2017-01-01 12:00 - Messages

New NIOSH Training Offers Fatigue Management for Pilots in the Land of the Midnight Sun

For a pilot working in Western Alaska, the amount of daylight during their work day can vary as much as 14 hours between the summer and winter solstice (or more the farther north you go). These aviators often fly multiple legs each day, serving as a transportation link to over 250 villages across the state. In fact, over 80% of Alaska's communities are not connected by roads. Vast distances, long hours of daylight, short flying seasons, and wildly variable weather can all contribute to the development of fatigue.
Fatigue is a general lack of alertness and degradation in mental and physical performance, and can affect pilot alertness, performance, and judgment during flight. Fatigue has repeatedly been shown to be an important risk factor for aviation accidents. A NASA survey of regional airline pilots found that 89% of respondents identified fatigue as a moderate or serious concern, 88% reported that fatigue was a common occurrence, and 86% reported that they received no training from their companies that addressed fatigue. Of the 1424 flight crew members responding in this survey, 80% acknowledged having “nodded off” during a flight at some time. Previous research by NIOSH has shown that 22% of pilots working in Alaska made a decision to fly when fatigued either weekly or monthly. Current Federal Aviation Regulations govern pilot flight times and duty limits, but do not ensure that pilots get adequate rest.

Source: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2017/01/25/pilot-fatigue/

Lifetime report of perceived stress at work and cancer among men

A case-control study in Montreal, Canada
Background: The association between perceived workplace psychological stress, over the entire work career, and cancer among men has never been assessed. This was explored in the context of a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada.
Methods: 3103 incident cancer cases (11 types) diagnosed in 1979–1985 and 512 population controls were interviewed. Subjects described in detail each job held during their lifetime, including the occurrence of stress, and its reason. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived workplace stress and its duration, and each cancer site, adjusting for lifestyle and occupational factors.
Results: Employment in at least one stressful job was associated with increased odds of cancers of the lung (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01–1.75), colon (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.15–1.98), bladder (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03–1.81), rectal (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.10–2.10), and stomach (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08–2.15). A duration-response trend was found for cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, stomach, and for NHL. Subjects reported changes in stress level over their career. Perceived stress was ascribed to several sources, including high demand and time pressure, financial issues, job insecurity, and hazardous conditions.
Conclusion: Prolonged exposure to perceived stress at work was associated with greater odds of cancer at 5 out of 11 sites. While over reporting of stress by cases cannot be fully ruled out, these associations, if substantiated, would bear important public health significance. Prospective studies building on detailed stress assessment protocols considering all sources and changes over the career are necessary.

Source: Blanc-Lapierre, A., Rousseau, M. C., Weiss, D., El-Zein, M., Siemiatycki, J., & Parent, M. É. (2017). Preventive Medicine, 96, 28-35.

Vers l’amélioration des services et des soins palliatifs de fin de vie

Adapter et implanter des programmes de soutien en milieu de travail et évaluer leur effet sur la satisfaction, le sens au travail et le bien-être des infirmières (SATIN II)
Le projet SATIN II propose l'étude de quatre programmes de soutien en milieu de travail. Ces initiatives ont pour but l'amélioration de la satisfaction et du bien-être au travail ainsi que la diminution des FRPS chez des infirmières et des cliniciens qui assurent les SFV. La démarche est guidée par les recommandations du Medical Research Council (MRC-UK) afin d'encadrer l'élaboration, l'implantation et l'évaluation des interventions, selon deux phases. L'objectif principal de la phase I est l'élaboration d'une intervention permettant d'intégrer aux pratiques en cours une approche palliative aux unités de soins. La phase II inclut à la fois l'évaluation de la faisabilité et de l'impact de l'intervention ainsi qu'un prétest de cet impact sur certains indicateurs (satisfaction, bien être et FRPS).

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100908/n/amelioration-services-soins-palliatifs-soutien-infirmieres

The relationship between occupational health and safety vulnerability and workplace injury

This study employs a recently developed conceptual framework and measurement tool that moves beyond defining occupational health and safety (OH&S) vulnerability using population or occupational characteristics, and instead examines how work and workplace characteristics shape an individual worker's risk of injury (Smith et al., 2015). The measurement tool captures information on four dimensions of OH&S vulnerability: (1) exposure to workplace hazards; (2) workplace safety policies and procedures; (3) worker awareness of health and safety-related rights and responsibilities; and (4) worker empowerment to act to protect themselves and colleagues. The conceptual framework posits that in isolation exposure to workplace hazards, or poor access to protective policies and procedures, awareness or empowerment places workers at increased risk of injury but that the greatest risk arises for workers who are both exposed to hazards and experience one or more deficits in resources to manage these hazards. We contend that ‘vulnerability' arises from exposure to on-the-job hazards in conjunction with inadequate access to resources (policies and procedures, awareness or empowerment) to mitigate the effects of these risks.

Source: A. Morgan Lay, Ron Saunders, Marni Lifshen, F. Curtis Breslin, Anthony D. LaMontagne, Emile Tompa et Peter M. Smith. (2017). Safety Science, 85–93.

A systematic review of brief mental health and well-being interventions in organizational settings

The present study offers an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of brief mental health and well-being interventions in organizational settings and comparison of their effects with corresponding interventions of common (ie, longer) duration. It discusses the findings in the light of quality appraisal of included studies and emphasizes the need for further research with methodologically rigorous study designs and enhanced reporting of methods.

Source: Ivandic, I., Freeman, A., Birner, U., Nowak, D., & Sabariego, C. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Effectiveness of participatory training in preventing accidental occupational injuries

A randomized-controlled trial in China
This is the first large scale randomized controlled trial documenting the effectiveness of a participatory approach to occupational health and safety training in reducing work injuries and re-injuries among industrial workers. This approach can be adopted and tried out in other settings, and is expected to help reduce the huge burdens of work injuries to workers, their families and society.

Source: Yu, I. T., Yu, W., Li, Z., Qiu, H., Wan, S., Xie, S., & Wang, X. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.

Fifth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector

Broadening our view, responding together
In 2009, Professor Klaus Wahl of Germany published an interesting, comprehensive analytical model of aggression and violence that links microcosmic and macrocosmic levels (Figure 1). The level of the microcosm encompasses genes, the brain and psychic processes, bio-physiological survival mechanisms and various types of aggression. The level of the macrocosm encompasses the environment, socialization and situation-induced social dynamics. Between these two poles lies the interplay of an individual's personality and society determines the phylogeny (development or evolution of a particular group of individuals) and the ontogeny (origination and development of an individual) of violent behavior. This model – although probably not yet well known beyond the boundaries of German- speaking countries – allows for a comprehensive understanding of the “big picture” of aggression and violence at the societal and the personal level and may thus be appealing to persons working within the health sector.

Source: Needham, Ian, McKenna, Kevin, Frank, Odile, & Oud, Nico. (2016). Violence in the Health Sector: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector: Broadening our view, responding together, 26-28 October 2016, Dublin, Ireland. Amsterdam : Netherlands : KAVANAH, 480 p.
Source: http://www.oudconsultancy.nl/Resources/Proceedings_5th_ICVHS_Dublin.pdf

Horaires atypiques

Les présentations de la journée du 22 novembre 2016 organisée par l'INRS sur les horaires atypiques sont disponibles sur le site de l'événement.

Source: http://www.inrs-horaires-atypiques2016.fr/index.php?langue=fr&onglet=8&acces=&idUser=&emailUser=&messageConfirmation=

Les jeunes Québécois qui font appel aux agences de placement

Comment perçoivent-ils leurs conditions de travail et quels avantages en retirent-ils?
Ce texte examine la situation des jeunes travailleurs embauchés par les agences de placement au Québec. Il est fondé sur les résultats d'une recherche menée par le biais d'entrevues semi-dirigées auprès de 40 jeunes de la grande région de Québec. Nos analyses montrent que les jeunes travailleurs d'agence sont fortement scolarisés, ont de faibles revenus et sont en importante proportion des immigrants et des étudiants. Une grande hétérogénéité et un niveau de qualification élevé sont deux caractéristiques importantes de cette catégorie de travailleurs et l'intermittence du travail et les temporalités saccadées sont des constantes de leur parcours dans ce secteur du marché du travail. En ce qui a trait aux perceptions des conditions de travail, les jeunes interrogés exposent des visions diverses et hétéroclites. Le rôle d'intermédiation de l'agence, qui met en contact les chercheurs et les demandeurs d'emploi est identifié comme le principal avantage du recours aux agences. Quant aux inconvénients, ils ont trait principalement aux incertitudes qui découlent du travail temporaire. Dans l'ensemble, on constate un positionnement relativement « optimiste » des jeunes face au recours aux agences qui relève de plusieurs facteurs liés au contexte du marché du travail et aux étapes du parcours de vie mais également d'un individualisme plus accentué et d'une adhésion plus marquée de cette classe d'âge aux normes du modèle productif post-fordiste.

Source: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/fr/sommaires/2017s-01

Safety Culture Promotion Intervention Program (SCPIP) in an oil refinery factory

An integrated application of Geller and Health Belief Models
As the most of work-related accidents results from unsafe behaviors, there is clearly a need for research in this area. The purpose of this study was to assess safety culture among operation personnel of an Oil Refinery Company (ORC) in Tehran and design and implement a Safety Culture Promotion Intervention Program (SCPIP) based on an integration of Geller and HBM models. In this quasi-experimental study, as the first phase, 190 operational employees of an ORC were recruited. The data were analyzed and the SCPIP was designed. In the second phase, 90 employees were elected for the intervention (45 for the experimental group and 45 for the control group). The evaluation of SCPIP was conducted 2 months after intervention. The environmental factors were in a good condition. About 44% of the behavioral factors and about two thirds of the cognitive factors were rated as moderate/weak. Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups by the total cognitive factors and the HBM constructs. After intervention these differences were significant (p ? 0.001). After implementing the intervention in the experimental group, the HBM total score was remarkably improved (Mean Difference = 11.25, t = 10.100, p = 0.001). The integrative application of the Geller and HBM Models was helpful in assessing the cognitive predictors of safety culture among the personnel of the ORC. SCPIP was useful in improving the employees' perceptions on safety culture in the occupational setting. HBM may be utilized to promote the human component of Geller model.

Source: Haghighi, M., Taghdisi, M. H., Nadrian, H., Moghaddam, H. R., Mahmoodi, H., & Alimohammadi, I. (2017). Safety Science, 93, 76-85.

Worker participation in the management of occupational safety and health

Qualitative evidence from the second European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks (ESENER-2)
The study focuses on the representation of workers' interests in health and safety as experienced by representatives themselves, by their fellow workers and by their employers and managers. It is based on in-depth interviews with these participants in 143 different establishments in seven EU member states: Belgium, Estonia, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/worker-participation-management-occupational-safety-and-health/view

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