2015-11-01 12:00 - Messages

A multilevel study on the association of observer-assessed working conditions with depressive symptoms among female eldercare workers from 56 work units in 10 care homes in Denmark

Objectives: Eldercare workers in Denmark have a higher prevalence of poor psychological health than other occupational groups. We examined the association between working conditions assessed by trained observers and depressive symptoms assessed by self-report in a study of female Danish eldercare workers.
Methods: Working conditions were observed based on action regulation theory and defined as (1) regulation requirements, a workplace resource providing opportunity for decision-making and skill development and (2) barriers for task completion. We examined the associations of individual and work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 95 individually observed eldercare workers. Further, we examined the association of work unit averaged working conditions with depressive symptoms in a sample of 205 care workers, including both observed and non-observed individuals. We used regression models that allowed for correlations within work units and care homes and adjusted these models for demographics, job characteristics and stressful life events.
Results: Higher levels of regulation requirements were associated with lower depressive symptoms at the individual level (p=0.04), but not at the workplace level. Barriers were not associated with depressive symptoms at the individual level. At the workplace level, a higher number of qualitatively different barriers (p=0.04) and a higher number of barriers for equipment use (p=0.03) were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in the age and cohabitation adjusted model, however statistical significance was lost in the fully adjusted model.
Conclusions: Low level of regulation requirements was associated with a high level of depressive symptoms. The study highlights the importance of examining both individual and workplace levels of working conditions.

Source: Louise M Jakobsen, Anette F B Jorgensen, Birthe L Thomsen, Birgit A Greiner, Reiner Rugulies. BMJ Open, 2015; 5 (11).

The Association Between Effort-Reward Imbalance and Depressive Symptoms Is Modified by Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Strategy

Objective: To examine the main and interactive effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy on depressive symptoms among the working population in the City of Kumning, China.
Methods: We assessed the separate and combined effects of low versus high ERI and good versus poor SOC strategy on depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression analyses in a population-based sample (N?=?2457).
Results: High ERI and poor SOC were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, respectively. In employees with both high ERI and poor SOC, the odds ratio was highly elevated as compared with the reference group (low ERI and good SOC).
Conclusions: If our findings are confirmed by prospective studies, health promotion programs in work settings might consider SOC as an integral part to mitigate the adverse mental health effects of ERI.

Source: Shang, Li; Riedel, Natalie; Loerbroks, Adrian; Müller, Andreas; Wege, Natalia; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: November 2015, Volume 57, Issue 11, p. 1222-1227.

The Sustainability of an Occupational Skin Cancer Prevention Program

Objective: Sustainability of prevention programs is a public health goal.
Methods: The effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, an occupational skin cancer prevention program, was evaluated 5 to 7 years out from the conclusion of a controlled randomized dissemination trial that compared an enhanced versus basic dissemination strategy at 53 ski areas enrolled in the trial.
Results: Employees (n?=?2940) at ski areas in the enhanced condition reported fewer sunburns but did not differ from employees in the basic condition on other sun-protection measures. Significant differences for all sun-protection practices were identified at ski areas that displayed nine or more Go Sun Smart materials or a combined total of nine or more Go Sun Smart and other sun safety messages.
Conclusions: Exposure to prevention messages is an important determinant of program effectiveness and potentially of program sustainability.

Source: Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: November 2015, Volume 57, Issue 11, p. 1207-1213.

Undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational safety and health

The workers' perspective
BACKGROUND: Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants.
METHODS: Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers.
RESULTS: Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants.
CONCLUSION: This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence.

Source: Flynn MA, Eggerth DE, Jacobson CJ. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015; 58 (11), p. 1127-1137.

La qualité du travail au coeur de la formation

Face aux problèmes récurrents de l'insertion et du maintien en emploi, la formation professionnelle en situation de travail suscite un regain d'intérêt auprès des partenaires sociaux et des pouvoirs publics. À la faveur d'une expérimentation initiée par le ministère du Travail, elle pourrait même devenir un format de référence dans les plans de formation. À condition que les entreprises adaptent leurs organisations du travail.

Source: Travail & changement, No 361, octobre-novembre-décembre 2015.

Does Group-Level Commitment Predict Employee Well-Being?

A Prospective Analysis
Objective: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances.
Methods: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services participated in both waves of the study (T1 [2005] and T2 [2006]). The three outcomes were analyzed using linear multilevel regression analysis, multilevel Poisson regression analysis, and multilevel logistic regression analysis, respectively.
Results: Group-level AOC (T1) significantly predicted individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep disturbances (T2) were partially mediated by individual-level AOC (T1).
Conclusions: Group-level AOC is an important predictor of employee well-being in contemporary health care organizations.

Source: Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: November 2015, Volume 57, Issue 11, p. 1141-1146.

To Be or Not to Be (Stressed)

The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management
This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work–life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes.

Source: Grawitch MJ, Ballard DW, Erb KR. Stress Health, 2015; 31 (4), p. 264-273.

Du travail d'organisation à l'environnement capacitant dans les projet lean

Études de cas à partir de la participation des acteurs syndicaux
Le lean management ou lean manufacturing est issu du modèle Toyota. Il a été transformé en idéal-type, par des chercheurs américains, à la fin des années 80 et a connu une première expansion, dans les entreprises du secteur manufacturier, dans les années 90. Depuis quelques années, au Québec, il connaît un déploiement dans des secteurs d'activité où il n'a jamais été présent. L'objectif principal de cette organisation du système de production est d'éliminer les gaspillages, par la réduction de la variabilité chez les fournisseurs, en interne et même dans une certaine mesure chez les clients. Les moyens, multiples, passent par l'amélioration continue et la participation des salariés.
Des questions sont apparues, tant au niveau des praticiens de la santé au travail que des chercheurs, concernant les effets de cette organisation du système de production sur la santé des salariés. À travers une recension des travaux existants (Bruère, 2014), nous avons pu observer que, si le lean était censé apporter des éléments positifs par rapport au taylorisme, concernant la santé au travail, la grande majorité des auteurs observent une dégradation de cette dernière. Les variations observées à cet égard pourraient être, en partie, expliquées par la très grande diversité d'implantation du lean, malgré un socle commun de principes.

Source: https://www.aruc.rlt.ulaval.ca/sites/aruc.rlt.ulaval.ca/files/75014_cahier_sebastien_bruere_complet_final_1.pdf

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