2017-11-01 12:00 - Messages

Shiftwork and the Retinal Vasculature Diameters Among Police Officers

Objective: To investigate associations of central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), a measure of retinal arteriolar width, and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), a measure of retinal venular width, with shiftwork in 199 police officers (72.9% men).
Methods: Shiftwork (day, afternoon, night) was assessed using electronic payroll records. Four digital retinal images per officer were taken. Mean diameters of the retinal vasculature were compared across shifts using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
Results: Among all officers (mean age = 46.6 ± 6.8 years), shiftwork was not significantly associated with CRAE or CRVE. However, among current and former smokers, night-shift officers had a wider mean (±standard error [SE]) CRVE (230.0 ± 4.5 μm) compared with day shift officers (215.1 ± 3.5 μm); adjusted P = 0.014.
Conclusions: Night shift schedule in current and former smokers is associated with wider retinal venules. Reasons for this association are not known. Longitudinal studies are warranted.

Source: Charles, L. E., Gu, J. K., Ma, C. C., Grady, L. M., Mnatsakanova, A., Andrew, M. E., ... & Klein, R. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(10), e172-e179.

Can beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work be changed at the national level?

Prospective evaluation of the Danish national Job & Body campaign
Using a mixture of networking activities, workplace visits and a mass media campaign, the Danish national Job & Body health campaign improved beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work among public-sector employees in Denmark. Intensive and long-term national campaigns may be a strategically important tool against musculoskeletal disorders and their consequences in the population.

Source: Andersen, L. L., Geisle, N., & Knudsen, B. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

2017 Work and Well-Being Survey

At a time of change and uncertainty across the country, American adults who have been affected by change at work are more likely to report chronic work stress, less likely to trust their employer and more likely to say they plan to leave the organization within the next year compared with those who haven't been affected by organizational change, according to a survey released by the American Psychological Association.
Half of American workers (50 percent) say they have been affected by organizational changes in the last year, are currently being affected by organizational changes or expect to be affected by organizational changes in the next year, according to APA's 2017 Work and Well-Being Survey.

Source: http://www.apaexcellence.org/assets/general/2017-work-and-wellbeing-survey-results.pdf

Dimensions sociales et psychologiques associées aux activités minières et impacts sur la qualité de vie

L'intérêt de l'industrie et du gouvernement pour la mise en valeur des ressources minérales du territoire québécois, particulièrement sur le territoire visé par le Plan Nord, convie les acteurs de la santé publique à étudier les activités qui y sont associées et leurs répercussions sanitaires. Afin de répondre au besoin du réseau de la santé publique de mieux comprendre les répercussions sanitaires associées aux activités minières, une revue de littérature a été réalisée. Celle-ci documente les aspects des nuisances à la qualité de vie, ainsi que les effets sociaux et psychologiques chez des individus et des communautés vivant à proximité de lieux où ont cours des activités d'exploration et d'exploitation minières. Les impacts du fly-in/fly-out (FIFO) sur la santé psychologique des travailleurs miniers y sont aussi résumés. Enfin, la littérature retenue a également permis de recenser des effets sociaux et psychologiques associés à la phase de fermeture et de réhabilitation du site minier.

Source: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/publications/2318

A health economic outcome evaluation of an internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention for employees

Objective: This study aimed to estimate and evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a guided internetand mobile-supported occupational stress-management intervention (iSMI) for employees from the employer's perspective alongside a randomized controlled trial.
Methods: A sample of 264 employees with elevated symptoms of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS- 10 ≥22) was randomly assigned either to the iSMI or a waitlist control (WLC) group with unrestricted access to treatment as usual. The iSMI consisted of seven sessions of problem-solving and emotion-regulation techniques and one booster session. Self-report data on symptoms of perceived stress and economic data were assessed at baseline, and at six months following randomization. A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) with symptom-free status as the main outcome from the employer's perspective was carried out. Statistical uncertainty was estimated using bootstrapping (N=5000).
Results: The CBA yielded a net-benefit of €181 [95% confidence interval (CI) -6043–1042] per participant within the first six months following randomization. CEA showed that at a willingness-to-pay ceiling of €0,
€1000, €2000 for one additional symptom free employee yielded a 67%, 90%, and 98% probability, respectively, of the intervention being cost-effective compared to the WLC.
Conclusion: The iSMI was cost-effective when compared to WLC and even lead to cost savings within the first six months after randomization. Offering stress-management interventions can present good value for money in occupational healthcare.

Source: Ebert DD, Kählke F, Buntrock C, Berking M, Smit F, Heber E, Baumeister H, Funk B, Riper H, Lehr D. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.

Whistle While You Work

Job Insecurity and Older Workers' Mental Health in the United States
We estimate the effects of job insecurity on older workers' health outcomes using an instrumental variables approach which exploits downsizing and state-industry level changes in employment. We provide evidence that job insecurity, as measured by the self-reported probability of job loss, increases stress at work, the risk of clinical depression and lowers selfreported health status. IV estimates are much larger than OLS estimates which we interpret as evidence that job insecurity which is outside the control of workers may have much larger effects on mental health. These findings suggest that employers ought to consider actions to offset the detrimental health effects of reducing personnel on their remaining (older) workers and pay attention at the stress that industry level changes in economic conditions may have on workers.

Source: https://www.cedia.ca/sites/cedia.ca/files/cahier_17_02_job_security_older_workers_mental_health.pdf

A novel tool for evaluating occupational health and safety performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

The case of the Quebec forestry/pulp and paper industry
Efforts to prevent work-related injuries have met with tangible success in industrialized countries. In Quebec, workplace accidents and occupational illness have declined sharply since the end of the 1990s. However, there is still considerable room for improvement in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Expert specialists in accident prevention in SMEs are overloaded. Their interventions are repetitive and not personalised. Few tools are available for accelerating the process of evaluating occupational health and safety (OHS) performance.
The aim of this research project was to address this deficiency by proposing a novel OHS performance evaluation tool better adapted to SMEs. For this purpose, research was carried out in two distinct phases. The first phase led to the theoretical model on which the tool is based. The second phase was carried out using an action research approach. The proposed tool was designed and improved during this phase, through field-testing and the involvement of a Quebec industrial partner.
In spite of the limitations of this research, we have succeeded in developing a new tool with software support adapted specifically for the evaluation of OHS performance in SMEs. Upon completion of the project, a tested and improved version of the tool was delivered to the industrial partner. Experts in accident prevention have found the tool to be reliable and helpful. It has accelerated the identification of deficiencies in OHS management in several SMEs and has helped specialists to develop personalized and better-focused plans of action.

Source: Tremblay, A., & Badri, A. (2018). Safety Science, 101, 282-294.

Workplace interventions to improve work ability

A systematic review and meta-analysis of their effectiveness
Objective: Extended working lives due to an ageing population will necessitate the maintenance of work ability across the life course. This systematic review aimed to analyze whether workplace interventions positively
impact work ability.
Methods: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase databases using relevant terms. Work-based interventions were those focused on individuals, the workplace, or multilevel (combination). Work ability – measured using the work ability index (WAI) or the single-item work ability score (WAS) – was the outcome measure. GRADE (grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation) criteria was used to assess evidence quality, and impact statements were developed to synthesize the results. Meta-analysis was undertaken where appropriate.
Results: We reviewed 17 randomized control trials (comprising 22 articles). Multilevel interventions (N=5) included changes to work arrangements and liaisons with supervisors, whilst individual-focused interventions
(N=12) involved behavior change or exercise programs. We identified only evidence of a moderate quality for either individual or multilevel interventions aiming to improve work ability. The meta-analysis of 13 studies
found a small positive significant effect for interventions on work ability [overall pooled mean 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–0.21] with no heterogeneity for the effect size (Chi2=11.28, P=0.51; I2=0%).
Conclusions: The meta-analysis showed a small positive effect, suggesting that workplace interventions might improve work ability. However, the quality of the evidence base was only moderate, precluding any firm conclusion. Further high quality studies are require to establish the role of interventions on work ability.

Source: Oakman, J., Neupane, S., Proper, K. I., Kinsman, N., & Nygård, C. H. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Réglementer l’incidence sur la santé et la sécurité au travail de l’économie des plateformes en ligne

L'essor de l'économie en ligne constitue un défi pour la santé et la sécurité au travail (SST). Le travail sur des plateformes en ligne — c'est-à-dire assuré par l'intermédiaire, sur ou au moyen de plateformes en ligne — est caractérisé par une large gamme de formules de travail, y compris le travail occasionnel, le travail indépendant économiquement dépendant, le travail à la tâche, le télétravail et le «crowdwork».
Le présent rapport décrit les risques en matière de SST qui peuvent résulter du travail sur des plateformes en ligne, examine les difficultés que constitue l'économie en ligne à l'égard des approches réglementaires actuelles en matière de SST et propose des exemples de politiques et d'initiatives réglementaires existantes ou en passe d'être instaurées pour faire face à ces risques et défis.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/regulating-occupational-safety-and-health-impact-online-platform/view

Night Shift Work and Its Health Effects on Nurses

The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet-based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue-related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.

Source: Books, C., Coody, L. C., Kauffman, R., & Abraham, S. (2017). The Health Care Manager, 36(4), 347-353.

Have mobile devices changed working patterns in the 21st century?

A time-diary analysis of work extension in the UK
It is commonly claimed that ubiquitous connectivity erodes the boundaries that once separated work from other aspects of life. Mobile devices in particular enable people to perform work-related activities anytime anywhere. Surprisingly, however, we know little about how people nationwide organise their daily working time over a period that has witnessed rapid technological change. Using the United Kingdom Time Use Surveys 2000 and 2015, covering this period of technological change, we studied work extension practices, and the links between work extension, total work hours and subjective time pressure. We found a significant, though small, increase in work extension, and evidence that it was significantly associated with time pressure in 2015, but not in 2000. Additionally, work extension increased total work hours, which was concentrated entirely in time working with a mobile device. We discuss our results in light of some taken-for-granted narratives about mobile devices allowing work to colonise life.

Source: Mullan, K., & Wajcman, J. (2017). Work, Employment and Society.

Analyse comparative du contexte de travail et portrait statistique des problèmes de santé et sécurité au travail en fonction de la taille des entreprises

Selon Statistique Canada, 33,1 % des salariés québécois et 31,3 % des salariés canadiens travaillaient dans les petites entreprises de 49 employés et moins en 2015. Les petites entreprises constituaient 95 % de l’ensemble des établissements employeurs au Québec et au Canada en 2016. Plusieurs résultats scientifiques internationaux documentent le fait que le contrôle des risques dans les petites entreprises est moins efficace que dans les moyennes et les grandes entreprises et que le risque d’accidents et de maladies professionnelles pour la main-d’œuvre y est plus élevé. En particulier, on observe que le manque de ressources internes des petites entreprises résulte en des capacités réduites et exerce un effet sur les conditions de travail et de sécurité, ainsi que sur la prise en charge de la santé et sécurité du travail (SST).

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100952/n/problemes-sante-securite-au-travail-taille-entreprises

Suicide among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Objectives: This review aimed to quantify suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and study potential variations of risk within this population.
Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis from 1995 to 2016 using MEDLINE and following the PRISMA guidelines. A pooled effect size of suicide risk among the population of interest was calculated using meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate whether effect size differed according to population or study characteristics. Meta-regression was used to identify sources of heterogeneity.
Results: The systematic review identified 65 studies, of which 32 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect size was 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.68] representing an excess of suicide risk among the population of interest. Subgroup analysis showed that this effect size varied according to geographic area, with a higher effect size in Japan. The following study characteristics were found to contribute to the between-study variance: reference group, measure of effect size, and study design.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest an excess of suicide risk among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers and demonstrated that this excess may be even higher for these groups in Japan. This review highlights the need for suicide prevention policies focusing on this specific population of workers. More research is also needed to better understand the underlying factors that may increase suicide risk in this population.

Source: Klingelschmidt J., Milner A., Khireddine-Medouni I., Witt K., Alexopoulos E.C., Toivanen S., LaMontagne A.D., Chastang J-F., Niedhammer I. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

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