2017-09-01 12:00 - Messages

Measuring Vulnerability to Adverse Working Conditions

Evidence from European Countries
Ce travail s'insère ainsi dans une réflexion visant à définir et à mesurer les différentes formes de vulnérabilité qui peuvent survenir et se développer dans le travail en Europe. Il propose un cadre conceptuel et méthodologique où la vulnérabilité est définie comme le degré d'exposition des travailleurs à des risques cumulés sur le lieu de travail, ayant des effets néfastes pour le bien-être et la santé. À cette fin, un indicateur de mauvaises conditions de travail est proposé : il agrège des facteurs relatifs aussi bien à l'environnement ? qu'il soit physique ou social ? qu'au contenu et à l'organisation du travail (forte intensité du travail, faible complexité, horaires atypiques). Cet indicateur synthétique est ensuite utilisé pour calculer la probabilité pour un travailleur d'être exposé à une dégradation de ses conditions de travail. C'est cette probabilité qui mesure la vulnérabilité aux conditions de travail dégradées.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/document-de-travail/measuring-vulnerability-adverse-working-conditions-evidence-european-countries

Work-Related Violent Deaths in the US Taxi and Limousine Industry 2003 to 2013

Disparities Within a High-Risk Working Population
Objective: We describe the magnitude and distribution of violent work-related deaths among taxi and limousine drivers, a high-risk population.
Methods: We analyzed rates using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for all violent work-related deaths in the taxi and limousine industry from 2003 to 2013. We described demographics, work characteristics, and other injury details, examining temporal trends for nativity and race/ethnicity.
Results: Men (adjusted rate ratio [RRadj] 6.1 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6–14.1]), blacks (RRadj 2.3 [95% CI 1.6–3.4]), Hispanics (RRadj 2.1 [95% CI 1.3–3.4]), and drivers in the South (RRadj 2.7 [95% CI 1.9–3.9]) had significantly higher fatality rates than comparison groups. Over time, the rates remained substantially higher compared with all workers.
Conclusions: The taxi and limousine industry continues to face a disproportionately dangerous working environment. Recommended safety measures implemented uniformly by cities, companies, and drivers could mitigate disparities.

Source: Menéndez, C. K. C., Socias-Morales, C., & Daus, M. M. W. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(8), 768.
http://dx.doi.org/0.1097/JOM.0000000000001071

Working time patterns for sustainable work

Working time is a recurrent topic of study because the nature of work, its content, the conditions under which it is performed and the labour market itself keep changing. This report provides an overview of the recent evolution of working time duration and organisation in the EU and highlights the most important trends and differences between Member States. Through an in-depth analysis of data from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey carried out in 2015, it examines – from a gender and life course perspective – the links between working time patterns, work–life balance and working time preferences, on the one hand, and workers' health and well-being on the other. Finally, the report explores the extent to which prevailing working conditions and working time patterns in EU Member States are sustainable in the long term. An executive summary is available - see Related content.

Source: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/fr/publications/report/2017/working-time-patterns-for-sustainable-work

Mieux travailler à l'ère du numérique

Le numérique fascine et inquiète. Mais que change-t-il en réalité au travail et à notre relation aux autres dans le travail? Telle était l'interrogation initiale présidant à la réalisation de ce numéro 6 de La Revue des conditions de travail. Si le numérique suscite une inflation considérable de discours et de commentaires, le travail de documentation des impacts de celui-ci dans le monde de l'entreprise n'a pas encore été complétement mené. Pour notre part, avec ce numéro, il s'agissait de faire remonter du terrain la plus grande variété possible des expérimentations développées dans le monde du travail. Ce n'est que par une immersion de ce genre que les impacts du numérique pourront être analysés et évalués.

Source: https://www.anact.fr/node/11792/

Night work, long work weeks, and risk of accidental injuries

A register-based study
Danish employees with night work had a higher ratio of accidental injuries compared to day workers. Awareness should be raised in order to prevent injuries in the future. No association between weekly
working hours and accidental injuries were found. Thus it appears that the current regulation ensures that long weekly working hours does not imply an increased risk of injuries.

Source: Larsen, A. D., Hannerz, H., Møller, S. V., Dyreborg, J., Bonde, J. P., Hansen, J., ... & Garde, A. H. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3668

Making the Case for Contractor Management

Examining the Safety Benefits of Third-Party Management
This report summarizes the results of the National Safety Council research project on the efficacy of outsourced contractor management systems. More specifically, this research investigates if contractors and vendors realize improved safety performance as a result of their participation in these types of programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the actual safety benefit of implementing a third-party contractor
management system and the safety effect on participating contractors.

Source: http://www.nsc.org/SafetyManagementSolutionsDocuments/Benchmark-report.pdf

Mental Disorder Symptoms among Public Safety Personnel in Canada

Background: Canadian public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) are exposed to potentially traumatic events as a function of their work. Such exposures contribute to the risk of developing clinically significant symptoms related to mental disorders. The current study was designed to provide estimates of mental disorder symptom frequencies and severities for Canadian PSP.
Methods: An online survey was made available in English or French from September 2016 to January 2017. The survey assessed current symptoms, and participation was solicited from national PSP agencies and advocacy groups. Estimates were derived using well-validated screening measures.
Results: There were 5813 participants (32.5% women) who were grouped into 6 categories (i.e., call center operators/dispatchers, correctional workers, firefighters, municipal/provincial police, paramedics, Royal Canadian Mounted Police). Substantial proportions of participants reported current symptoms consistent with 1 (i.e., 15.1%) or more (i.e., 26.7%) mental disorders based on the screening measures. There were significant differences across PSP categories with respect to proportions screening positive based on each measure.
Interpretation: The estimated proportion of PSP reporting current symptom clusters consistent with 1 or more mental disorders appears higher than previously published estimates for the general population; however, direct comparisons are impossible because of methodological differences. The available data suggest that Canadian PSP experience substantial and heterogeneous difficulties with mental health and underscore the need for a rigorous epidemiologic study and category-specific solutions.

Source: Carleton, R. N., Afifi, T. O., Turner, S., Taillieu, T., Duranceau, S., Lebouthillier, D. M., ... & Hozempa, K. (2017). The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743717723825

Shift work and the incidence of prostate cancer

A 10-year follow-up of a German population-based cohort study
Objectives: We investigated the association of shift and night work with the incidence of prostate cancer using data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study from the highly industrialized Ruhr area in Germany.
Methods: Participants of the baseline survey were recruited between 2000–2003. A follow-up survey including, a detailed interview on shift and night work, was conducted from 2011–2014. We included 1757 men who did not report a history of prostate cancer at baseline. We assessed shift- and night-work exposure up to time of the baseline interview. Incident prostate cancers were recorded from baseline through September 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of shift- and night-work exposure using Cox proportional hazards regression with age at event as timescale, adjusting for smoking status, family history of prostate cancer, education (≤13, 14–17, ≥18 years), and equivalent income (low, medium, high).
Results: We observed a twofold increased HR for prostate cancer among shift and night workers. Ever employment in shift work was associated with HR 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.67 and night work with HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42–3.64. HR increased steadily with duration of employment in shift or night work. Stratifying analyses by preferred midpoint of sleep, yielded strongly elevated HR among subjects with early sleep preference, although these analyses were limited by small number of cases.
Conclusions: We identified increased risks for prostate cancer among men with employment in shift or night work. HR were strongly elevated among long-term employed shift workers and men with early preferred midpoint of sleep.

Source: Behrens T, Rabstein S, Wichert K, Erbel R, Eisele L, Arendt M, Dragano N, Brüning T, Jöckel K-H. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3666

An Occupational Portrait of Emotional Labor Requirements and Their Health Consequences for Workers

Scholarship has revealed inconsistent evidence on the issue of whether emotional labor represents an occupational health risk. Drawing from emotion regulation theory, the conservation of resources model and the interactive service work literature, we examine the association between occupational emotional labor requirements and worker well-being. Analyses of a national sample of American workers merged with occupational information from the O*NET database reveal no evidence that these requirements are associated with psychological distress or high blood pressure; in contrast, emotional labor requirements are associated with a reduced likelihood of self-rated poor health. Consistent with the conservation of resources model, however, we find health penalties for individuals with emotional labor requirements in resource-deprived work contexts. Our findings suggest that for individuals with limited job autonomy and little access to civil interpersonal relationships with coworkers, emotional labor requirements may impede successful emotion regulation in ways that contribute to negative occupational outcomes and strain.

Source: Singh, D., & Glavin, P. (2017). Work and Occupations.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888417726835

Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II

Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination at ∼1 km2 scale for each residence during follow-up. Incident invasive breast cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for anthropometric, reproductive, lifestyle, and socioeconomic risk factors.Results: Over 2,187,425 person-years, we identified 3,549 incident breast cancer cases. Based on a fully adjusted model, the estimated HR for incident breast cancer with an interquartile range (IQR) (31.6 nW/cm2/sr) increase in cumulative average outdoor LAN was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.11). An association between LAN and breast cancer appeared to be limited to women who were premenopausal at the time of a case [HR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) based on 1,973 cases vs. HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.09) based on 1,172 cases in postmenopausal women; p-interaction=0.08]. The LAN–breast cancer association was observed only in past and current smokers at the end of follow-up [HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.07) based on 2,215 cases in never smokers; HR=1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) based on 1,034 cases in past smokers vs. HR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37) for 300 cases in current smokers; p-interaction=0.08].Conclusions: Although further work is required to confirm our results and to clarify potential mechanisms, our findings suggest that exposure to residential outdoor light at night may contribute to invasive breast cancer risk.

Source: James, P., Bertrand, K. A., Hart, J. E., Schernhammer, E. S., Tamimi, R. M., & Laden, F. (2017). Environmental Health Perspectives.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP935

Work orientations, well-being and job content of self-employed and employed professionals

Drawing on psychology-derived theories and methods, a questionnaire survey compared principal kinds of work orientation, job content and mental well-being between self-employed and organisationally employed professional workers. Self-employment was found to be particularly associated with energised well-being in the form of job engagement. The presence in self-employment of greater challenge, such as an enhanced requirement for personal innovation, accounted statistically for self-employed professionals' greater job engagement, and self-employed professionals more strongly valued personal challenge than did professionals employed in an organisation. However, no between-role differences occurred in respect of supportive job features such as having a comfortable workplace. Differences in well-being, job content and work orientations were found primarily in comparison between self-employees and organisational non-managers. The study emphasises the need to distinguish conceptually and empirically between different forms of work orientation, job content and well-being, and points to the value of incorporating psychological thinking in some sociological research.

Source: Warr, P., & Inceoglu, I. (2017). Work, employment and society.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017017717684

Conférence sur la contribution des travailleurs à des lieux de travail plus sûrs

En partenariat avec diverses sociétés d'ergonomie, l'ETUI a organisé les 26 et 27 juin 2017 à Bruxelles une conférence sur la manière dont les travailleurs contribuent à l'amélioration des conditions de travail.
Intitulée « Travailleurs et créativité : comment améliorer les conditions de travail par des méthodes participatives », la conférence a réuni des ergonomes, des experts en sécurité et santé au travail, des travailleurs et des représentants syndicaux de l'Europe entière. Ils ont débattu de la manière dont l'expérience de terrain des travailleurs peut enrichir les connaissances des experts et améliorer la prévention.
Cette approche provient de l'observation que les travailleurs développent des procédures opérationnelles qui leur permettent de faire face à des situations imprévisibles qui se produisent sur les lieux de travail. Jusqu'à quel point la créativité des travailleurs peut-elle corriger des situations de travail à risques ? ; La créativité des travailleurs en tant qu'experts de leurs conditions de travail peut-elle contribuer à améliorer la prévention en général ? ; Dans le contexte de la « numérisation de l'économie », l'ergonomie participative peut-elle apporter des réponses aux changements des statuts d'emploi et de la qualité du travail ? sont quelques-unes des thématiques qui ont été abordées par les participants.
La conférence a été organisée conjointement avec la Fédération des sociétés européennes d'ergonomie (FEES), la Société belge d'ergonomie (BES) et le Centre for Registration of European Ergonomists (CREE).

Source: http://www.etui.org/fr/Evenements/Conference-sur-la-contribution-des-travailleurs-a-des-lieux-de-travail-plus-surs/

Use of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test in Fitness for Work Assessments

Objective: The objective of the pilot program was to evaluate the utility of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in aiding clinicians in making fitness for work determinations.
Methods: A 10-minute PVT was incorporated into fitness for work examinations by occupational health staff at two integrated refining/petrochemical plants. Based on all evidence from the clinical examination, including PVT results, clinicians made their fitness for work determination.
Results: Employees who were determined to be fit for work had significantly fewer PVT errors than did employees determined to be unfit for work or fit for work with limitations, with t(98) = −14.71, P < 0.001.
Conclusions: The pilot assessed a new application of the PVT as an adjunct to occupational health evaluations focused on determining fitness for work. Results demonstrated that the PVT can be a valuable tool for this purpose.

Source: Lerman, S., Mollicone, D., & Coats, S. (2017). Use of the psychomotor vigilance test in fitness for work assessments. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(8), 716-720.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001065

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