2019-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Working conditions and workers' health

This report uses European Working Conditions Survey data to examine working conditions and their implications for worker's health. Ensuring the sustainability of work in the context of ageing populations implies a greater number of people in employment who can remain in the workforce for longer. The report examines the interplay between work demands – which carry an increased risk of exhaustion – and work resources – which support workers in greater engagement and well-being. The findings indicate that physical risks have not increased but remain important, while emotional demands have increased, underlining the growing importance of psychosocial risks at work. Changes over time suggest that although the risk of poor health is concentrated in certain occupations, those occupations traditionally considered to be protected are increasingly exposed to risks that are likely to affect workers' health and well-being.

Source: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/fr/publications/report/2019/working-conditions-and-workers-health

Healthy working time arrangements for healthcare personnel and patients

A systematic literature review
Background: A number of working time arrangements have been linked to negative consequences for both health personnel and their patients. A common hypothesis put forth to explain these findings suggests that certain working time arrangements lead to negative patient consequences due to the adverse impact they have on employee health. The purpose of this study is to use systematic reviews to investigate whether employee health explains the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed including published reviews and original studies from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cinahl and Web of Science investigating working time arrangements for healthcare personnel, employee health and patient safety. In addition, we screened reference lists of identified reviews. Two reviewers independently identified relevant publications according to inclusion criteria, extracted findings and assessed quality.
Results: Six thousand nine hundred thirty papers were identified, of which 52 studies met our criteria. Articles were categorized into five groups according to how they approached the research question: 1) independent analyses of relationship between working time arrangements and employee health, and of working time arrangements and patient safety (5 studies); 2) relationship between working time arrangements on both employee health and patient safety (21 studies); 3) working time arrangements and employee health as two explanatory variables for patient safety (8 studies); 4) combinations of the above analyses (7 studies); 5) other relevant studies (5 studies). Studies that find that working time is detrimental to employee health, generally also find detrimental results for patient safety. This is particularly shown through increases in errors by health personnel. When controlling for employee health, the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety is reduced, but still significant.
Conclusions: Results suggest that employee health partially (but not completely) mediates the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety. However, there is a lack of studies directly investigating employee health as a mediator between working time arrangements and patient safety. Future studies should address this research gap.

Source: Bernstrøm, V. H., Alves, D. E., Ellingsen, D. et Ingelsrud, M. H. (2019). BMC health services research, 19(1), 193.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3993-5

Risk Perception Key to Workplace Safety and Health

A recent study of 1,334 workers from 20 mine sites found that miners who avoid risk were less likely to experience near-miss incidents, according to a paper published in the Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Why is it important to know about near-miss incidents? Previous NIOSH research showed that the likelihood of future injury may increase with the number of near misses. A near miss, otherwise known as a “close call,” is an occurrence that could have caused harm but did not. In high-risk occupations, near-miss incidents must be reported. Risk management, including near-miss reporting, serves as an integral part of workplace safety and health, particularly in hazardous industries such as mining and chemical processing. Near-miss reports do not necessarily reveal the role that workers' attitudes play in risk-related behavior. To understand this relationship, NIOSH researchers recently surveyed mine workers to compare their attitudes towards risks and their feelings of personal control over events—defined as “locus of control”—with their individual likelihood of risk avoidance. Researchers found a strong relationship between near misses and attitudes toward risk and locus of control.

Based on published studies, researchers developed a survey of specific attitudes toward safety and health. The survey included statements such as whether or not workers put safety first and prefer to avoid risks, or whether they consider themselves regular risk-takers. Respondents were asked to rate these statements from 1 to 6 on the commonly used Likert scale. In addition, respondents reported their frequency of experiencing near miss incidents in the preceding 6 months, and the researchers confirmed near misses with mining company reports. Most respondents were males and ranged in age from 18 to 54. The in-person surveys occurred between April 2015 and April 2017.

Source : Haas, E.J. , Lorio, P.L. (2019). Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 59, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2019.03.005

Évolution 2010-2018 du burnout en Belgique et intérêt de l’utilisation conjointe de deux outils de diagnostic

Le projet se structure en différentes étapes :
- Établir une revue de la littérature scientifique des cinq dernières années sur le burnout et les troubles mentaux associés (stress, dépression, workaholisme, fatigue chronique, fibromyalgie, brown-out, bore-out) ;
- Faire le point sur des concepts fortement médiatisés comme le bore-out ou le brownout;
- Mesurer l'ampleur du burnout dans la population belge ;
- Adapter l'outil à l'intention des médecins permettant d'aider à la détection précoce du burnout.
Au niveau de la revue de la littérature scientifique, le présent rapport comprend (1) une actualisation de la définition du burnout, (2) une synthèse des causes, manifestations et conséquences du burnout, avec un focus sur le modèle théorique du burnout, le ‘Job Demands-Resources Model' (modèle JD-R), (3) les différentes outils auto-rapportés permettant de mesurer du burnout, (4) une revue des possibilités de prévention et d'intervention face au burnout, (5) une actualisation des éléments permettant le diagnostic différentiel du burnout par rapport à d'autres troubles de psychopathologie générale ou de psychopathologie du travail. La
partie empirique du rapport comprend (6) une description de la méthodologie permettant (7) une analyse comparative 2010-2018 des cas de burnout récoltés en consultation de médecine générale et de médecine du travail et (8) une analyse de l'intérêt d'une utilisation conjointe de deux outils de diagnostic de burnout, i.e. le jugement clinique des médecins et l'évaluation autorapportée par les travailleurs, et enfin (7) une courte discussion. Les versions actualisées de l'outil de détection précoce ainsi que du guide d'utilisation sont annexées à cette synthèse.

Source: http://www.emploi.belgique.be/moduleDefault.aspx?id=45872

A meta-analysis of the relationship between ageing and occupational safety and health

Existing studies show contradictory evidence on the relationship between ageingand occupational safety and health (OSH). The present study presents a systematic review of international research on age-related occupational accident risks for the last 30?years using meta-analysis technique. A summary of odds ratios on occupational risk incidence of older workers versus younger workers were grouped by outcome of occupational accidents. Potential moderators that could influence the relationship of ageing and OSH were analysed. Results showed that older workers are more vulnerable than younger workers in the workplace. The occurrence of severe/fatal accidents among older workers is twice as much as that of younger ones. However, the incidence of non-fatal accident among older workers is slightly (5.8%) lower than that of younger workers. Occupation and measurement of accidents are two important moderators that significantly influence the relationship of ageing and OSH. The results here show the need to promote OSH management specifically for older workers and have profound implications for planning work for an ageing workforce.

Source : Safety Science (2019), 112, 162-172 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.10.030


Le stress au travail : du paradigme des risques psychosociaux à celui de la qualité de vie au travail

Une recherche-action utilisant trois modèles classiques du stress au travail nous a permis de vérifier l'impact sur les résultats obtenus du choix du modèle et du paradigme : risques psychosociaux versus qualité de vie au travail. Quatre cent trente-six salariés de la grande distribution ont répondu à un questionnaire incluant ces trois mesures du stress, les conséquences (satisfaction, fatigue) et une cause possible (tensions de rôle). Nos résultats valident les hypothèses de différences significatives des niveaux de prévalence du stress selon le modèle, comme des liens avec le facteur et les conséquences, ainsi que l'importance de la perception de stress pour expliquer le vécu négatif.

Source : Psychologie du travail et des organisations, (2019), 25(2), 86-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pto.2018.11.002

Conflits de valeurs et exigences émotionnelles

Ce numéro de Synthèse.Stat' présente les résultats de l'enquête Conditions de travail – Risques psychosociaux de 2016 concernant les indicateurs relatifs aux conflits de valeurs et aux exigences émotionnelles.

Ce volume recouvre deux des six axes d'analyse des risques psychosociaux construits par le collège d'expertise sur le suivi statistique des risques psychosociaux au travail1 : les conflits de valeurs (axe 5) et les exigences émotionnelles (axe 2). Les exigences émotionnelles couvrent non seulement la partie qui porte le même nom dans le présent volume, mais aussi les difficultés dans les relations avec le public qui sont abordées dans le volume concernant les rapports sociaux au travail.

Source : https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/synthese-stat-synthese-eval/article/conflits-de-valeurs-et-exigences-emotionnelles

Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives  Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health Outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.

Methods  Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates. 

Results  Higher levels of job controlsocial support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effortwas associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.

Conclusions  Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.

Source : Annals of Work Exposures and Health (2019), 63(5), 546–559,https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz028

Rest breaks from work: Overview of regulations, research and practice

This report addresses the rarely discussed issue of rest breaks at work across the European Union. Based on input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, it reveals some of the complexities involved in defining whether such breaks should be paid or unpaid, how long they should be and where they should be taken. The report compares different approaches among Member States, gives examples of judicial rulings, highlights some types of work that attract special consideration and looks into causal relationships between breaks, health and performance at work. When rest breaks are of an appropriate duration and appropriately scheduled, they can reduce some of the harmful effects of work on health and well-being while contributing to improved performance and productivity.

Source: http://eurofound.link/ef19018  

L’intensification du travail, et l’intensification des changements dans le travail : quels enjeux pour les travailleurs expérimentés ?

Cet article examine, sur la base de recherches en ergonomie, en psychologie du travail et en démographie du travail, les enjeux de la confrontation entre deux tendances en cours : le vieillissement structurel de la population au travail d'une part, l'intensification du travail et celle des changements dans le travail d'autre part. Cette analyse comporte un rappel des constats sur ces évolutions elles-mêmes, et une synthèse des connaissances sur les difficultés que l'intensification du travail, ou celle des changements, peut provoquer pour les travailleurs vieillissants, mais aussi sur les stratégies opératoires qu'ils peuvent élaborer, sur la base de leur expérience, afin de maîtriser au mieux ces contraintes.

Source : https://veille-travail.anact.fr/osiros/result/notice.php?queryosiros=id:97927&referer=home&referer=home

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