprises actuelles. Cette étude exploratoire tente de comprendre la relation entre l’utilisation perçue de la messagerie électronique et la qualité des relations leader-membres, d’une part, et la télépression, d’autre part, en testant les effets médiateurs de la reconnaissance et de la charge de travail. Les résultats auprès de 56 salariés juniors indiquent que l’utilisation de la messagerie électronique est liée positivement à la qualité des échanges leader-membres et négativement à la télépression. Les effets de l’utilisation perçue de la messagerie électronique sur les échanges entre leader et membres sont médiatisés par la reconnaissance. Les effets de l’utilisation perçue de la ME sur la télépression sont médiatisés par la charge de travail. La présente étude expose ces relations complexes et équivoques, tout en apportant de nouvelles pistes de recherches.

Source: Dose, É., Desrumaux, P. et Rekik, M. (2019). Le travail humain, 82(2), 151-181.
https://doi.org/10.3917/th.822.0151

Sickness presenteeism: Are we sure about what we are studying?

A research based on a literature review and an empirical illustration
Background: There has been an increasing interest in studying sickness presenteeism (SP). An ever‐increasing amount of scientific literature is published using this term, yet there appears to be considerable heterogeneity in how it is assessed, which could result in substantial differences in the definition and interpretation of the phenomenon really being studied. We aim to discuss what really is being studied, depending on how the phenomenon is operationalized, measured, and analyzed.
Methods: A study based on a literature review and an empirical illustration using data of the third Spanish Psychosocial Risks Survey (2016).
Results: Differences are observed based on the population in which SP is measured, the cut‐off points used to define a worker as presenteeist, the reasons for an SP episode and even an analysis of the phenomenon treated as a count or as a dichotomous.
Conclusions: Without being completely exclusive, it seems that restricting the population of analysis to only those workers who consider that they should not have gone to work due to their health, and/or establishing low cut‐off points to define someone as presenteeist, would more clearly delimit the study of SP to the exercise of a right to sick leave. In contrast, working with the entire population or using high cut‐off points appears to relate the study of SP more with health status and less with the exercise of rights. On the other hand, taking the reasons for SP into account would probably help to improve interpretation of the phenomenon.

Source: Navarro, A., Salas‐Nicás, S., Llorens, C., Moncada, S., Molinero‐Ruíz, E. et Moriña, D. (2019). American journal of industrial medicine, 62(7), 580-589.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22982

Demographic differences in safety proactivity behaviors and safety management in Chinese small-scale enterprises

The study examines demographic differences in safety proactivity behaviors (i.e., safety whistleblowing, safety voice, and safety initiative) and safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification. The data was collected from 503 employees in Chinese small–scale enterprises by using one–way ANOVA. The results showed that safety proactivity behaviors were significantly correlated with age groups, safety initiative with education level, and safety management with gender. Safety procedure, safety management and safety hazards identification were significantly correlated with age groups and safety hazards identification with education level. However, there were no gender–based differences in safety proactivity behaviors, safety procedures, and safety hazards identification, and none in safety whistleblowing and safety voice, safety management, and safety procedure based on the education level. There were also no differences in safety proactivity behaviors, safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification based on tenure. This offers practical suggestions to owner–managers of small–scale enterprises to address the current situation and to improve the safety proactivity behaviors of employees as well as improve the safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification.

Source: Wang, Q., Mei, Q., Liu, S., Zhou, Q. et Zhang, J. (2019). Safety Science, 120, 179-184.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.06.016

Carcinogenicity of night shift work

In June, 2019, a Working Group of 27 scientists from 16 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of night shift work. This assessment will be published in volume 124 of the IARC Monographs.
In 2007, shift work involving circadian disruption was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A), on the basis of sufficient evidence in experimental animals and limited evidence of breast cancer in humans. In this updated evaluation, the Working Group chose the name “night shift work” to better describe the exposure circumstances and to reflect the main evidence base for the human cancer studies. The re-evaluation was motivated by the large number of new, high-quality epidemiologic studies including additional cancer sites. However, the Working Group noted the considerable variability in the detail and quality of exposure information on night shift work reported in these studies. Exposure information was more detailed in case-control studies, including in those nested within cohorts, than in cohort studies. A number of occupational, individual, Carcinogenicity of night shift work lifestyle, and environmental factors might mediate, confound, or moderate potential cancer risk in night shift workers.
The Working Group concluded there was limited evidence that night shift work causes breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. This evaluation was based on comprehensive searches of the literature, screening of the studies using established inclusion criteria, and evaluation of study quality, including a standardised review of exposure assessment. Greater weight was given to the most informative human cancer studies based on methodologic considerations, including study size, potential selection bias, night work assessment quality (most notably, potential for misclassification), and control for potential confounding factors. The largest number of informative studies examined breast cancer, several examined prostate and colorectal cancer, while fewer were done on other cancers.

Source: Carcinogenicity of night shift work. (2019). Lancet, 20(8), 1058-1059. 
https://www.etui.org/fr/content/download/36983/371131/file/lancet.pdf

Workplace violence and development of burnout symptoms

A prospective cohort study on 1823 social educators
Purpose: Burnout and workplace violence (WPV) have been associated in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies with solid methods and adequate sample sizes are lacking. This study investigates whether WPV increases burnout symptoms during a 12-month period.
Methods: Questionnaire data were collected on 1823 social educators at baseline and 12-month follow-up, coupled with additionally 12 monthly text-message surveys on exposure to WPV. Using general linear modelling for repeated measures, we estimated change over time in burnout symptoms in three WPV exposure groups (none, low, high).
Results: A time by exposure to WPV interaction existed for development of burnout; F(2) = 7.2, p = 0.001 η2 = 0.011. Burnout increased significantly within the group of low exposure; F(1) = 6.8, p = 0.01 and high exposure; F(1) = 6.7 p = 0.001, but not within the non-exposed F(1) = 2.1 p = 0.15. At follow-up, both the low exposed and high exposed had significantly higher levels of burnout compared to the non-exposed.
Conclusion: Exposure to WPV increases level of burnout within a 12-month period. We propose that assessment of burnout in future studies should utilize instruments capable of detecting small changes. We further propose that prevention against employee burnout could be improved using monitoring targeted at employees exposed to WPV.

Source: Pihl-Thingvad, J., Elklit, A., Brandt, L. P. A. et Andersen, L. L. (2019). International archives of occupational and environmental health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01424-5

The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety

Healthy employee sleep is important for occupational safety, but the mechanisms that explain the relationships among sleep and safety-related behaviors remain unknown. We draw from Crain, Brossoit, and Fisher's (in press) work, nonwork, and sleep (WNS) framework and Barnes' (2012) model of sleep and self-regulation in organizations to investigate the influence of construction workers' self-reported sleep quantity (i.e., duration) and quality (i.e., feeling well-rest upon awakening, ability to fall asleep and remain asleep) on workplace cognitive failures (i.e., lapses in attention, memory, and action at work) and subsequent workplace safety behaviors (i.e., safety compliance and safety participation) and reports of minor injuries. Construction workers from two public works agencies completed surveys at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Our results suggest that workers with more insomnia symptoms on average reported engaging in fewer required and voluntary safety behaviors and were at a greater risk for workplace injuries. These effects were mediated by workplace cognitive failures. In addition, workers with greater sleep insufficiency on average reported lower safety compliance, but this effect was not mediated by workplace cognitive failures. These results have implications for future workplace interventions, suggesting that organizations striving to improve safety should prioritize interventions that will reduce workers' insomnia symptoms and improve their ability to quickly fall asleep and stay asleep throughout the night.

Source: Brossoit, R. M., Crain, T. L., Leslie, J. J., Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M. et Bodner, T. E. (2019). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(4), 411-422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000139

Association Between Reported Long Working Hours and History of Stroke in the CONSTANCES Cohort

Background and Purpose: Long working hours (LWHs) are a potential risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large general population cohort.
Methods: We used the French population-based cohort, CONSTANCES (Cohorte des Consultants des Centres d'Examens de Santé), to retrieve information on age, sex, smoking, and working hours from the baseline, self-administered questionnaire. Other cardiovascular risk factors and previous occurrence of stroke were taken from a parallel medical interview. We defined LWH as working time >10 hours daily for at least 50 days per year. Participants with primarily part-time jobs were excluded as were those with stroke before LWH exposure. We used logistic models to estimate the association between LWH and stroke, stratified by age, sex, and occupation. In additional modeling, we excluded subjects whose stroke occurred within 5 years of the first reported work exposure.
Results: Among the 143 592 participants in the analyses, there were 1224 (0.9%) strokes, 42 542 (29.6%) reported LWH, and 14 481 (10.1%) reported LWH for 10 years or more. LWH was associated with an increased risk of stroke: adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI, 1.11–1.49). Being exposed to LWH for 10 years or more was more strongly associated with stroke, adjusted odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.21–1.74). The association showed no differences between men and women but was stronger in white-collar workers under 50 years of age.
Conclusions: This large analysis reveals a significant association between stroke and exposure to LWH for 10 years or more. The findings are relevant for individual and global prevention.

Source: Fadel, M., Sembajwe, G., Gagliardi, D., Pico, F., Li, J., Ozguler, A., ... et Iavicoli, S. (2019). Stroke.
https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025454

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