2015-09-01 12:00 - Messages

Les changements de conditions de travail au fil des vies professionnelles

Plus fréquents, moins favorables
Analyser comment les changements de conditions de travail s’inscrivent dans les itinéraires professionnels, tel est l’objet de cette exploitation de l’enquête Santé et itinéraires professionnels (SIP). L’observation issue de l’enquête permet de construire une typologie en six classes, décrivant les configurations principales de changement des conditions de travail.
 L’analyse sur quatre décennies fait apparaître une accélération continue des changements, en particulier ceux de type « intensification », qui vont de pair avec un accroissement de la pression ressentie dans le travail et des tensions avec le public. Les changements qualifiés de « retrait », qui donnent accès à une vie professionnelle moins bousculée mais parfois moins valorisante, sont également plus fréquents. En revanche, les changements de type « intégration », caractérisés par une meilleure insertion dans le milieu professionnel, une reconnaissance accrue ou une adéquation plus grande entre les compétences et le travail demandé, se raréfient.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/connaissance-de-lemploi/les-changements-de-conditions-de-travail-au-fil-des-vies-professionnelles-plus-frequents

Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes

Results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil
Objectives Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).
Methods The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35–74 years. Baseline assessments (2008–2010) included clinical and laboratory measurements and interviews on sociodemographic, occupational, and health characteristics.
Results In the baseline sample (N=14 427), 19.6% were classified as having DM2 and 20.5% as having IGT. Mean age was 52.1 (SD 9.1) years. A total of 2041 participants worked at night for 1–20 years and 687 for >20 years. Among women exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work after adjustments for potential confounders, including obesity, the odds ratios (OR) derived from multinomial logistic regression for DM2 and IGT were 1.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39–1.45] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.99), respectively. Among men exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work, the OR for DM2 and IGT were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04–1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.01), respectively.
Conclusions The association between years of night work and diabetes is stronger among women than men. Longitudinal studies from ELSA-Brasil will be able to corroborate or refute these findings.

Source: Silva-Costa, A., Rotenberg, L., Nobre, A. A., Schmidt, M. I., Chor, D., & Griep, R. H. (2015). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3520

Transformation numérique et vie au travail

Le présent rapport s’organise autour de trois axes :
Dans une première partie, la mission s’est attachée à identifier les principaux impacts du numérique sur le travail, puis à en déduire les clés d’une réussite de la transformation numérique.
La deuxième partie présente de manière plus détaillée l’impact de cette transformation sur les principaux éléments constitutifs du contrat de travail (lieu de travail, temps de travail, lien de subordination), mais aussi sur la qualité de vie au travail et la fonction managériale.
La troisième partie est consacrée aux 36 préconisations pour la réussite de la transformation numérique au sein des entreprises.

Source: http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Rapport_Mettling_-Transformation_numerique_vie_au_travail.pdf

Conception des espaces de travail

Tout savoir sur la conception des espaces de travail. Quelles sont les règles générales à suivre lors de la conception d'un nouvel espace de travail ? Quel est le rôle de chaque acteur, du maître d'ouvrage à l'architecte, des équipes aux conseillers extérieurs ? Suivez le cas pratique d'un hypermarché qui a mené à bien son projet d'agrandissement, et comment plusieurs entreprises de configuration diverses (agroalimentaire, métallerie serrurerie, centre de tri, etc) ont conçu leurs nouveaux bâtiments tout en intégrant la prévention.

Source: Travail & Sécurité, septembre 2015, n° 764.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier/Conception%20des%20espaces%20de%20travail.html 

Portrait des jeunes travailleurs de 24 ans ou moins - Année 2014

Ce rapport présente les statistiques de 2014 concernant la situation des jeunes travailleurs sur le plan de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. On y fait notamment état de la nature et de la fréquence des accidents dont les jeunes ont été victimes dans les différents secteurs d’activité.​​

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_1018.aspx

The health and well-being of bankers following downsizing

A comparison of stayers and leavers
Following the sudden and unprecedented collapse of Icelandic banks during the recent economic recession, 20 per cent of bank employees were laid off. This nation-wide study compared the health and well-being of university-educated stayers and leavers following the downsizing of the banks and took into account labour market trajectories among the leavers following downsizing and job insecurity among the stayers. Results indicate a clear difference for the stayers and leavers on all outcomes of health and well-being, indicating that stayers fare worse than leavers in the early aftermath of downsizing. Overall, those male and female leavers who had found steady employment and male leavers with temporary employment fared the best of all groups. Of all the groups in this study, insecure stayers are the group of employees that experiences the lowest well-being and worst health.

Source: Ásta Snorradóttir, Kristinn Tómasson, Rúnar Vilhjálmsson, Guðbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir. Work Employment & Society, October 2015, vol. 29, no. 5, p. 738-756.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017014563106

Work demands and health consequences of organizational and technological measures introduced to enhance the quality of home care services

This study of home care workers in a Norwegian municipality aimed to examine the effect of two measures involving organizational (job checklists) and technological (personal digital assistants) job aids on perceived work demands and musculoskeletal health. Questionnaire data was collected in 2009 (n = 138, response rate 76.2%) and 2011 (n = 80, response rate 54%). Forty-six home care workers responded at both waves. Respondents were assigned into ‘high', ‘moderate' and ‘low' strain groups based on their responses to open and closed survey questions regarding impact of the two measures. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc t-tests and regression analyses investigated group differences and examined development in variables. Perceived work demands and health effects over the two-year study period were unchanged overall, yet significant differences between subgroups were highlighted. Work demands and shoulder-neck pain remained high for high-strain workers, but were reduced for low and moderate strain workers. Management should be aware of diversity in worker responses to rationalizations and give priority to supplementary, targeted measures to counteract adverse effects.

Source: Andersen, Gunn Robstad, Bendal, Synne, & Westgaard, Rolf H. (2015). Applied Ergonomics, 51, 172-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.04.020

The Breast Cancer Fund: Working Women and Breast Cancer

The State of the Evidence
Based on the current evidence, action to reduce workplace exposures linked to breast cancer is imperative. The Breast Cancer Fund has spent nearly 15 years translating the science that links environmental exposures to breast cancer, and advocating for change. In the past several years, it has become increasingly evident that the workplace may be a substantive source of many of these exposures and of the resulting risk for breast cancer.

Source: http://www.etui.org/fr/content/download/21116/176339/file/working-women-and-breast-cancer-1.pdf

Employers perceptions of the health and safety of young workers

The aim was to investigate perceptions and attitudes about health and safety and the employment of young people. The work involved a review of published documents and interviews with 14 representatives from employer organisations, schools/academies, work placement organisers and insurers.
No documents were found that examined employers' views about young workers and health and safety. However, evidence was found within published documents that links increase of injury in young workers, and a lack of work experience and training, poor awareness of occupational risks, inadequate supervision, and possible lack of physical and/or psychological maturity. Interviewees perceived that all environments can present a risk if a worker lacks relevant experience or awareness of them.
When taking on a young person, interviewees considered age to be less important than experience and ability. Misperceptions were found to exist about the health and safety considerations that need to be made for young people when they enter the workforce. There were also some perceptions that employers may hide behind health and safety and insurance as excuses for not employing young people, when a more likely reason is that they perceive a young person to be a burden and an additional cost.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1061.htm

Les stratégies mises en œuvre par des adolescents apprentis en métier semi-spécialisé lors d’évènements imprévus

Plusieurs études ont montré qu'une faible expérience en emploi, souvent caractéristique des très jeunes travailleurs, était associée à une augmentation du risque de subir une lésion professionnelle. Parmi les jeunes travailleurs, les plus susceptibles de se blesser au travail sont ceux qui ont quitté l'école sans diplôme d'études secondaires, ceux qui occupent des emplois manuels ainsi que ceux qui éprouvent des difficultés d'apprentissage objectivées. Le ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (MELS) a mis sur pied en 2007-2008 la Formation menant à l'exercice d'un métier semi-spécialisé (FMS), qui s'adresse justement à ces jeunes considérés plus à risque de subir une lésion professionnelle. Au cours de cette formation, les élèves âgés de 15 à 17 ans réalisent un stage en entreprise de 375 heures réparties sur une année scolaire.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100829/n/risques-strategies-adolescents-apprentis-metier-evenements

Supervisor and team leader competence in roadside waste and recycling collection

It is widely recognised that team leaders and supervisors have an important role in persuading their crews of the importance of health and safety procedures and safety performance standards. To enable them to fulfil this role they need to have the necessary leadership, interpersonal and communication skills. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the training and competence requirements for these roles and whether any training-related improvements are required.
The aim of the project was to identify the competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours) required for road side waste and recycling collection supervisors and team leaders to manage the health and safety of their crews as well as to ascertain whether current training provided an adequate basis for these competencies to be developed and maintained or whether there were further training needs.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1057.htm

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