2016-02-01 12:00 - Messages

L’organisation du travail à l’épreuve des risques psychosociaux

Les risques psychosociaux auxquels sont exposés certains salariés sont susceptibles de dégrader leur santé physique et mentale. L’enquête Sumer de 2010 permet de repérer les situations de travail qui accroissent ces risques, comme la tension au travail (job strain) ou le manque de reconnaissance.

Source: http://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/2016-004v2.pdf

How to Put Leading Indicators into Practice

The use of leading indicators is a growing hot topic in occupational and environmental health and safety. The Campbell Institute at the National Safety Council has been studying leading indicators for the past two years to help more organizations take advantage of their predictive power. The Institute defines leading indicators as proactive, preventive, and predictive measures to identify and eliminate risks and hazards in the workplace that can cause incidents and injuries. Consider an indicator as a concept that a company would like to measure, such as “employee engagement.” In contrast, a metric is a way of actually measuring this concept, such as “number of employees leading safety meetings.”

Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2016/02/17/leading-indicators/

Numérique et conditions de travail

Les enjeux d'une transformation en marche
La transition numérique n'est pas réductible à son aspect technique. Elle bouleverse l'ensemble des dimensions du travail, depuis ses organisations jusqu'à ses finalités, en passant par les manières de le réaliser et par les conditions dans lesquelles il s'exerce. Elle ouvre des perspectives de transformation sociale des rapports au travail et des organisations de travail sur la base d'un renouvellement des usages, des capacités et des relations, dont les acteurs sociaux commencent à se saisir comme enjeux de régulation collective.

Source: Travail & changement, no 362, janvier-février-mars 2016.
http://www.anact.fr/numerique-et-conditions-de-travail-les-enjeux-dune-transformation-en-marche-0

Promoting Healthy Workplaces by Building Cultures of Health and Applying Strategic Communications

Objective: The aim of the study was to identify key success elements of employer-sponsored health promotion (wellness) programs.
Methods: We conducted an updated literature review, held discussions with subject matter experts, and visited nine companies with exemplary programs to examine current best and promising practices in workplace health promotion programs.
Results: Best practices include establishing a culture of health and using strategic communications. Key elements that contribute to a culture of health are leadership commitment, social and physical environmental support, and employee involvement. Strategic communications are designed to educate, motivate, market offerings, and build trust. They are tailored and targeted, multichanneled, bidirectional, with optimum timing, frequency, and placement.
Conclusions: Increased efforts are needed to disseminate lessons learned from employers who have built cultures of health and excellent communications strategies and apply these insights more broadly in workplace settings.

Source: Kent, Karen; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Roemer, Enid C.; Prasad, Aishwarya; Freundlich, Naomi. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: February 2016, Volume 58, Issue 2, p. 114-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000629

Long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine

A follow-up study with register linkage
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the possibility of a prospective association between long working hours and use of psychotropic medicine.
Methods: Survey data drawn from random samples of the general working population of Denmark in the time period 1995–2010 were linked to national registers covering all inhabitants. The participants were followed for first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. The primary analysis included 25 959 observations (19 259 persons) and yielded a total of 2914 new cases of psychotropic drug use in 99 018 person-years at risk. Poisson regression was used to model incidence rates of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine as a function of working hours (32–40, 41–48, >48 hours/week). The analysis was controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. A likelihood ratio test was used to test the null hypothesis, which stated that the incidence rates were independent of weekly working hours.
Results: The likelihood ratio test did not reject the null hypothesis (P=0.085). The rate ratio (RR) was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.94–1.15] for the contrast 41–48 versus 32–40 work hours/week and 1.15 (95% CI 1.02–1.30) for >48 versus 32–40 hours/week. None of the rate ratios that were estimated in the present study were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. However, stratified analyses, in which 30 RR were estimated, generated the hypothesis that overtime work (>48 hours/week) might be associated with an increased risk among night or shift workers (RR=1.51, 95% CI 1.15–1.98).
Conclusion: The present study did not find a statistically significant association between long working hours and incidence of psychotropic drug usage among Danish employees.

Source: Hannerz H, Albertsen K. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3550

The effects of non-standard forms of employment on worker health and safety

The past 40 years have witnessed significant changes to work arrangements globally. Overall, the changes have been characterised by less contract duration and job
security, more irregular working hours (both in terms of duration and consistency), increased use of third parties (temporary employment agencies), growth of various forms of dependent self-employment (like subcontracting and franchising) and also bogus/informal work arrangements (i.e. arrangements deliberately outside the regulatory framework of labour, social protection and other laws). The factors underpinning these changes are complex but include shifts in business/employment practices, weakening union influence and government policies/regulatory regimes to promote labour market ‘flexibility’ and weaken collectivist regimes (where these existed).1 The growth of international supply chains means that work has often been relocated to countries where union presence and regulatory protection is weak or non-existent.

Source: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_443266.pdf

Antecedents to workplace injury in the health care industry

A synthesis of the literature
Background: The U.S. Department of Labor has identified the health care industry as a major source of all U.S. workplace injuries. Studies have shown that injury within the health care workforce is related to high turnover rates, burnout, poor job satisfaction, and leaving the health care workforce permanently, thus contributing to the existing health care workforce shortages.
Purpose: The purpose of this synthesis of the literature was twofold. The first was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the occupational health and safety literature to determine the key antecedents to health care provider injury. The second was to utilize the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) framework to organize the findings.
Methodology: Empirical studies published between 1985 and 2013 examining work-related injuries sustained by nurses and nurses' aides were systematically reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in the synthesis of the literature. Thirty-six studies met the criteria for inclusion. Using the NIOSH framework, antecedent variables to workplace injury were identified and then grouped into three broad categories that were highlighted during the synthesis: organization of work, job characteristics, and safety programs and training. A fourth category, individual characteristics, was added based on its use by many studies.
Findings: Over half of the studies (n = 20) included factors within the organization of work category. Over two thirds of the studies (n = 26) included job characteristics such as task and demand. Nine studies contained information related to safety programs and training, whereas 17 studies included information on individual factors. The findings suggest that the NIOSH framework, with the addition of individual characteristics, provide a foundation for conceptually organizing occupational health and safety studies.
Practice Implications: Health care administrators and leaders should be aware and understand the antecedents to workplace injury that will assist their organizations in developing training programs to reduce the current excessive rates of health care provider injury.

Source: McCaughey, Deirdre; Kimmel, Ashley; Savage, Grant; Lukas, Tiana; Walsh, Erin; Halbesleben, Jonathon. Health Care Management Review: January/March 2016, Volume 41, Issue 1, p. 42-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000043

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