2017-12-01 12:00 - Messages

Mental Health in the Working World - Determining the current state of scientific evidence

The "Mental Health in the Working World" project aimed to assess psychological strain factors in terms of substantiated scientific and academic research, to gain new information surrounding the new work-related requirements arising due to the changing world of work, and to identify open research questions.
Following a description of the project goals and approach, the project results have been presented under the differing topic fields of "Work tasks", "Leadership and organisation", "Working time", "Technical factors", "Design approaches" and "Mental health". As a result, it has proven possible to analyse and describe the correlations between more than 20 work condition factors in terms of psychological problems, muscular-skeletal and cardiovascular illnesses, general health and well-being, symptoms and performance. In the majority of cases, a consistent correlation was found between the work condition factors and mental health, which enabled the work requirements to be divided into stress factors and resources. The findings gained demonstrate that the individual work condition factors are of differing relevance to the design.
The results are being discussed from the perspectives of both science and practice. Subsequently, recommendations will be made regarding both the individual topic areas and the subject-spanning questions in terms of a continued addressing of the topic area of "Mental health".

Source: https://www.baua.de/EN/Service/Publications/Report/Mental-Health-2.html;jsessionid=4CDA55F46E19643FC9A57FB1551A431E.s1t2

Shift work and the risk of cardiovascular disease

A systematic review and meta-analysis including dose–response Relationship
Objectives: The aim of this review was to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events associated with shift work and determine if there is a dose–response relationship in this association.
Method: Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched for cohort or case–control control study designs in any population, reporting exposure to shift work as the main contributing factor to estimate CVD risk. For each study, adjusted relative risk (RR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted, and used to calculate the pooled RR using random-effect models. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore potential heterogeneity sources. Potential non-linear dose–response relationships were examined using fractional polynomial models.
Results: We included 21 studies with a total of 173 010 unique participants. The majority of the studies were ranked low-to-moderate risk of bias. The risk of any CVD event was 17% higher among shift workers than day workers. The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity was 26% higher (1.26, 95% CI 1.10–1.43, I2= 48.0%). Sub-group analysis showed an almost 20% higher risk of CVD and CHD mortality among shift workers than those who did not work shifts (1.22, 95% CI 1.09–1.37, I2= 0% and 1.18, 95% CI 1.06–1.32 I2=0%; respectively). After the first five years of shift work, there was a 7.1% increase in risk of CVD events for every additional five years of exposure (95% CI 1.05–1.10). Heterogeneity of the pooled effect size (ES) estimates was high (I2=67%), and meta-regression analysis showed that sample size explained 7.7% of this.
Conclusions: The association between shift work and CVD risk is non-linear and seems to appear only after the first five years of exposure. As shift work remains crucial for meeting production and service demands across many industries, policies and initiatives are needed to reduce shift workers’ CVD risk.

Source: Torquati L., Mielke G.I., Brown W.J., Kolbe-Alexander T. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health

Utiliser la transformation numérique pour changer le travail

Utiliser la transformation numérique pour améliorer la QVT est nécessaire et possible si on réunit certaines conditions. Réussir la transition numérique nécessite d’accepter de mettre en oeuvre le changement autour
de 3 repères fondateurs :
- Placer l’utilisateur-trice des outils numériques au coeur de la transition ;
- Accepter la contradiction et considérer simultanément les effets facilitateurs et les effets contraignants
des nouveaux outils ;
- Prendre en compte les contextes organisationnels et individuels d’utilisation des outils numériques
et abandonner l’idée de solutions universelles et impersonnelles.

Source: http://www.cgt.fr/IMG/pdf/20171120-ugict-cgt-guideqvt-web_1_.pdf

Pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire, stratégie de faire face et stratégie de défense chez les enseignants débutants

Un autre regard sur les éléments contributifs d’une vulnérabilité au phénomène de décrochage professionnel
Cet article porte sur la pénibilité au travail en milieu scolaire dans l’enseignement secondaire en France. À partir de présupposés issus d’une approche transactionnelle du stress et d’une psychodynamique du travail son originalité est d’en documenter la complémentarité pour analyser les facteurs contributifs de cette pénibilité et pour comprendre les stratégies d’ajustement et les mécanismes individuels de défense déployés par les enseignants débutants confrontés aux situations aversives perçues et vécues au cours de leur première année en poste. Les recommandations et les pistes suggérées portent sur la prévention primaire des risques psychosociaux en milieu scolaire et visent à permettre aux enseignants débutants de disposer de ressources à l’issue de leur formation à l’université limitant leur risque de décrochage professionnel.

Source: Ciavaldini-Cartaut, S., Marquie-Dubie, H. et d’Arripe-Longueville, F. (2017). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (19-2 ).

Do resources buffer the prospective association of psychosocial work stress with depression?

Longitudinal evidence from ageing workers
Objectives: There is now convincing evidence that psychosocial work stressors are linked to depression. Few studies, however, have tested if individual resources can buffer the longitudinal effects of psychosocial work
stressors on depressive symptoms. This study investigates how two types of resources (internal and external resources) affect the association between psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms.
Methods: Data were obtained from the US Health and Retirement Study, with baseline information on psychosocial work stressors [job strain and effort–reward imbalance (ERI)] and on internal ("high mastery" and "low
constraints") and external resources ("private social support") among initially healthy workers. This information was linked to elevated depressive symptoms two years later. The sample includes 5473 observations and we report relative risks (RR) and effect modification on the additive and multiplicative scale.
Results: Psychosocial stressors and low resources (internal and external) were both independently related to depressive symptoms. Individuals with both, psychosocial stressors and low resources, had the highest risk of developing elevated depressive symptoms (eg, RRERI-LowMastery 3.32, 95% CI 2.49–4.42; RRJobStrain-LowMastery 2.89, 95% CI 2.18–3.84). Yet, based on interaction analyses, only social support from friends buffered the association between work stressors and depressive symptoms.
Conclusions: Our findings have demonstrated that psychosocial stressors at work are related to mental health, and that in most cases this relationship holds true both for people with high and with low resources. Therefore, there is no clear indication that internal or external resources buffer the association between psychosocial work stressors and depressive symptoms.

Source: Lunau, T., Wahrendorf, M., Müller, A., Wright, B., & Dragano, N. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

A review of the impact of shift-work on cancer

Summary of the evidence for practitioners
Shift work that involves disruption to the body's circadian rhythm is classified as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. This article draws together the available information from the epidemiological, mechanistic and health and safety practice research to provide advice for practitioners. There is evidence that the increase in breast cancer risk amongst women who have worked night shifts is relatively modest and we cannot exclude the possibility that there is no cancer risk. If a causal association exists, the most likely mechanism is night time suppression of the production of the hormone melatonin. However, the observed increased risk of breast cancer amongst night shift workers may be due to higher prevalence of obesity and other lifestyle risks in this group of women. Current health and safety policies for shift work generally do not address cancer risks. Employers should develop a workplace policy for night work that informs workers about the potential cancer risks and possible strategies to minimize risks. Employers should also help reduce the cancer risk for shift workers through health promotion initiatives and encouraging access to cancer screening programmes. We summarize the evidence and recommendations in an infographic.

Source: Cherrie, J. W., Crawford, J. O., Davis, A., Dixon, K., Alexander, C., Cowie, H., & McElvenny, D. M. (2017). Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, 1-7.

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