2015-12-01 12:00 - Messages

A multilevel study on the association of observer-assessed working conditions with depressive symptoms among female eldercare workers from 56 work units in 10 care homes in Denmark

OBJECTIVES: Eldercare workers in Denmark have a higher prevalence of poor psychological health than other occupational groups. We examined the association between working conditions assessed by trained observers and depressive symptoms assessed by self-report in a study of female Danish eldercare workers.
METHODS: Working conditions were observed based on action regulation theory and defined as (1) regulation requirements, a workplace resource providing opportunity for decision-making and skill development and (2) barriers for task completion. We examined the associations of individual and work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 95 individually observed eldercare workers. Further, we examined the association of work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 205 care workers, including both observed and non-observed individuals. We used regression models that allowed for correlations within work units and care homes and adjusted these models for demographics, job characteristics and stressful life events.
RESULTS: Higher levels of regulation requirements were associated with lower depressive symptoms at the individual level (p=0.04), but not at the workplace level. Barriers were not associated with depressive symptoms at the individual level. At the workplace level, a higher number of qualitatively different barriers (p=0.04) and a higher number of barriers for equipment use (p=0.03) were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in the age and cohabitation adjusted model, however statistical significance was lost in the fully adjusted model.
CONCLUSIONS: Low level of regulation requirements was associated with a high level of depressive symptoms. The study highlights the importance of examining both individual and workplace levels of working conditions.

Source: Jakobsen LM, Jorgensen AF, Thomsen BL, Greiner BA, Rugulies R. BMJ Open, 2015; 5(11).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008713

Premiers résultats de la 6e Enquête européenne sur les conditions de travail

La Fondation européenne pour l'amélioration des conditions de vie et de travail (Eurofound) vient de publier les premiers résultats de sa 6e Enquête européenne sur les conditions de travail.
Elle révèle que 23 % des travailleurs considèrent que leur travail représente un risque pour leur santé. Un chiffre en recul constant depuis 2000. Mais, selon l'ETUI, cette tendance a priori positive est à interpréter avec précaution, car les perceptions varient fortement selon le sexe, le pays et l'âge des personnes interrogées. Par exemple, les hommes reconnaissent plus facilement que les femmes que leur travail à une influence négative sur leur santé (27 % contre 19 %).

Source: http://eurogip.fr/fr/eurogip-infos-actu?id=4138

Perceptions of Supervision Among Injured and Non-Injured Teens Working in the Retail or Service Industry

According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a teen is injured every 9 minutes at work. Workplace supervision may affect whether teens are injured on the job. Because research on workplace supervision among teens is limited, the objectives of this study were to characterize the perceptions of supervision among injured and non-injured teen workers and assess the characteristics and perceptions of supervisors that may be associated with work-related injuries. In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among high school students. Teens who worked in retail or service industries (n = 270) were included in the sample. Non-injured teens were more likely to have reported that their supervisors cared about their safety, were helpful, listened well, and ensured that teen workers understood workplace safety. Most teens (70%) did not feel comfortable talking about safety issues with their supervisors. The importance of supervision and how supervisors are perceived in the workplace may be significant in creating a safety culture that leaves a lasting impression.

Source: Zierold KM. Workplace Health Saf. 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2165079915608858

Occupational differences in suicide mortality among Japanese men of working age

BACKGROUND: Although suicide rates among Japanese men of working-age have steadily increased over the past two decades, the distribution by occupation and industry is not uniform. Little is known regarding occupation and industry differences in relation to suicide risk. This study examined differences in suicide risk among Japanese men of working age (25-59 years) during 2010.
METHODS: We analysed the Japanese government's 2010 national survey data regarding occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were formulated for each occupation and industry to estimate the relative risk of death by suicide. Potential interactions between age and occupation/industry were also examined.
RESULTS: Suicide incidence was highest among workers in the fields of agriculture and mining. When compared with referent groups (sales for occupation and wholesale and retail for industry), the age-adjusted relative risk of suicide was highest for administrative and managerial workers (Incident Relative Risk [IRR]: 3.91, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 3.16-4.85), service industries (IRR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.93-4.51) and agriculture (IRR: 3.53, 95%CI: 2.84-4.38) occupations, and for mining (IRR: 23.9, 95%CI: 19.4-29.4), fisheries (IRR: 6.26, 95%CI: 5.03-7.80), electricity and gas (IRR: 5.86, 95%CI: 4.71-7.30) and agricultural industries (IRR: 4.73, 95%CI: 3.78-5.91). LIMITATIONS: Bias resulting from misclassification of deceased individuals' occupation or industry was a potential limitation of this study. Furthermore, detailed information regarding occupation-related factors, such as employment status, had not been recorded in the initial survey.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings help elucidate Japanese occupations and industries with a higher suicide risk, most likely due to economic changes or workplace factors relating to stress and depression.

Source: Wada K, Eguchi H, Prieto-Merino D, Smith DR. J. Affect. Disord. 2015; 190: 316-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.032

Regard d’ergonomes sur le travail

Dans le cadre du 50e anniversaire de la Société d'ergonomie de langue française (SELF), un appel à contribution d'articles a été lancé par la revue PISTES lors du congrès annuel de la Société qui a eu lieu à Paris en septembre 2013. Neuf groupes d'auteurs ont répondu à l'appel. Ce numéro offre une tribune de diffusion à de jeunes chercheurs du domaine et vise à rendre compte du potentiel que revêt le développement des connaissances en ergonomie pour mieux comprendre et agir au sein des milieux de travail dans une perspective de santé des personnes et d'efficacité des systèmes de travail.

Source: PISTES, 2016; 17 (2).
https://pistes.revues.org/4494

Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men's health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of thirteen researchers and health and safety stakeholders completed a critical literature review examining the intersection between masculinities and men's workplace health and safety in order to: (i) account for research previously undertaken in this area; (ii) identify themes that may inform our understanding of masculinity and workplace health and safety and; (iii) identify research and practice gaps in relation to men's workplace health and safety. In this paper we present key themes from this review. Recommendations are made regarding: (i) how to define gender; (ii) how to attend to and identify how masculinities may influence workers' identities, perceptions of occupational risks and how institutionalized practices can reinforce norms of masculinity; (iii) the importance of considering how masculinities may intersect with other variables (e.g. historical context, age, class, race, geographical location) and; (iv) the added significance of present-day labour market forces on men's occupational health and safety.

Source: Stergiou-Kita M, Mansfield E, Bezo R, Colantonio A, Garritano E, Lafrance M, Lewko J, Mantis S, Moody J, Power N, Theberge N, Westwood E, Travers K. Safety Sci. 2015; 80: 213-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.07.029

Stress in Nonregular Work Arrangements

A Longitudinal Study of Task- and Employment-Related Aspects of Stress
In nonregular forms of employment, such as fixed-term or temporary agency work, 2 sources of stress must be distinguished: task-related stress components (e.g., time pressure) and employment-related stress components (e.g., effort to maintain employment). The present study investigated the relationship between task- and employment-related demands and resources and indicators of strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance in a sample of nonregular employed workers. Using a 2-wave longitudinal design, the results of autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that time pressure, as a task-related demand, is positively related to strain and negatively related to well-being and self-rated performance. Autonomy, as a task-related resource, exhibited no significant relationships in the current study. Employment-related demands exhibited negative relationships with well-being and work engagement as well as negative and positive relationships with self-rated performance over time. Employment-related resources were primarily positive predictors of well-being and self-rated performance. Fit indices of comparative models indicated that reciprocal effect models (which enable causal and reverse effects) best fit the data. Accordingly, demands and resources predicted strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance over time and vice versa.

Source: Vahle-Hinz, Tim. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Dec 7 , 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039967

Australia - Work-related mental disorders profile 2015

The publication provides a concise and factual statistical profile of mental disorders as compensated by Australian workers' compensation schemes. It shows statistics on how many Australians are awarded a mental disorder claim each year to allow estimation of societal and system impacts. It also showcases other important statistics including claim rates and proportions to enable estimation of relative risks among groups of workers.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/work-related-mental-disorders-profile-2015

Professions en contact avec le public

Les professions en contact avec le public sont nombreuses et concernent pratiquement tous les secteurs d'activité. Si le public représente en lui-même un risque réel de tensions ou d'agressions verbales ou physiques, ce risque peut être amplifié par une organisation du travail inadaptée. Les mesures de prévention ne sont peut-être pas toujours là où l'on croit.

Source: Dossier thématique, Travail et sécurité, n° 767, décembre 2015.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/.html

Distinct types of OHS vulnerability seen in young, temporary, small business employees

Young workers, temporary workers and small business employees are often called vulnerable workers, but a new study from the Institute for Work & Health (IWH) has found that they are not all vulnerable to work injury and illness in the same ways.
The study used a new occupational health and safety (OHS) vulnerability questionnaire developed by the Institute. The 27-item measure asks respondents about their exposure to workplace hazards and the presence of three types of protection: (1) workplace policies and procedures; (2) worker awareness of OHS hazards, rights and responsibilities; and (3) worker empowerment to participate in injury prevention. The tool considers workers to be vulnerable to injury and illness when they're exposed to hazards at work and inadequate protection in at least one of the three areas.

Source: http://www.iwh.on.ca/at-work/82/distinct-types-of-ohs-vulnerability-seen-in-young-temporary-small-business-employees

Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants’ occupational psychosocial stressors

Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants' occupational psychosocial stressors
BACKGROUND: Utilizing a psychosocial stress approach, we report psychosocial stressors that Latina/o immigrant day laborers in Baltimore report as workplace hazards and the contextual factors that shape these stressors.
METHODS: Through a community-academic partnership, we conducted focus groups (n = 18) and key informant interviews (n = 9) using instruments developed between academics and the community partner to inquire Latina/o immigrants' jobs, hazard awareness, occupational illnesses and injuries, and reporting behaviors. We conducted a transcript-based thematic analysis.
RESULTS: The psychosocial stressors that Latina/o day laborers report as dangers at work are anxiety beating the deadline and fear from wage theft, sudden termination and immigration enforcement.
DISCUSSION: More attention needs to be given to Latina/o immigrant day laborers' occupational psychosocial risks. Policies should be made to lower barriers for Latina/o immigrants to report grievances to state agencies.

Source: Martínez AD, Piedramartel A, Agnew J. Front. Public Health, 2015; 3: e240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00240 

Health and occupational outcomes among injured, nonstandard shift workers

OBJECTIVE: This study compares health and occupational outcomes following a work-related injury for nonstandard and day-shift workers.
METHODS: National Population Health Survey data were used to explore outcomes 2 years post-work injury. Retrospective-matched cohort analyses examined main effects and interactions of shift schedule and work injury with changes in health, shift schedule, and labor force status. Models were adjusted for respondent characteristics, baseline health status, and occupational strength requirements.
RESULTS: Injured nonstandard shift workers reported lower health utility index scores, compared with uninjured and injured daytime workers and uninjured nonstandard-shift workers. No significant interactions between shift and injury were found with schedule change and leaving the labor force.
CONCLUSIONS: Injured nonstandard-shift workers are as likely to remain employed as other groups, but may be vulnerable in terms of diminished health.

Source: Wong IS, Smith PM, Mustard CA, Gignac MA. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2015; 57 (11): p. 1244-1249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000551

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