2016-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Santé psychologique des chercheurs

Un mal-être profond semble affecter le monde du travail en général. Une détresse psychologique agissant comme un sérieux signal de déséquilibre. Cet extension du domaine du stress atteindrait aussi celles et ceux qui pratiquent la recherche, même s'ils exercent un « métier » où les facteurs de protection sont nombreux: autonomie, actions qui ont du sens, exercice de sa compétence et collégialité.
Quelles tensions, pressions ou souffrances sont ressenties par le corps professoral universitaire, la population au cœur de ce premier volet du dossier Santé psychologique des chercheurs?

Source: Découvrir, juin 2016.
http://www.acfas.ca/publications/decouvrir/06/2016

Conditions facilitant l’appropriation de démarches préventives en santé psychologique au travail par les gestionnaires

De plus en plus d'évidences scientifiques montrent que les risques psychosociaux (RPS), tels une demande psychologique élevée, une faible latitude décisionnelle, un faible soutien social et un déséquilibre entre les efforts et la reconnaissance reçue au travail, contribuent au développement de problèmes de santé psychologique, de troubles musculosquelettiques de même que de maladies cardiovasculaires. Ces atteintes à la santé figurent parmi les principales causes d'absence du travail pour maladie. La littérature sur les interventions préventives en santé psychologique concerne principalement les interventions visant à modifier certaines caractéristiques individuelles (par exemple les habitudes de vie des travailleurs) plutôt que des caractéristiques organisationnelles (par exemple les conditions et l'organisation du travail). Les interventions organisationnelles sont complexes et comprennent de multiples activités touchant simultanément plusieurs risques psychosociaux. Même si plusieurs études montrent la pertinence de ces interventions pour améliorer la santé psychologique au travail, très peu d'entre elles ont tenté de comprendre les facteurs facilitant ou entravant la mise en œuvre de telles interventions. Par ailleurs, les gestionnaires jouent un rôle clé dans l'implantation d'interventions préventives en milieu de travail.
Dans ce contexte, l'objectif général de la présente étude consiste à identifier les conditions facilitant ou limitant l'appropriation de démarches préventives en santé psychologique au travail par les gestionnaires.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100867/n/demarches-preventives-sante-psychologique-au-travail

Bus Operators’ Responses to Job Strain: An Experimental Test of the Job Demand–Control Model

The research aim was to test the Job Demand–Control (JDC) Model demands × Control interaction (or buffering) hypothesis in a simulated bus driving experiment. The buffering hypothesis was tested using a 2 (low and high demands) × 2 (low and high decision latitude) design with repeated measures on the second factor. A sample of 80 bus operators were randomly assigned to the low (n = 40) and high demands (n = 40) conditions. Demands were manipulated by increasing or reducing the number of stops to pick up passengers, and decision latitude by imposing or removing restrictions on the Rapid Transit Bus (BRT) operators' pace of work. Outcome variables include physiological markers (heart rate [HR], heart rate variability [HRV], breathing rate [BR], electromyography [EMG], and skin conductance [SC]), objective driving performance and self-report measurements of psychological wellbeing (psychological distress, interest/enjoyment [I/E], perceived competence, effort/importance [E/I], and pressure/tension [P/T]). It was found that job decision latitude moderates the effect of job demands on both physiological arousal (BR: F(1, 74) = 4.680, p = .034, SC: F(1, 75) = 6.769, p = .011, and EMG: F(1, 75) = 6.550, p = .013) and psychological well-being (P/T: F(1, 75) = 4.289, p = .042 and I/E: F(1, 74) = 4.548, p = .036). Consistently with the JDC model buffering hypothesis, the experimental findings suggest that increasing job decision latitude can moderate the negative effect of job demands on different psychophysiological outcomes. This finding is useful for designing organizational and clinical interventions in an occupational group at high risk of work stress-related disease.

Source: Cendales-Ayala, Boris; Useche, Sergio Alejandro; Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, May 23, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000040

La transmission professionnelle: mettre à distance les idées reçues

La transmission des savoirs professionnels en situation de travail est devenue un enjeu essentiel des politiques publiques ces dernières années. Mais en entrevoit-on toutes les dimensions? Celle-ci est en effet souvent envisagée comme se jouant uniquement dans la rencontre de deux individus, un ancien et un jeune, et visant au transfert, à sens unique, de savoirs spécifiques au sein de ce binôme.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/connaissance-de-lemploi/la-transmission-professionnelle-mettre-distance-les-idees-recues

The Impact of Physical Work Demands on Need for Recovery, Employment Status, Retirement Intentions, and Ability to Extend Working Careers

A Longitudinal Study Among Older Workers
Objective: Prospectively investigating whether different approaches of physical work demands are associated with need for recovery (NFR), employment status, retirement intentions, and ability to prolong working life among older employees from the industry and health care sector.
Methods: A subsample from the Maastricht Cohort Study was studied (n?=?1126). Poisson, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate outcomes.
Results: Perceiving physical work demands as strenuous was associated with higher NFR. Continuous physical strain was associated with being out of employment 4 years later. Employees with the highest amount of physical work demands perceived they were less able to prolong working life, although no significant associations between physical work demands and retirement intentions were found.
Conclusions: Overall, physical work demands were associated with adverse outcomes, with divergent insights for the different approaches of physical work demands.

Source: Gommans, Fleur G.; Jansen, Nicole W.H.; Mackey, Martin G.; Stynen, Dave; de Grip, Andries; Kant, IJmert. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2016, Volume 58, Issue 4, p. e140-e151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000687

Does Worksite Culture of Health (CoH) Matter to Employees?

Empirical Evidence Using Job-Related Metrics
Objectives: This study examines the relationships between the workplace culture of health (CoH), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. We also examined the moderating effect of job classification.
Methods: Structural equation modeling analysis was performed on data from employees of a Korean life insurance company (N=880).
Results: Workplace CoH directly influenced job satisfaction (β=0.32; P<0.001) and was indirectly associated with intention to leave. Job satisfaction was directly associated with intention to leave (β=−0.42; P<0.001). The relationship between job satisfaction and intention to leave was stronger for managerial employees than for non-managerial employees.
Conclusions: This study showed that a workplace CoH is related to job satisfaction and intention to leave. Supporting health at the workplace has implications beyond health that benefit both employees and the organization.

Source: Kwon, Youngbum; Marzec, Mary L. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: May 2016, Volume 58, Issue 5, p. 448-454.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000724

How do different definitions of night shift affect the exposure assessment of night work?

The aim is to show how different definitions affect the proportion of shifts classified as night shifts. The Danish Working Hour Database was used to calculate number of night shifts according to eight definitions. More than 98% of the total night shifts were night shifts by use of both the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64–71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based on definitions including a period during the night. Studies based on other definitions may be less comparable.

Source: Garde AH, Hansen J, Kolstad HA, et al. Chronobiology International, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2016.1167729

L’effet des contraintes physiques du travail sur les maladies cardiovasculaires chez les femmes

Enquête Santé et itinéraire professionnel, vagues 2006 et 2010, France
En France, les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) représentent la première cause de mortalité chez les femmes. Le rôle du milieu professionnel dans l'apparition de ces pathologies est peu documenté. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'effet de l'exposition aux contraintes physiques du travail sur la déclaration de MCV chez les femmes.

Source: http://www.invs.sante.fr/beh/2016/7-8/2016_7-8_7.html

Improving safety climate through a communication and recognition program for construction

A mixed methods study
We evaluated the efficacy of a novel safety communication and recognition program (B-SAFE), designed to encourage improvement of physical working conditions and hazard reduction in construction. Using mixed methods, we determined that B-SAFE led to many positive changes, including an improvement in safety climate, awareness, team-building, and communication. The study has important implications for both research and practice.

Source: Sparer EH, Catalano PJ, Herrick RF, Dennerlein JT. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3569

An employee who was not there

A study of job boredom in white-collar work
Job boredom is an amotivational state at work, where employees lack interest in their work activities and have difficulties concentrating on them. Although recent research suggests that job boredom may concern a wide range of industries, studies investigating the experience and its emergence in white-collar work are scarce. Thereby the purpose of this paper is to contextualize job boredom by exploring the experience and its preconditions in white-collar work.

Source: Lotta K. Harju, Jari J. Hakanen, (2016). Personnel Review, Vol. 45, Issue 2, p.374-391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/PR-05-2015-0125

Systematic review: complementary therapies and employee well-being

Background: A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear.
Aims: To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being.
Methods: We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues.
Results: We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Conclusions: Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined.

Source: Ravalier, J.M., Wegrzynek, & Lawton, S. (2016). Occupational Medicine
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqw047

Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing

A literature review
Objectives: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare.
Review methods: The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18 who have been working shifts or serve as control group for others working shifts, exploring the association of characteristics of shift work with at least one of the selected outcomes. Reference lists from retrieved studies were checked to identify any further studies.
Results: 35 studies were included in the review; 25 studies were performed in the health sector. A variety of shift work characteristics are associated with compromised employee's performance and wellbeing. Findings from large multicentre studies highlight that shifts of 12 h or longer are associated with jeopardised outcomes. Working more than 40 h per week is associated with adverse events, while no conclusive evidence was found regarding working a ‘Compressed Working Week'; working overtime was associated with decreased job performance. Working rotating shifts was associated with worse job performance outcomes, whilst fixed night shifts appeared to enable resynchronisation. However, job satisfaction of employees working fixed nights was reduced. Timely breaks had a positive impact on employee fatigue and alertness, whilst quick returns between shifts appeared to increase pathologic fatigue. The effect of shift work characteristics on outcomes in the studies reviewed is consistent across occupational sectors.
Conclusions: This review highlighted the complexity that encompasses shift work, but many studies do not account for this complexity. While some consistent associations emerge (e.g. 12 h shifts and jeopardised outcomes), it is not always possible to conclude that results are not confounded by unmeasured factors.

Source: Dall'Ora, Chiara, Ball, Jane, Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra, & Griffiths, Peter. (2016). International Journal of Nursing Studies, 57, 12-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.01.007

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