2014-09-01 12:00 - Messages

National working conditions surveys in Europe: A compilation

This report describes surveys in 15 EU Member States that meet two conditions: they are national, covering all or most of the working population; and they relate at least primarily to working conditions issues, such as health and safety at the workplace, work organisation, quality of working life and work–life balance. For each survey, a data sheet provides the main characteristics of the survey in a consistent template. These characteristics include the survey name, institute responsible, territorial scope, sectors and population covered, and sample size. Information is also provided on methodology, quality control procedures and contact details.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1431.htm

Pilot fatigue

Relationships with departure and arrival times, flight duration, and direction
INTRODUCTION: Flight timing is expected to influence pilot fatigue because it determines the part of the circadian body clock cycle that is traversed during a flight. However the effects of flight timing are not well-characterized because field studies typically focus on specific flights with a limited range of departure times and have small sample sizes. The present project combined data from four studies, including 13 long-range and ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of departure and arrival times (237 pilots in 4-person crews, 730 flight segments, 1-3 d layovers).
METHODS: All studies had tripartite support and underwent independent ethical review. Sleep was monitored (actigraphy) from 3 d prior to ≥ 3 d post-trip. Preflight and at top of descent (TOD), pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale), and completed a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) test. Mixed model ANOVA identified independent associations between fatigue measures and operational factors (domicile times of departure and arrival, flight duration and direction, landing versus relief crew).
RESULTS: Preflight subjective fatigue and sleepiness were lowest for flights departing 14:00-17:59. Total in-flight sleep was longest on flights departing 18:00-01:59. At TOD, fatigue and sleepiness were higher and PVT response speeds were slower on flights arriving 06:00-09:59 than on flights arriving later. PVT response speed at TOD was also faster on longer flights.
DISCUSSION: The findings indicate the influence of flight timing (interacting with the circadian body clock cycle), as well as flight duration, on in-flight sleep and fatigue measures at TOD.

Source: Gander PH, Mulrine HM, van den Berg MJ, Smith AA, Signal TL, Wu LJ, Belenky G. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2014; 85: 833-840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3963.2014

Des artisans en bonne santé… mais stressés

Plus d'un artisan sur deux estime être très régulièrement stressé. C'est le principal enseignement que révèle ce premier baromètre ARTI Santé BTP, qui permet de livrer un panorama de l'état médical des artisans du bâtiment sur leurs conditions de travail. Ce stress est directement lié aux problèmes de gestion de l'entreprise (trésorerie, fortes variations de l'activité et faible visibilité sur l'avenir, poids de l'administratif…). Il résulte aussi de facteurs conjoncturels, en période de crise économique. Il a des effets multiples sur la santé des artisans, notamment sur leur sommeil : ils sont ainsi 45% à avoir une mauvaise qualité de sommeil et 59% à se déclarer fatigués, contre 46% des dirigeants tous secteurs confondus. En revanche, paradoxalement, une écrasante majorité d'artisans du BTP s'estiment en bonne santé (80%). Trois artisans sur quatre déclarent ne pas être suivis médicalement vis-à-vis de leur activité professionnelle. Les artisans interrogés déclarent à 95% que leur activité est exigeante mentalement. Une perception issue de la diversité des tâches que l'artisan effectue tout au long de la journée sur le chantier ou en atelier, mais aussi au bureau.

Source: http://www.preventionbtp.fr/Magazine/Reportages/Actualite/Etude-des-artisans-en-bonne-sante-mais-stresses

Perspective de genre sur l'emploi et les conditions de travail des seniors

L'objectif de ce "Working paper" est d'investiguer systématiquement la dimension du genre dans la problématique des conditions de travail et d'emploi des travailleurs âgés (50 ans et plus). Les conditions de travail et d'emploi apparaissent de plus en plus clairement comme un enjeu clé dans le vieillissement au travail, mais les disparités entre les femmes et les hommes ne font pas l'objet, à ce jour, d'une attention suffisante. Ces disparités ne résultent pas seulement des processus de ségrégation horizontale (entre secteurs d'activité) et de ségrégation verticale (entre catégories de métiers), qui font que les situations de travail des femmes et des hommes sont fortement différenciées. Elles concernent aussi les trajectoires professionnelles respectives des hommes et des femmes, leur lien avec l'état de santé après 50 ans et l'évolution des normes en matière de retraite. Elles ont également trait aux
possibilités d'épanouissement dans le travail et à la reconnaissance au travail. Plus largement, le vieillissement au travail des femmes et des hommes est influencé par l'inégale répartition des tâches domestiques et des tâches de soins, à la fois vis-à-vis des générations plus âgées et des générations plus jeunes.

Source: http://www.ftu-namur.org/fichiers/WP2014%2003%20Genre%20emploi%20conditions%20de%20travail%20seniors%20FR.pdf

The business case for safety and health: Cost–benefit analyses of interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises

This report examines the economic aspects of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions in small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). First, case studies in the existing literature were identified and examined. Second, 13 new case studies on OSH initiatives in European SMEs were developed, with a business case for each intervention prepared according to a common model. The OSH interventions studied were generally profitable, and these new case studies therefore provide a useful tool to allow owners and managers of SMEs an insight into the potential benefits of improving OSH and the key factors involved in carrying out a cost–benefit analysis.

Source : https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/the-business-case-for-safety-and-health-cost-benefit-analyses-of-interventions-in-small-and-medium-sized-enterprises

For better or worse? Changing shift schedules and the risk of work injury among men and women

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the risk of work injury associated with changes in shift schedules and identify whether work injury risks differ between men and women.
Methods: Longitudinal panels from the Survey of Labor and Income Dynamics were used to describe work schedule patterns over a 6-year period among a representative sample of Canadian workers (N=19 131). Cox regression was used to estimate the risk of work injury among workers who (i) switched from regular day to nonstandard shifts, (ii) switched from nonstandard to day shifts and (iii) remained in nonstandard shifts, compared with (iv) those who worked regular day shifts only. Gender differences were examined in separate stratified analyses. Adjustments were made for potential respondent and occupational confounders.
Results: Increased injury risk was observed among those who: switched from day to nonstandard shifts [hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.79–3.77], switched from nonstandard to days (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.62–3.49), and worked nonstandard shifts only (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.23–1.70). For women, work injury risk was higher among those who switched shifts (days to nonstandard HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.76–5.46; nonstandard to days HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.36–3.91), or worked nonstandard shifts only (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.44–2.37) compared to day schedules. However, for men the risk of injury was elevated only among those who switched shifts (days to nonstandard HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.35–3.51; nonstandard to days HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.41–3.95). The only significant difference between men and women were among nonstandard shift workers.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that changing shift types may increase work injury risk among men and women, and that the risk remains increased among women who work nonstandard shifts for a prolonged period of time. This highlights the need for awareness and implementation of health and safety programs when workers initially change shift schedules and on a regular basis to maintain worker health.

Source: Wong IS, Smith PM, Mustard CA, Gignac MAM. Scand J Work Environ Health, 2014. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3454

Age, occupational demands and the risk of serious work injury

BACKGROUND: Interest in the relationship between age and serious work injury is increasing, given the ageing of the workforce in many industrialized economies. AIMS: To examine if the relationship between age and risk of serious musculoskeletal injury differs when the physical demands of work are higher from those when they are lower.
METHODS: A secondary analysis of workers' compensation claims in the State of Victoria, Australia, combined with estimates of the insured labour force. We focused on musculoskeletal claims, which required 10 days of absence or health care expenditures beyond a pecuniary threshold. Regression models examined the relationship between age and claim-risk across workers with different occupational demands, as well as the relationship between occupational demands and musculoskeletal claim-risk across different age groups.
RESULTS: Older age and greater physical demands at work were associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal claims. In models stratified by occupational demands, we observed the relationship between age and claim-risk was steeper when occupational demands were higher. We also observed that the relationship between occupational demands and risk of work injury claim peaked among workers aged 25-44, attenuating among those aged 45 and older.
CONCLUSIONS: This study's results suggest that although older workers and occupations with higher demands should be the targets of primary preventive efforts related to serious musculoskeletal injuries, there may also be gains in targeting middle-aged workers in the most physically demanding occupations.

Source: Smith PM, Berecki-Gisolf. J. Occup. Med. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu125

Les très petites entreprises

Une équation à plusieurs inconnues
On les appréhende comme un ensemble, mais la réalité des très petites entreprises, celles de moins de dix salariés, est plurielle. Aussi les enjeux en matière de conditions de travail réclament-ils de nouvelles approches, plus globales, territoriales et pragmatiques.

Source: Travail & changement, No 356, septembre-octobre 2014.
http://bourgognefranchecomte.aract.fr/download/site-principal/document/pdf/parutions/tc356.pdf

A reciprocal interplay between psychosocial job stressors and worker well-being?

A systematic review of the “reversed” effect
Objectives Work represents an important role in society, and the nature and consequences of job stress have garnered significant research interest. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to elucidate the occupational stressor–strain relationship, or the interplay between unfavorable working conditions (stressor) and worker well-being (strain). In line with Bandura's notion of “reciprocal determinism”, a reciprocal occupational stressor–strain relationship is now increasingly postulated, where variables exert mutual influences on each other over time. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of empirical support for three specific “reversed” (strain-to-stressor) effects, guided by the Demand–Control–Support model.
Methods A systematic literature review was conducted (1996–2012 inclusive) through a search of databases. After relevant studies were identified, a methodological quality appraisal was performed based on four key criteria: sample size, measurement, non-spuriousness, and non-response bias. Subsequently, a quantitative synthesis of evidence from high-quality studies was performed by calculating a standardized index of convergence for each reversed effect.
Results Twenty-three qualifying studies were found and evidence from ten high-quality studies ultimately contributed to the synthesis. Moderately strong evidence in support of a positive strain-to-job demands effect was found, but there was no evidence in support of either a strain-to-job control or a strain-to-workplace social support effect
Conclusions In conjunction with available evidence on the corresponding “normal” (stressor-to-strain) effect, this review gives credence to the possibility of a reciprocal stressor–strain relationship involving job demands and worker well-being.

Source: Tang, K. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014; 40 (5): 441-456. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3431

Impact of Windows and Daylight Exposure on Overall Health and Sleep Quality of Office Workers

A Case-Control Pilot Study
Study Objective: This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns.
Methods: Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns.
Results: Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions—role limitation due to physical problems and vitality—as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy.
Conclusions: We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

Source: Boubekri M, Cheung IN, Reid KJ, Wang CH, Zee PC. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014; 10 (6): 603-611.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.3780

Un outil Web interactif de sensibilisation à la violence au travail

L’équipe de recherche VISAGE a lancé un outil Web interactif de sensibilisation aux réalités de la violence en milieu de travail qui a été développé en collaboration avec l’Association paritaire pour la santé et la sécurité du travail, secteur « affaires municipales » (APSAM) et l’Association paritaire pour la santé et la sécurité du travail, secteur « affaires sociales » (ASSTSAS).
Ce projet vise les trois objectifs suivants :
- Aider les travailleurs à reconnaître plusieurs formes de violence verbale et physique au travail.
- Sensibiliser les travailleurs à l’importance de parler avec leurs collègues et leurs proches des actes de violence dont ils ont été victimes ou témoins dans leur milieu de travail.
- Augmenter la probabilité que les travailleurs déclarent ces actes de violence à leur employeur.
Selon un sondage réalisé auprès de 2889 travailleurs québécois en 2012, 67 % d’entre eux ont déclaré avoir été victimes ou témoins de différents types de violence au travail.

Source: http://www.equipevisage.ca/lancement-de-loutil-web-de-sensibilisation-a-la-violence-au-travail/

Reprise de l'intensification du travail chez les salariés

Entre 2005 et 2013, pour les salariés de France métropolitaine, les changements organisationnels ont repris et les contraintes de rythme de travail se sont accrues, après la relative stabilisation enregistrée entre 1998 et 2005. Cette intensification a été plus marquée dans la fonction publique que dans le secteur privé. L'usage de l'informatique dans le travail poursuit sa progression à un rythme rapide. D'ailleurs, le contrôle ou suivi informatisé du travail est la contrainte de rythme qui s'est le plus diffusée.
Sur la même période, les marges de manœuvre tendent à se réduire pour toutes les catégories socioprofessionnelles, sauf pour les ouvriers non qualifiés. Les salariés signalent des possibilités de coopération plus importantes avec leurs collègues ou leur hiérarchie, ce qui est susceptible d'atténuer les effets de l'intensification. Néanmoins les tensions sont plus fréquentes avec les collègues ou les clients et usagers. De même, les salariés sont plus nombreux à vivre au travail des situations exigeantes sur le plan émotionnel (être en contact avec des personnes en situation de détresse, devoir calmer des gens).

Source: http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/2014-049.pdf

Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke Among Workers Aged <55 Years

United States, 2008–2012
Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008–2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged <55 years by selected characteristics, employment status, occupation category, and industry of employment. The results of that analysis showed that 1.9% of employed adults aged <55 years reported a history of CHD/stroke, compared with 2.5% of unemployed adults looking for work, and 6.3% of adults not in the labor force (e.g., unemployed adults who stopped looking for work, homemakers, students, retired persons, and disabled persons). Workers employed in service and blue collar occupations were more likely than those in white collar occupations to report a history of CHD/stroke. Two industry groups also had significantly higher adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for CHD/stroke: Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services and Accommodation and Food Service. Workers in these occupation and industry groups might especially benefit from a Total Worker Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6330a1.htm?s_cid=mm6330a1_w

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives