2018-10-01 12:00 - Messages

Short time between shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers

A register-based cohort study
Objectives: Short time between consecutive work shifts (quick returns, ie, ≤11 hours between shifts) is associated with sleepiness and fatigue, both of which have been linked to risk of injury. This paper aims to study quick returns between work shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers.
Method: The study population included 69 200 employees, primarily working at hospitals, corresponding to 167 726 person years at risk between 2008–2015. Information on working hours was obtained from payroll data in the Danish Working Hour Database and linked, at an individual level, with data on 11 834 injury records identified in the National Patient Register and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Results showed the shorter the time between shifts, the higher the risk of injury. Thus, an elevated risk of injury was observed after quick returns compared with the standard 15–17 hours between shifts (IRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23–1.58). Furthermore, when assessing the number of days since a quick return, the risk of injury was especially high within the first two days (day 1: IRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23–1.58; day 2: IRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.21–1.58) following a quick return.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that quick returns increased the risk of injury, in particular within the first two days following a quick return. These findings point towards avoiding or reducing the number of quick returns in order to lower employees' risk of injury.

Source: Nielsen, H. B., Hansen, Å. M., Conway, S. H., Dyreborg, J., Hansen, J., Kolstad, H. A., ... et Garde, A. H. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3770

Long-term occupational trajectories and suicide

A 22-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study
Objective: Most suicides occur among individuals of working age. Risk is elevated in some occupational groups, however relations between long-term occupational trajectories and suicide are not well known. We describe career-long occupational trajectories and examine their influence on suicide.
Methods: Data come from GAZEL, a French cohort study set among employees of a large national utilities company. Occupational grade was obtained from company records from the time of hiring (1953?1988). Groupbased trajectory models were used to define occupational trajectories over a mean time period of 25.0 (standard deviation 6.5) years. Causes of mortality, coded using the International Classification of Diseases, were recorded from 1993?2014 and studied using Cox regression models.
Results: Of the 20 452 participants included in the study, 73 died by suicide between 1993?2014. Results suggested an increased risk of suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–6.15] among
participants with persistently low occupational grade compared to those with higher occupational grade and career development. After adjustment for all covariates, especially psychological factors, this association was
reduced and no longer statistically significant (HR 2.02, 95% CI 0.82–4.95).
Conclusions: Persistently low occupational grade could be related to an elevated risk of suicide. This association partly reflects psychological and health characteristics, which can influence occupational trajectories and be reinforced by unfavorable work conditions.

Source: Azevedo, M. D. S., Younes, N., Leroyer, A., Plancke, L., Lemogne, C., Goldberg, M., ... et Melchior, M. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3767

The world(s) of work in transition

The report of the third joint ETUI-ETUC conference, held on 27-29 June 2018, summarises the three days of discussion that took place when over 500 delegates gathered in Brussels to debate the future of work. The  ambition of the 2018 event was to analyse the impact of the four key ‘megatrends’ – globalization, climate change, digitalization and the demographic transition disrupting societies and economies.

Source: https://www.etui.org/Publications2/Conference-reports/The-world-s-of-work-in-transition

ERM report 2018: Impact of restructuring on working conditions

Using data from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), carried out in 2015, the ERM report 2018 examines how workplace factors may influence the relationship between restructuring (with job losses) and the outcomes for employees. It also reviews policy and academic research on good practice in restructuring. The findings are then distilled into a model that may contribute to the design and implementation of effective measures to support the stayers. The good practice elements are exemplified by company case studies from four countries – Bulgaria, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain – showing different approaches.

Source: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/annual-report/2018/impact-of-restructuring-on-working-conditions

La formation initiale

Le développement de compétences en santé et sécurité au travail dans l'enseignement professionnel et supérieur doit permettre aux jeunes d'acquérir une culture de prévention avant même leur premier emploi. Il contribue également à la diffusion de celle-ci dans l'entreprise.
Les 18-24 ans ont près de deux fois plus d'accidents du travail que les autres salariés, selon la Caisse nationale d'assurance mala-die (Cnam). En revanche, une étude de l'INRS montre que les jeunes en formation professionnelle ont deux fois moins d'accidents du travail que les autres quand ils ont reçu un enseignement en santé et sécurité au travail (ES&ST) en formation initiale. Pour permettre l'intégration d'un tel enseignement dès la préparation des diplômes professionnels, mais également à l'université ou dans les écoles supérieures, la mobilisation de nombreux acteurs est indispensable.

Source: (2018). Travail & Sécurité (798).
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/La%20formation%20initiale.html

Développement de la santé au travail: complémentarité de l’analyse de l’activité et des représentations du risque

Retours sur un dispositif de conception participative de l'organisation du travail en présence de risque biologique en milieu hospitalier
Cet article illustre la diversité des potentialités de la psychologie du travail et de l'ergonomie, en se basant sur une recherche-action conduite en milieu hospitalier, mobilisant une complémentarité de pratiques. Dans un contexte de conception organisationnelle de situations de travail présentant un risque biologique, l'étude vise à concilier les enjeux de prévention des risques professionnels et d'efficacité du travail, qui visent ensemble le développement de la santé au travail.
L'analyse de l'activité est enrichie des représentations du risque, dans une visée préventive et développementale de la santé au travail.
Cet article prend la forme de deux retours d'expérience sur l'intégration de méthodes et analyses complémentaires, dont la rencontre se fait autour de l'activité de travail. Nos résultats montrent comment l'analyse de l'activité peut bénéficier de la prise en compte des représentations individuelles et collectives pour la co-conception de situations de travail et leur amélioration continue. Les enjeux de développement de la santé au travail, s'appuyant sur des ressources individuelles, collectives et organisationnelles, sont ainsi mis en lumière.

Source: Cottin, I. et Valléry, G. (2018). Activités, (15-2). 
https://journals.openedition.org/activites/3498

Z1003.1-F18 - Santé et sécurité psychologiques dans les organismes de services paramédics

Cette norme fournit aux organismes de services paramédics et aux autres intervenants importants des lignes directrices sur les pratiques exemplaires relatives à la détermination et l'appréciation des dangers, de même qu'à la gestion des dangers pour la santé et la sécurité psychologiques (SSP) des organismes de services paramédics et pour promouvoir l'amélioration de la santé et de la sécurité psychologique.
Elle s'appuie sur CAN/CSA-Z1003-13/BNQ 9700-803/2013, Santé et sécurité psychologiques en milieu de travail et propose une approche systématique de la gestion des dangers SSP et des risques associés pour les organismes de services paramédics. Elle fournit également des lignes directrices utiles et pertinentes pour la protection et la promotion de la santé et de la sécurité psychologiques des travailleurs au Canada.

Source: https://store.csagroup.org/ccrz__ProductDetails?viewState=DetailView&cartID=&sku=Z1003.1-18&cclcl=fr_CA

Les ouvriers intérimaires sont-ils plus exposés aux risques professionnels?

En France, les ouvriers intérimaires, qui représentent la majorité des personnes en intérim et 8 % des ouvriers, sont très fortement exposés à des contraintes physiques dans leur travail. Ils sont 22 % à manipuler des charges lourdes plus de 20 heures par semaine contre 12 % pour l’ensemble des ouvriers. Ces contraintes s’expliquent toutefois davantage par les caractéristiques des métiers qu’exercent les intérimaires que par leur statut d’intérimaire.
À première vue, les ouvriers intérimaires semblent moins exposés aux produits chimiques dangereux que les autres ouvriers. Mais ce résultat doit être nuancé du fait d’une large méconnaissance de leurs expositions par les médecins du travail ou par eux-mêmes.
Les rythmes de travail des ouvriers intérimaires sont particulièrement contraints. Selon l’enquête Surveillance médicale des expositions aux risques professionnels, ils déclarent deux fois plus souvent que les autres ouvriers que leur rythme de travail est déterminé par le déplacement automatique d’un produit (23 % contre 11 %) ou par la cadence automatique d’une machine (25 % contre 12 %).

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/dares-analyses-dares-indicateurs-dares-resultats/article/les-ouvriers-interimaires-sont-ils-plus-exposes-aux-risques-professionnels

What could make a difference to the mental health of UK doctors?

A review of the research evidence
Doctors are at considerable risk of work-related stress, burnout and mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. The risk is greater than that of the general working population and is increasing over time in line with the growing demands and complexity of the job, a faster pace of work and diminishing resources.
The risk of suicide, especially among general practitioners, psychiatrists and trainees, and among women, is high compared to the general population.
General practitioners are more vulnerable to burnout (particularly emotional exhaustion), work-related stress and common mental health problems than doctors in most other specialities. This has been linked to the increased demands placed on primary care along with diminishing financial and staffing resources.
Trainee and junior doctors are also at particular risk of mental health problems. Of particular concern is the evidence that many doctors are experiencing symptoms of burnout and distress so early in their career.

Source: https://www.som.org.uk/sites/som.org.uk/files/What_could_make_a_difference_to_the_mental_health_of_UK_doctors_LTF_SOM.pdf

Bi-directional relation between effort-reward imbalance and risk of neck-shoulder pain

Assessment of mediation through depressive symptoms using occupational longitudinal data
Objectives: Bi-directional associations between perceived effort?reward imbalance (ERI) at work and neckshoulder pain have been reported. There is also evidence of associations between ERI and depressive symptoms, and between depressive symptoms and pain while the links between ERI, depressive symptoms and pain have not been tested. We aimed to assess whether depressive symptoms mediate the association between ERI and neck-shoulder pain, as well as the association between neck-shoulder pain and ERI.
Methods: We used prospective data from three consecutive surveys of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study. ERI was assessed with a short version of the ERI questionnaire, and pain was defined as having had neck-shoulder pain that affected daily life during the past three months. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a continuous scale based on six-items of the (Hopkins) Symptom Checklist. Counterfactual mediation analyses were applied using exposure measures from 2010/2012 (T1), depressive symptoms from 2012/2014 (T2), and outcomes from 2014/2016 (T3), and including only those free of outcome at T1 and T2 (N=2876?3239).
Results: ERI was associated with a higher risk of neck-shoulder pain [risk ratio (RR) for total effect 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.50] and 40% of this total effect was mediated through depressive symptoms.
Corresponding RR for association between neck-shoulder pain and ERI was 1.36 (95% CI 1.13–1.65), but the mediating role of depressive symptoms was less consistent.
Conclusions: Depressive symptoms appear to be an intermediate factor in the relationship between ERI and neck-shoulder pain.

Source: Halonen, J. I., Lallukka, T., Virtanen, M., Rod, N. H. et Hanson, L. L. M. (2018). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3768

Présentation et modalités pratiques de mise en oeuvre d'un modèle dédié à la prévention des violences au travail

Sont présentés et discutés les usages possibles d'un modèle qualitatif d'intervention sur des situations de violences en milieu professionnel. Dans le prolongement d'un travail antérieur de conception du modèle théorique, l'intérêt de disposer d'une représentation causale des divers motifs de formation des violences, ceci en complément des approches quantitatives à finalité diagnostique pour agir en prévention, est argumenté. Un exemple documente l'utilisation du modèle par deux psychologues d'un service interentreprises de santé au travail (SIST) dans un contexte professionnel fortement dégradé. Les limites d'usage observées dans les divers contextes explorés par l'étude ainsi que sur les apports pressentis, notamment du point de vue de la capacité de l'outil à aider au cadrage et à la dédramatisation de situations de travail fortement conflictuelles, sont ensuite décrites.

Source: Favaro, M., Marc, J. (2018). Références en santé au travail (155), 25-37.
http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?ref=RST.TC%20163

Guichet unique pour la sécurité des véhicules

Les risques de véhicules liés au travail représentent 29% de tous les accidents du travail mortels. Cependant, les bonnes pratiques pour éviter et réduire ces risques ont déjà été mises en œuvre dans les États membres de l'UE. Le partage peut aider les employeurs et les travailleurs à améliorer la sécurité des véhicules.
Avec cet e-guide interactif de bonnes pratiques sont fournis ainsi qu'un aperçu des règlements pertinents et des informations sur trois aspects principaux des risques de véhicules:
•la sécurité routière pour le travail
•lieu de travail la sécurité des transports
•travailler sur ou à proximité d'une route.
Ce site de guichet unique a été mis au point pour un large éventail d'utilisateurs, y compris les conducteurs, leurs employeurs et les experts en sécurité.

Source: https://eguides.osha.europa.eu/vehicle-safety/

When antecedent becomes consequent: An examination of the temporal order of job dissatisfaction and verbal aggression exposure in a longitudinal study

Past research has traditionally examined stressors as predictors and strains as outcomes. However, some recent research has found evidence of reverse causality between various stressors and strains, demonstrating that the relationship between these types of variables may extend beyond the traditional stressor-strain framework. The current study builds upon this past research by examining the temporal direction of the relationship between verbal aggression exposure and job satisfaction. Specifically, through the lens of emotional contagion theory, we suggest that low levels of job satisfaction in employees are detectable by others, which in turn leads them to engage in verbal aggression directed toward those employees. To test this postulation, 309 emergency medical professionals completed surveys that assessed verbal aggression exposure and job satisfaction across three time points. Results of cross-lagged structural equation model tests showed a significant job satisfaction to verbal aggression path over time, but a nonsignificant verbal aggression to job satisfaction path over time. Additionally, results support the postulation that job satisfaction leads to physical strain outcomes through verbal aggression exposure. Overall, results suggest that job satisfaction may serve as a predictor of verbal aggression exposure rather than a result within high stakes environments such as the emergency medical services.

Source: Andel, S. A., Pindek, S. et Spector, P. E. (2018). Work & Stress.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1509245

“Who’s Caring for Us?”: Understanding and Addressing the Effects of Emotional Labor on Home Health Aides’ Well-being

Background and Objectives: Interventions to strengthen the home care workforce focus on workers' economic and physical well-being, without acknowledging the caring labor affecting emotional well-being. Our study examined workers' perceptions of the emotional effects of caring work, coping mechanisms, and desired support.
Research Design and Methods: We conducted 4 worker focus groups (n = 27). Moderators cross-checked codes and themes, and aides provided input through report-backs.
Results: Building close, trusting relationships with clients was central to aides' emotional well-being. Well-being was also influenced by relationships with client families and agency supervisors, work–life balance, and the level to which aides felt their work was valued. Aides were largely alone in managing job stressors and desired more communication, connection, and support from supervisors and peers.
Discussion and Implications: Recognizing and supporting the emotional demands of caring work is crucial to strengthening the workforce. Policy makers and agencies must realign reimbursement systems, job descriptions, and care plans to include measures of emotional labor, improve communication between workers and supervisors, and provide training, mental health benefits, and peer support.

Source: Franzosa, E., Tsui, E. K. et Baron, S. (2018). The Gerontologist.
https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny099

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