2018-06-01 12:00 - Messages

Working safely at some times and unsafely at others

A typology and within-person process model of safety-related work behaviors
Why do individuals choose to work safely in some instances and unsafely in others? Though this inherently within-person question is straightforward, the preponderance of between-person theory and research in the workplace safety literature is not equipped to answer it. Additionally, the limited way in which safety-related behaviors tend to be conceptualized further restricts understanding of why individuals vary in their safety-related actions. We use a goal-focused approach to conceptually address this question of behavioral variability and contribute to workplace safety research in 2 key ways. First, we establish an updated typology of safety-related behaviors that differentiates behaviors based on goal choice (i.e., safe vs. unsafe behaviors), goal-directedness (i.e., intentional vs. unintentional behaviors), and the means of goal pursuit (i.e., commission vs. omission and promotion vs. prevention-focused behaviors). Second, using an expectancy-value theoretical framework to explain variance in goal choice, we establish within-person propositions stating that safety-related goal choice and subsequent behaviors are a function of the target of safety-related behaviors, the instrumentality and resource requirement of behaviors, and the perceived severity, likelihood, and immediacy of the threats associated with behaviors. Taken together, we define what safety-related behaviors are, explain how they differ, and offer propositions concerning when and why they may vary within-persons. We explore potential between-person moderators of our theoretical propositions and discuss the practical implications of our typology and process model of safety-related behavior.

Source: Beus, J. M. et Taylor, W. D. (2018). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(3), 402-416.
 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000092

Work stress and risk of death in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease

A multicohort study
Background: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease.
Methods: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland, France, Sweden, and the UK, to examine the association between work stress and mortality. Work stress was denoted as job strain or effort–reward imbalance at work. We extracted individual-level data on prevalent cardiometabolic diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, or diabetes [without differentiation by diabetes type]) at baseline. Work stressors, socioeconomic status, and conventional and lifestyle risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were also assessed at baseline. Mortality data, including date and cause of death, were obtained from national death registries. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study the associations of work stressors with mortality in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease.
Results: We identified 102?633 individuals with 1?423?753 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 13·9 years [SD 3·9]), of whom 3441 had prevalent cardiometabolic disease at baseline and 3841 died during follow-up. In men with cardiometabolic disease, age-standardised mortality rates were substantially higher in people with job strain (149·8 per 10?000 person-years) than in those without (97·7 per 10?000 person-years; mortality difference 52·1 per 10?000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·68, 95% CI 1·19–2·35). This mortality difference for job strain was almost as great as that for current smoking versus former smoking (78·1 per 10?000 person-years) and greater than those due to hypertension, high total cholesterol concentration, obesity, physical inactivity, and high alcohol consumption relative to the corresponding lower risk groups (mortality difference 5·9–44·0 per 10?000 person-years). Excess mortality associated with job strain was also noted in men with cardiometabolic disease who had achieved treatment targets, including groups with a healthy lifestyle (HR 2·01, 95% CI 1·18–3·43) and those with normal blood pressure and no dyslipidaemia (6·17, 1·74–21·9). In all women and in men without cardiometabolic disease, relative risk estimates for the work stress–mortality association were not significant, apart from effort–reward imbalance in men without cardiometabolic disease (mortality difference 6·6 per 10?000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR 1·22, 1·06–1·41).
Interpretation: In men with cardiometabolic disease, the contribution of job strain to risk of death was clinically significant and independent of conventional risk factors and their treatment, and measured lifestyle factors. Standard care targeting conventional risk factors is therefore unlikely to mitigate the mortality risk associated with job strain in this population.

Source: Kivimäki, M., Pentti, J., Ferrie, J. E., Batty, G. D., Nyberg, S. T., Jokela, M., ... et Goldberg, M. (2018). The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30140-2

La sécurité et la santé dans les micro et petites entreprises au sein de l’Union européenne

Avis recueillis sur le lieu de travail
Ce rapport présente les conclusions d'une étude consacrée aux conceptions et expériences en matière de santé et de sécurité au travail (SST) dans 162 micro et petites entreprises sélectionnées dans de multiples secteurs d'activités dans neuf États membres de l'UE. Chaque étude de cas a été alimentée par une visite de la société participante, des entretiens avec le propriétaire-directeur et avec un travailleur, ainsi qu'à des observations des activités de l'entreprise.
Parmi les facteurs les plus fréquemment relevés dans les MPE étudiées figurent les caractéristiques externes qui influencent l'entreprise et les pratiques en matière de SST, y compris les réglementations nationales et les contextes socio-économiques. Les auteurs du rapport évaluent les conséquences de ces facteurs et contextes.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/safety-and-health-micro-and-small-enterprises-eu-view-workplace/view

La sécurité et la santé dans les micro et petites entreprises dans l’UE

Ce rapport expose les conclusions de l'analyse finale du projet SESAME, un projet de recherche triennal concernant l'état de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans les micro et petites entreprises en Europe. L'objectif principal de l'analyse consistait à déterminer ce qui fonctionne, pour qui et dans quels contextes.
L'une des recommandations essentielles issue de cette étude est qu'il est nécessaire de renforcer et de maintenir les systèmes étatiques de réglementation et de contrôle dans tous les États membres de l'UE. L'analyse souligne également l'importance d'associer les organisations syndicales et patronales à l'élaboration de politiques pouvant englober les micro et petites entreprises dans l'UE, d'une meilleure intégration de la SST dans le système de formation sectoriel et d'offrir des solutions pérennes, aisément applicables et transférables aux micro et petites entreprises.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/safety-and-health-micro-and-small-enterprises-eu-final-report-3/view

Aide et soin à la personne - Dossier

En France, plus de 3,5 millions de professionnels travaillent dans l'aide et le soin à la personne. Ce secteur, qui emploie majoritairement du personnel féminin, est toujours en pleine croissance et marqué par une grande diversité d'acteurs. Certains exercent en établissement, d'autres au domicile d'un bénéficiaire avec, d'un lieu à l'autre, des conditions d'intervention et des moyens extrêmement variables.

Source: (2018). Travail & sécurité (794).
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/Aide%20et%20soin%20à%20la%20personne.html

Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection

Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les résultats d'une première enquête auprès des producteurs de pommes en ciblant spécifiquement l'exposition cutanée aux pesticides et l'utilisation des vêtements de protection (VP). Elle a comme objectif de décrire les situations d'exposition lors des activités principales liées à l'utilisation des pesticides et de les mettre en relation avec les perceptions du risque des producteurs, leur utilisation des VP et leurs pratiques de prévention. Les résultats contribuent à l‘avancement des connaissances sur les facteurs qui facilitent ou qui font obstacle à l'utilisation des VP.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100993/n/exposition-cutanee-pesticides-producteurs-pommes-vetements-protection

Appropriation et transfert par des formateurs d’une nouvelle approche de prévention en manutention axée sur l’utilisation de principes d’action

Prenant acte du constat d’échec des formations à la manutention axées sur l’enseignement exclusif de la technique sécuritaire « dos droit – genoux fléchis », une nouvelle approche d’intervention dite « stratégie intégrée de prévention en manutention » (SIPM) a été proposée en 2011. Son originalité repose, entre autres, sur l’utilisation de neuf principes d’action permettant de comprendre et de commenter la richesse des techniques de manutention utilisées naturellement par les manutentionnaires dans leur milieu de travail. L’étude a pour objectif central d’évaluer l’appropriation et le transfert de la SIPM par un groupe d’intervenants formés à cette approche lors d’interventions naturelles en contextes réels.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100992/n/appropriation-transfert-prevention-manutention-utilisation-principes-action

Common human factors underlying worker fatalities in the waste and recycling industry

Research was carried out to identify common human factors underlying fatal incidents and to provide insights into possible options for concerted action to help reduce the likelihood of serious incidents or fatalities. The research reviewed 18 fatal incidents and included in-depth interviews with HSE inspectors involved in the incident investigations. Of these incidents, 12 were in ‘small and medium enterprises', SMEs (with less than 250 employees) and 6 in large enterprises (250 or more).
The research identified two priority human factors areas to tackle to reduce worker fatalities: equipment factors including design, use and maintenance; and safety management systems. For example, whilst it is foreseeable that some organisations (both SMEs and large) may think their SMS is adequate and well documented the analysis indicated this was not always the case.
The research also identified potential options for solutions to tackle these human factors issues. These options are intended to act as discussion points between the regulator and industry to inform decisions on what will work in practice and what can be adapted to work within industry. The options focus on: equipment selection, use and maintenance in the industry; and raising awareness of the risks associated with equipment and the legal requirements for equipment use and maintenance. Related to this is the need for effective safety management systems and the sharing of good practice.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr1128.pdf

Worsening Workers' Health by Lowering Retirement Age: The Malign Consequences of a Benign Reform

In 2003, the retirement age of Swiss construction workers was lowered from 65 to 60. This reform has been intended to improve their health. Our study shows the opposite outcome. The human capital theory suggests that investments in employees’ productivity by the employer and the employees themselves depend on the time remaining until their retirement. Hence, we hypothesize that pension reforms that reduce employees’ working horizon decrease investments in work-related human capital, which translates into a higher prevalence of sickness absences, a longer absence duration, and worse health. By econometrically comparing pre- and post-reform cohorts of construction workers with other blue-collar workers, we find that among 56–60-year-old construction workers, their sickness absences increase from 3.2% to 5.6%, their sickness duration increases by 33%, and their probability of having health problems increases from 9% to 12.7% due to the reform.

Source: Bauer, A. B., et Eichenberger, R. (2018). Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
http://www.crema-research.ch/papers/2018-02.pdf

Guide de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l'embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés

L'embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés sont une partie de la solution à la rareté attendue de la main-d'œuvre, d'autant plus que ces travailleurs montrent déjà une tendance à être de plus en plus actifs sur le marché du travail. En effet, l'un des faits marquants qui se dégagent des tendance du marché du travail depuis un certain nombre d'années est la hausse continue de la participation des travailleurs expérimentés. Après la vague de prises de retraite anticipée durant les années 1980 et au début des années 1990, leur présence sur le marché du travail s'est accrue. En 2016, le taux d'activité des travailleurs expérimentés de 55 ans et plus était de 33,6 % au Québec, comparativement à 22,2 % en 2000.

Source: https://www.bnq.qc.ca/fr/normalisation/sante-au-travail/travailleurs-experimentes.html

Situation awareness in young novice ambulance drivers: So much more than driving

Background: The intractable problem of young novice driver road crashes, and the critical role of emergency responders in attending road crashes, is well-recognised as is the critical role of situation awareness skills (SAS, ie. an understanding of ‘what is going on’ in a specific situation). Emergency responders may be young novice drivers and young novice ambulance drivers, therefore SAS will be required for safe road use. This project explored the SA demands upon young novice ambulance drivers (‘drivers’) in Queensland, Australia.
Method: A synthesis of literature regarding SAS relevant to drivers was followed by a hierarchical task analysis (HTA) and a perceptual cycle model (PCM) to explicate the complex emergency ambulance driver dispatch and response system and SAS requirements.
Results: Inadequate SA is a likely contributor to risks for drivers, patients, and other road users. The HTA revealed a plethora of opportunities for inadequate SAS to negatively impact safety. The PCM highlighted complex environmental information modifies driver ‘world’ schema (eg., medical procedures) which in turn directs their actions (eg., attending to radio/pager) that in a cyclical manner relies upon complex environmental information, etcetera.
Discussion and concluding remarks: Emergency responder SA appears quite different to ‘ordinary drivers’, suggesting well-developed road-related schema are required before young novice ambulance drivers are behind the wheel in a highly-emotive, time-critical situation. Drivers are not simply ‘driving’; they are engaged in a breadth of tasks while driving (e.g., accessing dynamic case details) which, for safety, rely upon adequate SAS, therefore training programs should target SAS development.

Source: Scott-Parker, B., Curran, M., Rune, K., Lord, W. et Salmon, P. M. (2018). Safety science, 108, 48-58.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.04.016

Framework for Considering Productive Aging and Work

Objectives: The U.S. population is experiencing a demographic transition resulting in an aging workforce. The objective of this article is to elucidate and expand an approach to keep that workforce safe, healthy, and productive.
Methods: This article elucidates the framework for the National Center for Productive Aging at Work of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Subject matter experts used a snowball method to review published literature to substantiate elements in the framework.
Results: Evidence-based literature supports a productive aging framework for the workforce involving the following elements: 1) life span perspective; 2) comprehensive and integrated approaches to occupational safety and health; 3) emphasis on positive outcomes for both workers and organizations; and 4) supportive work culture for multigenerational issues.
Conclusion: The productive aging framework provides a foundational and comprehensive approach for addressing the aging workforce.

Source: Schulte, P. A., Grosch, J., Scholl, J. C. et Tamers, S. L. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(5), 440-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001295

Promotion de la santé mentale au travail

La santé mentale et le bien-être de la main-d'oeuvre européenne sont de plus en plus reconnus comme une question importante pour les parties prenantes du travail en Europe.
Ce document d'orientation a essentiellement pour vocation de présenter un intérêt pratique pour toutes les parties prenantes concernées en la matière (employeurs, syndicats, décideurs politiques et professionnels). Il
adopte donc une approche pratique, axée sur la fourniture d'un cadre intégré pour la promotion de la santé mentale au travail et d'exemples de bonnes pratiques.

Source: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=fr&pubId=8098&type=2&furtherPubs=no

Age, burnout and physical and psychological work ability among nurses

Background: The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout.
Aims: To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability.
Methods: Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline.
Results: The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25–67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = −0.14, 95% CI −0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = −0.23, 95% CI −0.39, −0.06; mean: β = −0.39, 95% CI −0.50, −0.29; 1 SD above: β = −0.56, 95% CI −0.70, −0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = −0.64, 95% CI −0.83, −0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = −0.20, 95% CI −0.35, −0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = −0.30, 95% CI −0.49, −0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50).
Conclusions: Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.

Source: Hatch, D. J., Freude, G., Martus, P., Rose, U., Müller, G. et Potter, G. G. (2018). Occupational Medicine, 68(4), 246-254.
https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqy033

Safety climate and safety outcomes

A meta-analytic comparison of universal vs. industry-specific safety climate predictive validity
Previous research has demonstrated that safety climate is a robust predictor of safety-related outcomes. However, there is little consensus about the optimal strategy to measure safety climate. One of the main issues has been whether safety climate measures should be universal or industry-specific. As such, this study was designed to examine the criterion-related validity of universal and industry-specific safety climate measures by conducting a meta-analytic comparison of their relationships with a variety of safety-related outcomes (i.e. safety behaviour, risk perceptions, accidents and injuries, and other adverse events). With 120 independent samples (N = 81,213), we found that the industry-specific safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting safety behaviour and risk perceptions than the universal safety climate measures. On the other hand, the universal safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting other adverse events (but not accidents and injuries) than the industry-specific safety climate measures. We discuss these findings in light of the intended use of organisational safety climate surveys.

Source: Jiang, L., Lavaysse, L. M. et Probst, T. M. (2018). Work & Stress.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1457737

Effects of night duty events on blood pressure and autonomic modulation in physicians

Background: The dynamic effects of duty events on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) of physicians on duty are unknown.
Methods: A study was conducted among 12 physicians on night duty. BP and HRV with and without the effect of a duty event were compared. The risk of higher BP and impaired HRV after a phone call were calculated.
Results: Physicians had higher mean BP (122.4 ± 11.1; 76.9 ± 7.1 mmHg) within 30 min after a phone calls than without a phone call (113.5 ± 5.3; 69.0 ± 3.8) and higher sympathetic tone (low frequency normalized units (LFnu) 68.5 ± 8.9; high frequency normalized units (HFnu) 27.7 ± 8.7) within 10 min of a phone call than without a phone call (62.9 ± 8.51; 33.5 ± 8.4). Elevated BP and sympathetic tone recovered to baseline levels 30 min after a phone call.
Conclusions: Among physicians on night duty, sympathetic tone and BP might be elevated by clinical events, and these effects last for 30 min.

Source: Lee, H. H., Chen, B. Y., Pan, S. C., Lo, S. H., Chen, P. C. et Guo, Y. L. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22859

Conception des laboratoires d'analyses biologiques

Ce guide a pour but d'aider les personnes chargées de la conception ou de la rénovation d'un laboratoire d'analyses biologiques à réaliser leur projet dans le respect des mesures de prévention des risques, plus particulièrement des risques biologiques. Différents types de laboratoires d'analyses biologiques sont évoqués d'analyses industrielles.
Ce document dépeint les activités des laboratoires et décrit les fonctionnalités, les aménagements et les exigences de conception spécifiques à chaque pièce.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%20999

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