2017-04-01 12:00 - Messages

The psychosocial work environment is associated with risk of stroke at working age

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relation between the risk of first-ever stroke at working age and psychological work environmental factors.
Methods: A consecutive multicenter matched 1:2 case–control study of acute stroke cases (N=198, age 30–65 years) who had been working full-time at the time of their stroke and 396 sex- and age-matched controls.  Stroke cases and controls answered questionnaires on their psychosocial situation during the previous 12 months. The psychosocial work environment was assessed using three different measures: the job–control–demand model, the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) score, and exposures to conflict at work.
Results: Among 198 stroke cases and 396 controls, job strain [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05–1.62], ERI (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62), and conflict at work (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.07–2.88) were independent risk factors of stroke in multivariable regression models.
Conclusions: Adverse psychosocial working conditions during the past 12 months were more frequently observed among stroke cases. Since these factors are presumably modifiable, interventional studies targeting job
strain and emotional work environment are warranted.

Source: Jood K, Karlsson N, Medin J, Pessah-Rasmussen H, Wester P, Ekberg K. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3636

Night-shift work is associated with increased pain perception

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine whether shift workers exhibit increased perception of experimentally induced pain after working night shifts.
Methods: The study was a paired cross-over design with two sleep conditions, after at least two nights of habitual sleep and after two consecutive night shifts at work. Fifty-three nurses in rotating shift work participated.
The sensitivity to electrically induced pain, heat pain, cold pain, pressure pain and pain inhibition was determined experimentally in each sleep condition. Sleepiness and vigilance were also assessed.
Results: Night-shift work (NSW) increased the sensitivity to electrically induced pain and heat pain (P≤0.001). Relative to habitual sleep, electrically induced pain increased by 22.3% and heat pain increased by 26.5%. The sensitivity to cold and pressure pain did not change, changes relative to habitual sleep was <5% (P>0.5). Pain inhibition was 66.9% stronger after NSW versus after habitual sleep (P<0.001). Sleepiness (measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) increased from 4.1 after habitual sleep to 6.9 after NSW (P<0.001). Vigilance decreased after NSW, measured as a 0.03-second decrease in reaction time (P<0.005).
Conclusions: Changes in pain sensitivity after NSW is measurable with clinically relevant effect sizes and may be an important marker for studies comparing the physiological effects of different shift work schedules. Explanations for the differential effect on different pain modalities should be a focus for future studies.

Source: Matre, D., Knardahl, S., & Nilsen, K. B. (2017). Scandinavian journal of work, environment and health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3627

Évaluer les interventions de prévention des RPS - TMS

Ce guide pratique accompagne étape par étape les intervenants dans leur démarche d'évaluation. Il propose des apports méthodologiques sur l'évaluation, des exemples illustratifs et une grille regroupant les conséquences potentielles des démarches de prévention des risques psychosociaux (RPS) et trouble musculosquelettiques (TMS). Il est accompagné du " Document d'évaluation de mon intervention " que l'intervenant pourra renseigner au fur et à mesure de sa démarche.
La démarche proposée permet de mesurer un large éventail des effets qu'une intervention produit et de les analyser au regard des méthodes mises en oeuvre et de la singularité des contextes rencontrés. Elle permet ainsi de mettre en valeur toute la richesse, la diversité et la complexité des interventions de prévention. 

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=CC%2018

Workplace Bullying and Presenteeism

The Path Through Emotional Exhaustion and Psychological Wellbeing
Objective: Workplace bullying is an increasing phenomenon that concerns managers and employees. However, few studies have investigated how workplace bullying relates with work-related exhaustion and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the intervening variables of emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing in the direct and indirect relationships between workplace bullying and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism.
Method: In a cross-sectional study, we tested a structural equation model using web survey data of 353 workers from a service company, with the variables: workplace bullying (Quine, 1999), emotional exhaustion (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI), psychological wellbeing (GHQ-28), and indicators of productivity loss due to presenteeism (SPS-6). All variables presented acceptable psychometric evidence.
Results: The final model revealed a reasonable fit. Workplace bullying was significantly and positively related to emotional exhaustion, which in turn, was significantly related to the loss of psychological wellbeing. Workplace bullying, emotional exhaustion, and the loss of psychological wellbeing were negatively related to concentration (avoiding distraction). Emotional exhaustion and psychological wellbeing mediated the studied structural relationships.
Conclusions: Our study contributes to theory and practice, since occupational health professionals should be aware that burnout and the loss of wellbeing may be related to workplace bullying and that productivity loss due to presenteeism may be a warning sign. Leaders can understand the underlying mechanism that explains employees' productivity loss due to presenteeism by addressing workplace bullying and its negative relation with emotional exhaustion and wellbeing.

Source: Neto, M., Ferreira, A. I., Martinez, L. F., & Ferreira, P. C. (2017). Annals of work exposures and health.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx022

Participation des travailleurs à la gestion de la sécurité et de la santé au travail

Informations qualitatives tirées de la deuxième édition de l'enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2)
Cette étude est principalement consacrée à la question de la représentation des intérêts des travailleurs dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité du point de vue des représentants eux-mêmes, de leurs collègues, ainsi que de leurs employeurs et dirigeants. Elle est basée sur des entretiens approfondis réalisés avec ces participants dans 143 établissements différents dans sept États membres de l'UE: la Belgique, l'Espagne, l'Estonie, la Grèce, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni et la Suède.
Dans la grande majorité des cas, il s'agit d'établissements qui ont participé à l'enquête ESENER-2. Ils proviennent, dans des proportions similaires, de trois grands secteurs – le secteur privé de la production, le secteur public et le secteur des services privés – et appartiennent à trois catégories de taille, à savoir aux petites, moyennes et grandes entreprises. L'examen des publications, des entretiens supplémentaires réalisés auprès d'informateurs provenant d'organisations clés et une évaluation quantitative complémentaire des données pertinentes de l'enquête ESENER-2 ont accompagné cette analyse.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/worker-participation-management-occupational-safety-and-health/view

Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout

A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada
Purpose: Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care.
Design and methods: We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics, dementia-related responsive behaviours, unit and facility characteristics, and organizational context predictors of care aide burnout. We measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form.
Results: We found that care aides were at high risk for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, but report high professional efficacy. Statistically significant predictors of emotional exhaustion included English as a second language, medium facility size, organizational slack-staff, organizational slack-space, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of cynicism were care aide age, English as a second language, unit culture, evaluation (feedback of data), formal interactions, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of professional efficacy were unit culture and structural resources. Greater care aide job satisfaction was significantly associated with increased professional efficacy.
Implications: This study suggests that individual care aide and organization features are both predictive of care aide burnout. Unlike care aide or structural characteristics of the facility elements of the organizational context are potentially modifiable, and therefore amenable to intervention.

Source: Chamberlain, S. A., Gruneir, A., Hoben, M., Squires, J. E., Cummings, G., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2017). International Journal of Nursing Studies.
http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2017.02.024

Effort–reward imbalance at work and risk of depressive disorders

A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Objective: The aim of this review was to determine whether employees exposed to effort–reward imbalance (ERI) at work have a higher risk of depressive disorders than non-exposed employees.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies examining the association of ERI at baseline with onset of depressive disorders at follow-up. The work was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and a detailed study protocol was registered before literature search commenced (Registration number: CRD42016047581). We obtained a summary estimate for the association of ERI with risk of depressive disorders by pooling the study-specific estimates in a meta-analysis. We further conducted pre-defined sensitivity analyses.
Results: We identified eight eligible cohort studies, encompassing 84 963 employees and 2897 (3.4%) new cases of depressive disorders. Seven of the eight studies suggested an increased risk of depressive disorders among employees exposed to ERI. The pooled random-effects estimate was 1.49 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23–1.80, P<0.001], indicating that ERI predicts risk of depressive disorders. The estimate was robust in sensitivity analyses stratified by study quality, type of ERI ascertainment and type depressive disorder ascertainment, respectively.
Conclusions: Employees exposed to ERI were at increased risk of depressive disorder. Future studies on ERI and depressive disorders should examine if this association is stronger or weaker when ERI is measured repeatedly during follow-up and with other methods than self-report or when depressive disorders are ascertained with clinical diagnostic interviews.

Source: Rugulies, R., Aust, B., & Madsen, I. E. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3632

The Cost of Work-Related Stress to Society

A Systematic Review
A systematic review of the available evidence examining the cost of work-related stress (WRS) would yield important insights into the magnitude of this social phenomenon. The objective of this review was to collate, extract, and synthesize economic evaluations of the cost of WRS to society. A research protocol was developed. Included cost-of-illness (COI) studies estimated the cost of WRS at a societal level, and were published in English, French or German. Searches were carried out in ingentaconnect, EBSCO, JSTOR, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Google, and Google scholar. Included studies were assessed against 10 COI quality assessment criteria. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These originated from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the EU-15. The total estimated cost of WRS was observed to be considerable and ranged substantially from US$221.13 million to $187 billion. Productivity related losses were observed to proportionally contribute the majority of the total cost of WRS (between 70 to 90%), with health care and medical costs constituting the remaining 10 to 30%. The evidence reviewed here suggests a sizable financial burden imposed by WRS on society. The observed range of cost estimates was understood to be attributable to variations in definitions of WRS; the number and type of costs estimated; and, in how production loss was estimated. It is postulated that the cost estimates identified by this review are likely conservative because of narrow definitions of WRS and the exclusion of diverse range of cost components.

Source: Hassard, Juliet; Teoh, Kevin R. H.; Visockaite, Gintare; Dewe, Philip; Cox, Tom. (2017). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000069

Cognitive Functioning, Aging, and Work

A Review and Recommendations for Research and Practice
There is a larger proportion and number of older adults in the labor force than ever before. Furthermore, older adults in the workforce are working until later ages. Although a great deal of research has examined physical health and well-being of working older adults, less research has focused on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad contemporary and multidisciplinary review of the intersection between cognitive functioning, aging, and work as a follow-up to a paper previously written by Fisher et al. (2014). We begin by providing definitions and background about cognitive functioning and how it changes over the life span. Next we discuss theories relevant to the intersection of cognitive functioning and work, including the use-it-or-lose-it hypothesis, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, hypotheses regarding environmental influences on intellectual functioning, and the job-demands-resources model. Then we summarize recent research about the effects of work on cognitive functioning, as well as ways that cognitive functioning may influence work motivation, learning, development, training, and safety. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of person-environment fit, suggesting avenues for future research, and discussing practical implications for the field of occupational health psychology.

Source: Fisher, Gwenith G.; Chaffee, Dorey S.; Tetrick, Lois E.; Davalos, Deana B.; Potter, Guy G. (2017). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000086

An assessment of occupational health and safety measures and performance of SMEs

An empirical investigation
An empirical study was undertaken to identify the relationship between occupational health and safety measures (OHSMs) and performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Survey data was collected from 35 SMEs located at S.I.T.E. Kotri, Sindh Pakistan, through questionnaire. Appropriate sampling of the collected data was carried out and analyzed in two stages using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) software. Initially, reliability of the data was checked with the help of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which was 0.80; and that reflects good and consistent. Afterward, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and then inferential statistics techniques (Pearson correlation and simple regression) were used. Results revealed a moderate positive correlation among OHSMs and performance of SMEs. This reflects that OHSMs were not properly carried out which influenced the performance of SMEs. Therefore; Pakistani SMEs need to pay a serious attention towards proper implementation of the OHSMs.

Source: Gopang, M. A., Nebhwani, M., Khatri, A., & Marri, H. B. (2017). Safety Science, 93, 127-133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.11.024

La norme nationale du Canada sur la santé et la sécurité psychologiques en milieu de travail

En 2014, la Commission de la santé mentale du Canada (CSMC) a lancé un projet de recherche de trois ans sous forme d'étude de cas afin de mieux comprendre comment les milieux de travail de tailles différentes et de secteurs variés au Canada appliquent la Norme nationale du Canada sur la santé et la sécurité psychologiques en milieu de travail.
Le rapport définitif du projet de recherche sous forme d'étude de cas résume les pratiques prometteuses et les leçons tirées par 40 organisations participantes. Il fait la synthèse des expériences et des découvertes pour aider d'autres employeurs canadiens à promouvoir la santé mentale de leurs employés et à prévenir les préjudices psychologiques chez ces derniers.

Source: http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/sites/default/files/2017-03/case_study_research_project_findings_2017_fr.pdf

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