2014-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Preventing workplace violence

The Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), in collaboration with Recherche sur les interrelations personnelles, organisationnelles et sociales du travail (or RIPOST, a research group on personal, organizational and social interrelations at work), is launching a Web site that offers a practical, proven process for sustainably preventing workplace violence in all types of organizations.
Based on the advancement of knowledge resulting from ten years of research on violence prevention, this site proposes a five-step process:
1. Securing a commitment from the workplace;
2. Identifying the risk factors;
3. Developing an action plan;
4. Implementing and monitoring the prevention measures;
5. Evaluating the effects.
It provides possible courses of action, suggestions, tips, and downloadable tools for implementing measures or improving those already in place to ensure more effective violence prevention among people within a given organization. The information on the site allows the process to be adapted to any company’s size and activity sector and to the presence or absence of a union.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/prevention-violence/en/process.html

Short rest periods between work shifts predict sleep and health problems in nurses at 1-year follow-up

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the number of work shifts separated by less than 11 hours (quick returns) at baseline (T1) could predict health problems in nurses at 1-year follow-up (T2).
METHODS: 1224 nurses responded to a questionnaire-based survey in 2009 (T1) and 2010 (T2). Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were completed to assess the association between annual number of quick returns at T1 and the following outcome variables at T2: shift work disorder (SWD), excessive sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), pathological fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), while controlling for age, gender, the corresponding outcome variable at T1, number of night shifts at T1, change in number of quick returns and number of night shifts from T1 to T2.
RESULTS: The adjusted analyses showed that the annual number of quick returns at T1 predicted the occurrence of SWD (OR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01) and pathological fatigue (OR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01) at T2. A decreased number of quick returns from T1 to T2 entailed a reduced risk of pathological fatigue (OR=0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.99) at T2. There was no association between quick returns at T1 and excessive sleepiness, anxiety or depression at T2 in the adjusted analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first longitudinal study investigating the associations between quick returns and future health problems. Quick returns increased the risk of SWD and pathological fatigue at 1-year follow-up. Reducing the number of quick returns from 1 year to the next was related to reduced risk of developing pathological fatigue.

Source : Flo E, Pallesen S, Moen BE, Waage S, Bjorvatn B. Occup Environ Med. 2014.  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-102007

Workplace violence and depressive symptomatology among police officer

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of depression in police officer is higher than in the general population. Police officers are often exposed to work place violence, long time work, shift work and other pcychosocial stressers. This study was conducted to evaluate the occupational factors associated with depressive symptomatology in police officer.
METHOD: The study sample was 7476 police officers. A structured questionnaire was used to assess exposures to violence, shift working with jobs, health behaviours and sociodemographic factors. Subjects with depressive symptomatology was who experienced depressive symptom for continuously for more than 2 weeks within last 1year. And chronic work place violence exposed subjects was who experienced threat or complaint from work related people more than 4 times per week.
RESULTS: Prevalence of depressive symptom among subjects was 35.5% (n = 2622) and higher in subjects exposed to chronic violence. After adjusting covariates, the odds ratio of depression was 2.01 (95% CI; 1.80-2.25) for chronic work place violence exposed subjects (n = 2005, 27.11%), 1.20 (95% CI; 1.02-1.41) for shift working subjects (n = 6270, 85.68%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the association workplace violence exposure between depressive symptomatology. Further study with more detailed work place violence exposure classification and measurement is need to confirm the association workplace violence and depressive symptomatology.

Source: Gil Lee S, Kim I, Kim D. Occup. Environ. Med. 2014; 71(Suppl 1): A76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.237

Impact evaluation of a farm safety awareness workshop in New Zealand

OBJECTIVE: Farming is a hazardous occupation, with high rates of injury and death. FarmSafe, a whole-country approach, sought to address work-related injury on New Zealand sheep, beef, and dairy farms. More than 10 000 farmers participated in 630 workshops held over two years. This short communication presents the results of an impact evaluation of the FarmSafe Awareness Workshop (FSAW) in its first two years of operation.
METHODS: All FSAW participants completed, and received credit for, formal educational assessments. Pass rates were used to assess safety knowledge, and a quasi-experimental design with intervention and comparison groups was applied to assess attitudes, safety behaviors, and environmental determinants of injury.
RESULTS: An intervention (N=111) and two comparison groups (C1, N=409, and C2, N=78) completed before and after questionnaires. At follow-up, the intervention group (IG) showed a small improvement in attitudes toward safety (IG=79.3, C1=77.4; C2=77.4, P=0.035), but there were no differences between groups for personal safety practice or the safety environment of the farm. However, if a respondent registered their interest in the workshop, but a different person from the same farm attended, there was some improvement in the safety of the farm environment score.
CONCLUSION: Well-conducted safety training tailored to farmers was still not enough to change safety practice. Future interventions may be more likely to achieve progress if they are comprehensive, include environmental and enforcement features, and target more than one participant per farm.

Source: Morgaine KC, Langley JD, McGee RO, Gray AR. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3446

Adverse conditions at the workplace are associated with increased suicide risk

OBJECTIVE : The present study addressed potential harms of a negative working environment for employed subjects. The main aim was to evaluate if adverse working conditions and job strain are related to an increase in suicide mortality.
METHODS : The study population consisted of 6,817 participants drawn from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg, Germany, surveys conducted in 1984-1995, being employed at baseline examination and followed up on average for 12.6 years. Adverse working conditions were assessed by an instrument of 16 items about chronobiological, physical and psychosocial conditions at the workplace, job strain was assessed as defined by Karasek. Suicide risks were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for suicide-related risk factors.
RESULTS : A number of 28 suicide cases were observed within follow-up. High levels of adversity in chronobiological/physical working conditions significantly increased the risk for suicide mortality (HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.43-7.54) compared to low/intermediate levels in a model adjusted for age, sex and survey (p value 0.005). Additional adjustment for living alone, low educational level, smoking, high alcohol consumption, obesity and depressed mood attenuated this effect (HR 2.73) but significance remained (p value 0.022). Adverse psychosocial working conditions and job strain, in contrast, had no impact on subsequent suicide mortality risk (p values > 0.200).
CONCLUSIONS : A negative working environment concerning chronobiological or physical conditions at the workplace had an unfavourable impact on suicide mortality risk, even after controlling for relevant suicide-related risk factors. Employer interventions aimed to improve workplace conditions might be considered as a suitable means to prevent suicides among employees.

Source: Baumert J, Schneider B, Lukaschek K, Emeny RT, Meisinger C, Erazo N, Dragano N, Ladwig KH. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.06.007 

The impact of the economic crisis on occupational injuries

INTRODUCTION: The potential influence of the current economic crisis on occupational accident rates and accident severity is studied in an analysis of all workplace accidents that occurred in Spain throughout the period 2000-2009. METHOD AND RESULTS: The investigation confirms that occupational accidents in Spain are affected by the current economic crisis, which has provoked a sharp fall in both the number of accidents and the probability of having one. This may be justified by certain factors such as age, gender, length of service, size of the firm, and the employment stability of the injured worker. The influence of these factors is analyzed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The economic crises seems to provoke a sort of "natural selection" in the labor market and only the best adapted tend to remain (older workers, with more experience, a higher percentage of women, more workers in larger companies and permanent contracts), all of which means that the probability of workers having an injury is considerably reduced.

Source: de la Fuente VS, López MA, González IF, Alcántara OJ, Ritzel DO. J. Saf. Res. 2014; 48: 77-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.12.007

Job strain and depressive symptoms in men and women

A prospective study of the working population in Sweden
BACKGROUND: Several prospective studies have indicated increased risk of developing depressive symptoms in employees who report psychologically demanding and uncontrollable work (job strain). There are diverging findings regarding gender differences in this relationship. The aim was to analyse whether men and women differ with regard to the prospective relationship between adverse psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period. METHOD: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health cohort based on representative recruitment of working men and women in Sweden was used. 2731 men and 3446 women had answered questions regarding work environment and mental health in 2008 and 2010. Psychological demands, decision authority, age and income as well as depressive symptoms in 2008 were used as predictors of depressive symptoms in 2010. RESULTS: Women reported less decision authority at work and their demand level developed more unfavourably than did men's--resulting in increased job strain gap between men and women from 2008 to 2010. The relationship between demand and decision authority (and job strain) on one hand and depressive symptoms on the other hand was not statistically different in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, women reported higher levels of job strain than men. In Sweden, job strain was as strongly related to depressive symptoms among men as among women.

Source: Theorell T, Hammarström A, Gustafsson PE, Magnusson Hanson L, Janlert U, Westerlund H. J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 2014; 68(1): 78-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2012-202294

The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work

A longitudinal study among older employees
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies.
Methods: Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation was used (N=8411). Using three annual online questionnaires, we assessed the presence of seven chronic health problems, work ability (scale 0–10), and productivity at work (scale 0–10). Three linear regression generalized estimating equations were used. The time-lag model analyzed the relation of health problems with work ability and productivity at work after one year; the autoregressive model adjusted for work ability and productivity in the preceding year; and the third model assessed the relation of incidence and recovery with changes in work ability and productivity at work within the same year.
Results: Workers with health problems had lower work ability at one-year follow-up than workers without these health problems, varying from a 2.0% reduction with diabetes mellitus to a 9.5% reduction with psychological health problems relative to the overall mean (time-lag). Work ability of persons with health problems decreased slightly more during one-year follow-up than that of persons without these health problems, ranging from 1.4% with circulatory to 5.9% with psychological health problems (autoregressive). Incidence related to larger decreases in work ability, from 0.6% with diabetes mellitus to 19.0% with psychological health problems, than recovery related to changes in work ability, from a 1.8% decrease with circulatory to an 8.5% increase with psychological health problems (incidence-recovery). Only workers with musculoskeletal and psychological health problems had lower productivity at work at one-year follow-up than workers without those health problems (1.2% and 5.6%, respectively, time-lag).
Conclusions: All methodological approaches indicated that chronic health problems were associated with decreased work ability and, to a much lesser extent, lower productivity at work. The choice for a particular methodological approach considerably influenced the strength of the associations, with the incidence of health problems resulting in the largest decreases in work ability and productivity at work.

Source: Leijten FRM, van den Heuvel SG, Ybema JF, van der Beek AJ, Robroek SJW, Burdorf. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3444

Safety, Health, and Well-Being of Municipal Utility and Construction Workers

Objective: To provide a baseline description of psychosocial workplace stressors and supports along with safety, injury, health, and well-being indicators in a sample of utility and construction workers for a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health–funded Total Worker Health™ intervention study.
Methods: Survey responses and health assessments were collected from a total of 349 employees in two municipal utility departments.
Results: Participants demonstrated poor weight control and body mass index and provided reports of frequent poor health habits, injury, and pain. Although safety climate was good, less desirable levels of psychosocial workplace stressors and supports were observed. These stressors and supports were found to relate with many of the health, injury, and pain indicators.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the need for workplace interventions to promote and protect construction worker health and the importance of the psychosocial work environment.


Source: Bodner, Todd; Kraner, Mariah; Bradford, Brittany; Hammer, Leslie; Truxillo, Donald. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 7 - p 771–778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000178

Combined Effects of Shiftwork and Individual Working Time Control on Long-Term Sickness Absence

A Prospective Study of Finnish Employees
Objective: To investigate whether the effects of shiftwork on long-term sickness absence vary according to the level of individual working time control (WTC).
Methods: A representative sample of Finnish employees (1447 men and 1624 women) was combined with a register-based follow-up. A negative binomial model was used in the analysis of long-term sickness absence days. The results were adjusted for various background and work-related factors.
Results: Individual WTC decreased long-term sickness absence. The higher rate of sickness absences in shiftwork was mainly due to the lower level of WTC. Working time control decreased sickness absence equally in day work and shiftwork.
Conclusions: The negative health effects of shiftwork may be decreased by offering sufficient WTC. Establishments that use WTC as a human resource instrument may benefit from reduced absenteeism.

Source: Nätti, Jouko; Oinas, Tomi; Härmä, Mikko; Anttila, Timo; Kandolin, Irja. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 7 - p 732–738
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000176

La performance au travail ne s'amoindrit pas forcément avec l'âge

État des connaissances
"Plus on vieillit, moins on est productif". Plusieurs études tordent cette idée reçue et pointent l'absence de lien systématique entre âge et productivité. La performance est fortement liée aux conditions de travail tout au long de la carrière. L'Anact a réalisé une synthèse des principaux travaux conduits sur le sujet.
Sommes-nous « efficaces a` tout âge ? ». C'est la question posée par Volkoff, Molinie´ et Jolivet, en 2000 dans leur ouvrage éponyme. Depuis une quinzaine d'années, de nombreuses études françaises, qu'elles soient ergonomiques, épidémiologiques ou économiques, se sont intéressées aux liens entre âge et performance au travail. Leurs résultats ont remis en question l'idée communément répandue d'une baisse systématique avec l'âge de la performance au travail. Dans un contexte où l'allongement de la vie professionnelle se pose de façon aigue pour les entreprises et salariés en terme « d'adéquation entre l'évolution des capacités fonctionnelles, les conditions de travail et les performances » et à l'heure d'un nouveau plan gouvernemental en faveur du maintien en emploi des seniors, une note de synthèse fait le point sur les enseignements des travaux menés sur le sujet sous la forme d'une revue des connaissances.

Source: http://www.anact.fr/web/actualite/essentiel?p_thingIdToShow=38535642

Group Purchasing of Workplace Health Promotion Services for Small Employers

Objective: Small employers are underserved with workplace health promotion services, so we explored the potential for group purchasing of these services.
Methods: We conducted semistructured telephone interviews of member organizations serving small employers, as well as workplace health promotion vendors, in Washington State.
Results: We interviewed 22 employer organizations (chambers of commerce, trade associations, and an insurance trust) and vendors (of fitness facilities, healthy vending machines, fresh produce delivery, weight management services, and tobacco cessation quitlines). Both cautiously supported the idea of group purchasing but felt that small employers' workplace health promotion demand must increase first. Vendors providing off-site services, for example, quitline, found group purchasing more feasible than vendors providing on-site services, for example, produce delivery.
Conclusions: Employer member organizations are well-positioned to group purchase workplace health promotion services; vendors are receptive if there is potential profit.

Source: Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hammerback, Kristen R.; Hannon, Peggy A.; McDowell, Julie; Katzman, Avi; Clegg-Thorp, Catherine; Gallagher, John. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 7 - p 765–770.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000174

Health-related interventions among night shift workers

A critical review of the literature
Objectives: Associations between shift work and chronic disease have been observed, but relatively little is known about how to mitigate these adverse health effects. This critical review aimed to (i) synthesize interventions that have been implemented among shift workers to reduce the chronic health effects of shift work and (ii) provide an overall evaluation of study quality.
Methods: MeSH terms and keywords were created and used to conduct a rigorous search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for studies published on or before 13 August 2012. Study quality was assessed using a checklist adapted from Downs & Black.
Results: Of the 5053 articles retrieved, 44 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Over 2354 male and female rotating and permanent night shift workers were included, mostly from the manufacturing, healthcare, and public safety industries. Studies were grouped into four intervention types: (i) shift schedule; (ii) controlled light exposure; (iii) behavioral; and, (iv) pharmacological. Results generally support the benefits of fast-forward rotating shifts; simultaneous use of timed bright light and light-blocking glasses; and physical activity, healthy diet, and health promotion. Mixed results were observed for hypnotics. Study quality varied and numerous deficiencies were identified.
Conclusions: Except for hypnotics, several types of interventions reviewed had positive overall effects on chronic disease outcomes. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies with respect to study sample, interventions, and outcomes. There is a need for further high-quality, workplace-based prevention research conducted among shift workers.

Source: Sarah E Neil, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers, Carolyn C Gotay. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3445

TUC launches its first guide to autism in the workplace

Autism is a term covering a wide range of conditions that reflect neurological differences among people. It can cause social barriers which may affect the lives of people with autism at work. There are about 332,600 people of working age in the UK with autism. However, only 15 per cent of adults with autism are in full-time employment and only 9 per cent are in part-time work.
Autism in the workplace, written for the TUC by Janine Booth, aims to inform union reps and workers of the facts around the condition, and advice on how to support autistic staff to ensure they get the adjustments they may need – and are legally entitled to.
The guide explains the difficulties autistic people can face at work, and suggests a number of changes that an employer can implement to make the workplace more autism-friendly.

Source: http://www.tuc.org.uk/equality-issues/disability-issues/tuc-launches-its-first-guide-autism-workplace

Travail indépendant

Santé et conditions de travail
Ce document rassemble quatorze contributions présentées lors d'un colloque international intitulé « Travail indépendant : santé et conditions de travail » qui s'est tenu le 18 septembre 2013 à Paris. Cette manifestation s'inscrivait dans la suite de recherches récentes renouvelant l'approche du travail indépendant par l'ouverture à de nouvelles questions. L'exploration plus systématique des conditions de l'exercice professionnel de ces travailleurs et l'examen de leur santé sont deux de ces thématiques émergentes que le colloque souhaitait approfondir. Chercheur-e-s, responsables d'études, doctorant-e-s et tout professionnel concerné par la question, étaient donc invités à présenter leurs travaux et à confronter leurs résultats. Les sociologues ont largement répondu à l'appel et une grande partie des textes présentés se réclament donc de cette discipline. S'y ajoutent heureusement les contributions venant de l'épidémiologie, de la statistique, de la santé publique et de la psychologie.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/rapport-de-recherche/travail-independant-sante-et-conditions-de-travail-actes-du-colloque-du-18-septembre-2013

The Business Case for Managing Road Risk at Work

ETSC's latest PRAISE report gives an overview of the business case for employers to invest in a Work-Related Road Risk Management (WRRRM) programme. It finds that the financial and other benefits of such a programme could outweigh the costs of implementation.
The other benefits such as increasing efficiency in organisational management and administration are also detailed.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/news/the-business-case-for-managing-road-risk-at-work

Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI)

Cette fiche donne des renseignements pratiques sur le Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) qui permet d'évaluer le syndrome d'épuisement professionnel (burnout) : objectifs, cadre d'utilisation, modalités de réponse et cotation, qualités psychométriques.

Source: http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.FRPS 38

Sur le fil

Ce numéro de la revue PISTES pose un regard particulier sur la santé au travail de ceux et celles qui œuvrent dans le secteur de la santé, parfois à la limite du déséquilibre. Lorsque l'équilibre est rompu, le regard se porte ultimement sur la problématique des suicides professionnels, cette fois en agriculture. Toutefois, l'action sur les conditions d'exercice du travail ainsi que le soutien au développement des personnes peuvent contribuer à la reconstruction d'un certain équilibre. Deux contributions s'intéressent aux dimensions stratégique et pédagogique  de l'intervention ergonomique et au développement professionnel comme leviers d'action possibles.

Source: Pistes, 2014, vol. 16, numéro 3.
http://pistes.revues.org/3625

Latino migrant farmworker student development of safety instructional videos for peer education

The purpose of this community-based study was to test effectiveness of a peer-education safety education program that included student-produced videos and photovoice, nested in a 7-week summer Migrant Education Program. The second aim was to evaluate psychometrics of an adapted safety survey from Westaby and Lee used to evaluate changes in safety knowledge and attitudes. This was a one-group pre/post design intervention study. The convenience sample was Latino migrant students (N = 117, middle school [grades 6-8, n = 37], lower school [grades 3-5, n = 80]), with data collected at baseline and post-intervention. Participants were male n = 59, female n = 58. Nine student safety videos were created by the middle schoolers who presented safety to the lower school. There were no statistically significant results comparing pre/post median subscale scores but results showed increased safety knowledge and there was a slight increase in injury experience. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests split for middle versus lower school showed statistical difference in middle school students over lower school students (P =.054) in safety knowledge. Kruskal Wallis analysis by gender showed statistical differences in medians in safety consciousness (χ(2) = 5.949, df 1, P =.015); dangerous risk-taking (χ(2) = 5.409, df 1, P =.020). There were positive significant associations between age and dangerous risk taking participation; safety consciousness and dangerous risk taking; safety knowledge with safety activity participation; and safety activities with safety consciousness. Survey showed 0.69% random missing data. Cronbach's alphas ranged.689-.863. Future research needs to review lessons learned and replication with larger samples.

Source: Kilanowski JF. J. Agromed. 2014; 19(2): 150-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2014.894484

Factors in the design of order picking systems that influence manual handling practices

Order picking can be defined as the retrieval of stock keeping units from a warehouse according to a pick list generated from a customer order prior to the despatch of the completed order to the customer.
There is a variety of order picking systems that are used in warehouses and distribution centres and the choice of system will determine the amount and type of manual handling that occurs within those locations. In order to understand the factors that influence the design of order picking systems a literature review was undertaken and telephone interviews were conducted with six industry stakeholders. The stakeholders included were two retailers with distribution networks operating across the UK, two specifiers who design order picking systems of different types and complexity for the end users, and two major suppliers of order picking systems.
The factors that influence the amount of manual handling within warehouses and distribution centres are complex and inter-locking. The key factor is the design of the order picking system, particularly how much automation is used and whether pickers travel between pick slots or whether items are automatically delivered to them. It also depends on the nature of the goods that the warehouse handles. There are financial trade-offs between high capital costs of automated systems, and increased labour costs in manual systems.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1004.htm

Precarious employment and the risk of serious psychological distress

A population-based cohort study in Japan
Objectives: This study examines whether precarious employment increases the risk of serious psychological distress (SPD) in a nationally representative cohort of Japanese middle-aged people.
Methods: From 2005–2009, we followed 8486 male and 6736 female participants (aged 50–59 years) in the Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Elderly Persons. All individuals were employed and free of SPD, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. The participants were classified into two groups based on their baseline employment contract: precarious and full-time permanent work. SPD was assessed at each year during the study, using the K6 scale, a self-rated 6-item scale that screens for mood or anxiety disorders. We used discrete-time survival analysis, with a complementary log-log link, to examine the effect of precarious employment on SPD incidence.
Results: During a maximum follow-up period of four years, 374 men and 364 women developed SPD. Male precarious employees were more likely to develop SPD than male full-time permanent employees (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.51) in the full model, after adjusting for sociodemographic and occupational factors, cardiovascular disease risk, and K6 scores at baseline. By contrast, no significant association was observed among female employees. However, an analysis stratified by marital status revealed an association similar to that found among men but only among unmarried women.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that precarious employment is associated with double the risk of SPD incidence among middle-aged Japanese men and – when stratified by marital status – among unmarried women. This highlights a major gender difference in the association between precarious employment and risk of SPD.

Source: Kachi Y, Otsuka T, Kawada T. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3442

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives