2019-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Shift work and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research.
Methods: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers extracted information about study characteristics and data on the association between shift work and mental health. A meta-analysis was performed for longitudinal studies adopting a ‘broad binary' measure of shift work.
Results: Thirty-three studies were included in the final review—10 cross-sectional studies, 22 longitudinal studies, and 1 study that included both. Findings were grouped based on whether the measure of shift work focussed on: (1) night/evening work, (2) weekend work, (3) irregular/unpredictable work schedule, or (4) a broad binary measure. There was a reasonable level of evidence that overall, when a broad binary measure was adopted, shift work was associated with poorer mental health—this finding was supported by the meta-analysis results. There was also some evidence that irregular/unpredictable work was associated with poorer mental health. There was less evidence for night/evening and minimal evidence for weekend work. Inconsistencies in study methodology, limited contrasting and combining the results.
Conclusions: The association between shift work and mental health is different across types of shift work. The evidence is strongest for a broad binary, general measure of shift work and for irregular or unpredictable shift work. There is a need for continued research that adopts consistent and clear measures of shift work.

Source: Zhao, Y., Richardson, A., Poyser, C., Butterworth, P., Strazdins, L. et Leach, L. S. (2019). International Achives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01434-3

Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees

This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity and poor working conditions. Most recent immigrants and refugees had little knowledge about their rights at work and were not sure what to do when mistreated or were asked to do something unsafe at work. The settlement and employment programs that included occupational health and safety information were not systematic and were hindered by a lack of consistent funding and diffusion of responsibility. We identify optimal points in the settlement process where information can be provided, and some of the roles that can be played most effectively by service agencies, regulatory bodies, and employers.

Source: Kosny, A., Yanar, B., Begum, M., Al-khooly, D., Premji, S., Lay, M. A. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Journal of International Migration and Integration.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-019-00685-w

Organisational climate and employee health outcomes: A systematic review

Organisational climate, particularly safety climate, has been documented as a crucial element in promoting occupational health and safety. However, most previous studies have focused more on safety issues (e.g., injuries and accidents) rather than health outcomes (e.g., illnesses, stress, etc). A comprehensive review is also lacking in relation to understanding the organisational climate–health relationship between different levels of analysis, different data sources and different analytical procedures. We conducted a systematic review to investigate previous scholarly contributions to organisational climate and health. The reviewed articles were obtained from three databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and EBSCOHost Academic Premier Search. After reading the abstracts and full texts, we included 56 articles in our review. We found that the influence of organisational climate on employee health has been supported in prior research. However, hypotheses at the individual level are more frequently supported than those at the organisational level. Even though most studies analysed self-reported data and, thus, possibly suffered from common method bias, half of the studies were explicitly or implicitly trying to reduce the bias. Studies with and without remedies for reducing common method bias yielded similar results, suggesting that common method bias has little impact on organisational climate research. Overall, almost no differences were found among the different organisational climate constructs. The current review includes several recommendations for future research.

Source: Loh, M. Y., Idris, M. A., Dormann, C. et Muhamad, H. (2019). Safety Science, 118, 442-452.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.052

Les salariés utilisent-ils les outils de prévention des risques professionnels ?

Près de neuf salariés sur dix reçoivent des informations sur les risques que leur travail fait courir à leur santé ou à leur sécurité, notamment via des formations spécifiques ou lors de visites avec un médecin du travail. Cependant, les femmes en bénéficient moins souvent que les hommes, comme si les risques qui les concernaient étaient moins visibles. Les consignes de sécurité et les équipements de protection individuelle contre le bruit ou les risques chimiques ne sont pas toujours bien utilisés, notamment quand l’intensité du travail est élevée et le rythme des changements très rapide.
Parmi les salariés les plus exposés, 38 % sont dans une situation de prévention défaillante : 6 % n’ont ni information ni consigne, 19 % ne peuvent pas appliquer les consignes et 19 % n’ont pas des équipements de protection suffisants. Les mesures de prévention sont mieux appliquées quand l’établissement tient des réunions régulières de service, suit des normes de qualité ou dispose d’un comité d’hygiène, de sécurité et des conditions de travail (CHSCT).

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_analyses_salaries_outils_prevention_risques_professionnels.pdf

Ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes : quels liens avec le temps partiel ?

La ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes et la concentration du temps partiel dans les métiers féminisés questionnent sur les rôles respectifs des facteurs liés à la demande et à l'offre de travail. Les femmes et les hommes exercent-ils des métiers différents en raison de leurs préférences et attitudes différenciées ou plutôt en raison de mécanismes de sélection sur le marché du travail ? Les femmes exercent-elles de façon privilégiée certaines professions parce qu'elles leur offrent la possibilité de travailler à temps partiel ou est-ce plutôt parce que les femmes exercent majoritairement certaines professions que le temps partiel y est plus répandu ?
L'exploitation des enquêtes Emploi de l'Insee de 2013 à 2016 atteste d'une ségrégation sexuée importante en France : plus d'une femme sur quatre devrait échanger sa profession avec un homme pour parvenir à une distribution équilibrée de chaque

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_etudes_segregation_professionnelle_femmes_hommes_temps_partiel.pdf

Le présentéisme au travail. Mieux évaluer pour mieux prévenir

Le présentéisme au travail, ou le fait de venir travailler alors que l'on est malade, est un phénomène rarement étudié en France car sa mesure de grande échelle était impossible jusqu'à récemment. Dans ce document de travail, nous utilisons les données de l'enquête Conditions de Travail 2013, première enquête nationale en population générale permettant une mesure du phénomène afin d'évaluer les déterminants de sa durée sur une année. Déterminer les caractéristiques de l'emploi qui favorisent le présentéisme permet d'orienter les pratiques permettant de le limiter. En effet, la littérature a montré que ce phénomène entraînait des pertes importantes pour l'employeur comme l'employé, en termes de productivité d'une part, de bien-être et de santé d'autre part.
À l'aide de modèles de comptage, nous montrons que le présentéisme est un phénomène assez marqué en termes de qualité de vie au travail. En effet, il est positivement corrélé d'abord à une charge de travail élevée, à de fortes contraintes de temps, de rythme ; ensuite, il est aussi lié à l'absence d'autonomie, de latitude décisionnelle. De surcroît, le soutien des collègues et des superviseurs, qui vient parfois atténuer la combinaison délétère charge de travail-faible latitude décisionnelle, apparaît limiter également la durée du présentéisme.
Si la réduction du phénomène de présentéisme est un objectif pour les organisations productives, ces résultats suggèrent que les employeurs devraient considérer comment limiter la charge de travail imposée aux salariés et leur concéder une véritable autonomie de décision dans l'organisation de leur travail au jour le jour.
De plus, l'insécurité du travail est également corrélée au présentéisme des travailleurs, tandis qu'au contraire les indicateurs d'un travail intéressant, comme d'un travail bien reconnu, les incitent à s'absenter lorsqu'ils sont malades.
Enfin, cette étude montre également qu'une part importante de l'influence des conditions et du vécu au travail sur le présentéisme peut avoir un effet délétère sur la santé des travailleurs. Néanmoins elle ne permet pas déterminer le sens de causalité entre santé et présence au travail mais il s'agit d'une piste importante de recherche future.

Source: http://ceet.cnam.fr/publications/documents-de-travail/le-presenteisme-au-travail-mieux-evaluer-pour-mieux-prevenir-1094542.kjsp

Effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions aimed at stress, depression, anxiety, burnout, insomnia, mindfulness, well-being, and alcohol misuse and their potential treatment moderators.
Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized control trials published in English using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) and three register trials. A pooled effect size for each mental health area was calculated using random-effects modelling. For each meta-analysis, we conducted an analysis of potential moderators (ie, type of recruitment, age, gender, initial psychological symptoms, guidance, therapy type, and study quality).
Results: In total, 50 studies were included in the systematic review, and 34 studies were included in the metaanalyses. We noted moderate treatment effects on stress (Hedges’g=0.54), insomnia (g=0.70), and burnout
(g=0.51) and small treatment effects on depression (g=0.30), anxiety (g=0.34), well-being (g=0.35), and mindfulness (g=0.42). The pooled effect on alcohol intake was small and nonsignificant.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that occupational e-mental health interventions are associated with significant health improvements. However, more research is required to understand which factors contribute to the variation in effectiveness of particular interventions depending on the mental health area and characteristics of participants and interventions.

Source: Phillips, E. A., Gordeev, V. S. et Schreyögg, J. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.383910.5271/sjweh.3839

Effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression in the workplace

A systematic review and meta-analysis
Objectives :Psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression have a small-to-moderate effect. However, little is known about their effectiveness in the workplace. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT).
Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CIS-DOC and Open Grey for RCT. Search was supplemented with manual searches of reference lists of relevant meta-analyses and trials. We included RCT that assessed either the incidence of depression or the reduction of depressive symptoms, which excluded participants with baseline depression. Measurements were required to have been made using validated instruments and participants recruited in the workplace. Independent evaluators selected studies, evaluated risk bias (Cochrane Collaboration's tool) and extracted from RCT. The combined OR was estimated using the fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was measured by I2 and Cochrane's Q.
Results: Of the 1963 abstracts reviewed, 69 were selected for review in fulltext. Only three RCT met our inclusion criteria, representing 1246 workers from three different countries and continents. The combined odds ratio was 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.60, P=0.002]; I2=0% and Q=0.389 (P=0.823). The risk of bias was low in one RCT and moderate and high in the other two, respectively.
Conclusion: Psychological or educational interventions in the workplace may prevent depression, although the quality of evidence was low.

Source: Bellón, J. A., Conejo-Cerón, S., Cortés-Abela, C., Pena-Andreu, J. M., García-Rodríguez, A. et Moreno-Peral, P. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 35(1),7-18.
https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3791

Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives: Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.
Methods: Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates.
Results: Higher levels of job control, social support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effort was associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.
Conclusions: Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.

Source: Fan, J. K., Mustard, C. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Annals of work exposures and health, 63(5), 546-559.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz028

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