2014-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Contingent workers

Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations
The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

Source: Foley M, Ruser J, Shor G, Shuford H, Sygnatur E. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22302
 

La conciliation des temps, une question à plusieurs dimensions

Longtemps réduite à l'équation vie professionnelle-vie familiale, la question de la conciliation des temps appelle une vision plus systémique, prenant en compte les dimensions temporelles liées à l'entreprise, à ses marchés, à ses salariés et aux territoires. C'est le « compromis temporel », une grille de lecture à plusieurs dimensions élaborée par l'Anact. Découvrez ce nouveau numéro qui met le projecteur sur le sujet phare de la Semaine pour la qualité de vie au travail 2014.

Source: Travail & Changement, numéro 355, mai-juin 2014. 
http://www.anact.fr/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/15264381.PDF

General self-efficacy and the effect of hospital workplace violence on doctors' stress and job satisfaction in China

OBJECTIVES: This study aims at exploring associations of general self-efficacy (GSE), workplace violence and doctors' work-related attitudes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study a cross-sectional survey design was applied. Questionnaires were administrated to 758 doctors working in 9 hospitals of Zhengzhou, Henan province, China, between June and October 2010. General information on age, gender, and years of working was collected, and the doctors' experience and witnessing workplace violence, job satisfaction, job initiative, occupational stress as well as GSE were measured. General linear regression analysis was performed in association analyses.
RESULTS: Both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence were significantly positively correlated with the level of occupational stress but significantly negatively correlated with job satisfaction, job initiative, and GSE. General self-efficacy significantly modified relationships between both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence with occupational stress (β = 0.49 for experiencing violence; β = 0.43 for witnessing violence; p < 0.001) and with job satisfaction (β = -0.35 and -0.34, respectively; p < 0.05). However, it did not modify the relationships between both experiencing and witnessing workplace violence with job initiative (p > 0.05). The levels of occupational stress declined significantly with the increase of GSE, while job satisfaction increased significantly along with its increase. The effects of GSE on occupational stress and job satisfaction weakened as the frequency of violence increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that GSE can modify effects of workplace violence on health care workers' stress and job satisfaction. Enhancing GSE in combination with stress reduction may lead to facilitating health care workers' recovery from workplace violence, and thereby improving their work-related attitudes.

Source: Yao Y, Wang W, Wang F, Yao W. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13382-014-0255-y

Le syndrome d'épuisement, une maladie professionnelle

Cette étude à la fois qualitative, quantitative et assise sur l'examen de la littérature académique en la matière n'a évidemment pas l'ambition d'un travail de recherche fondamentale. Elle est
toutefois le fruit d'un travail collectif pluridisciplinaire approfondi et rigoureux entre médecin du travail, psychologue clinicien, psychologue du travail, statisticien et spécialiste de l'organisation
du travail. Par ailleurs, la variété des entreprises dans lesquelles intervient Technologia ainsi que la multiplicité des métiers et des catégories socio professionnelles que les consultants rencontrent quotidiennement ont permis de forger au fil du temps un certain nombre d'observations et d'hypothèses que cette étude cherche à valider dans le but de dégager un premier modèle de processus du syndrome d'épuisement professionnel.

Source: http://www.technologia.fr/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/BurnOutVersiondef.pdf

Les rythmes de travail en 2010

Les rythmes et modes d'organisation du travail ont beaucoup évolué au cours de ces dernières décennies : augmentation du travail le week-end, accroissement de l'irrégularité et de l'imprévisibilité des horaires et réduction des temps de travail. Le semainier de la dernière enquête Emploi du temps de l'Insee permet de dresser finement un état des lieux des horaires de travail en France en 2010. Une première typologie distingue huit types de journées travaillées : standards, longues, demi-journées, décalées vers le matin, décalées vers l'après-midi ou la soirée, décalées vers la nuit, fragmentées, courtes. Une seconde typologie dégage neuf types de semaines de travail, les huit premières étant dominées chacune par l'un des types de journées identifiés, la dernière étant caractérisée par de nombreux jours de repos.
Un peu moins de la moitié des personnes travaillent selon une semaine « standard ». Elles travaillent du lundi au vendredi selon des journées essentiellement « standards », de 8h20 à 17h30 sur une durée de huit heures en moyenne, et rarement le week-end. Ce type de semaine concerne en grande partie des professions intermédiaires, aux horaires réguliers. La semaine longue concerne davantage les non-salariés et les cadres ayant une lourde charge de travail et des horaires peu prévisibles mais qu'ils maîtrisent davantage que d'autres salariés. Les semaines décalées sont plus fréquentes dans les grandes entreprises et résultent du mode d'organisation particulier qu'est l'alternance des horaires de travail (2x8, 3x8), observée le plus souvent chez les ouvriers de l'industrie et les professions intermédiaires de la santé. Les autres semaines atypiques concernent une variété de secteurs et de professions mais le plus souvent des employés peu qualifiés. C'est dans ces semaines que les salariés semblent cumuler le plus de contraintes horaires, et qu'ils déclarent le plus souvent rechercher un autre emploi.

Source: http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/DE_2014-180.pdf

Occupational health literacy and work-related injury among U.S. adolescents

Building on the concept of 'health literacy' used in the U.S., we developed an analogous measure specific to safety in the workplace labeled 'occupational health literacy' (OHL) and investigated whether OHL is a protective factor against work-related injury (WRI) among adolescents. Using cross-sectional survey data from 2262 14 to 18-year olds in five high schools across the US, we found that OHL (level of occupational safety and health (OSH) information and training received combined with knowledge and awareness of OSH information and concepts) is positively associated with WRI prevalence. This association appears to be largely driven by the OHL subscale on respondents' receipt of safety training, which likely represents job hazardousness and may be overwhelming any protective effect of OHL on work injury. This exploratory study has shown that more precise measurement of OHL and confounding variables (job hazardousness) will be crucial in further studies exploring a OHL-WRI relationship.

Source: Rauscher KJ, Myers DJ. Int. J. Inj. Control Safe. Promot. 2014; 21(1): 81-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17457300.2013.792288

Trucks driving fatalities

Data released by Safe Work Australia today in the report Work-related fatalities involving trucks, Australia 2003 to 2012 show an alarming number of Australia's truck drivers are being killed at work each year.
The report outlines target areas to help reduce truck-related fatalities, including:
•managing public road travel to reduce fatigue and using appropriate speed for the conditions
•ensuring that vehicles are braked appropriately
•increasing awareness of pedestrian workers and members of the public
•ensuring that vehicles and equipment are maintained appropriately and used correctly
•improving protection from falls for those working at heights, and
•ensuring cargo is appropriately restrained particularly during unloading operations.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/media-events/media-releases/pages/mr20052014

Et si l’absentéisme dans les centres de relations clients n’était pas une fatalité ?

Turnover et absentéisme sont très fréquents dans les centres de relations clients à distance.
L'activité et les conditions de travail y sont souvent perçues comme difficiles : travail parcellisé, impératifs de quantité et exigences de qualité difficilement conciliables, prescription forte face à une réalité complexe et imprévue etc. Pourtant, des solutions d'amélioration existent et peuvent être initiées dans le cadre d'une démarche de prévention.

Source: http://www.npdc.aract.fr/spip.php?article432

Occupational stress, bullying and resilience in old age

Our working years increasingly extend into the late 60s and may soon include the 70s for some people. Thus the question whether work stress has a cumulative effect in older age, and whether older employees are more vulnerable to certain sources of work stress, such as bullying in the work place, is becoming increasingly relevant. We review some of the mechanisms, which translate cumulative stress at work into ill health, particularly in older age, and summarise what is known about the effect of age-specific stress, taking age-related bullying as an example.

Source: Zsoldos E, Mahmood A, Ebmeier KP. Maturitas. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.04.006

Bridging the Generations

Redesigning Workplaces to Prosper From an Aging Workforce
Bridging the Generations highlights how employers and policy-makers can take steps to ensure that older workers, facing delayed retirement, don't reduce the career opportunities for younger workers who are entering a difficult job market. The report provides solutions for managing a smooth generational transition in the workplace in ways that enable workers of all ages to share their experiences and to fully contribute.

Source: http://www.grahamlowe.ca/documents/289/

Updated guidance on driving for work

Updated guidance from HSE is now available.  The new leaflet applies to any employer with employees who drive, or ride a motorcycle or bicycle at work, as well as self-employed people. It also applies to those using their own vehicle for a work-related journey. It emphasises how to follow a ‘Plan, Do, Check, Act' approach and shows examples of how this approach can be applied to work-related road safety.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/news/uk-updated-guidance-on-driving-for-work

Association Between Exposure to Work Stressors and Cognitive Performance

Objective: To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance.
Methods: Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval.
Results: The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010).
Conclusions: The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.

Source: Vuori, Marko; Akila, Ritva; Kalakoski, Virpi; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Härmä, Mikko; Puttonen, Sampsa. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 354–360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000129

Les motivations au travail sur 4 continents

Le professeur Jacques Forest, de l'École des sciences de la gestion (ESG UQAM), vient de publier, à titre de cochercheur, un article sur les motivations au travail dans le European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Intitulée « The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale : Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries », cette étude, entamée il y a sept ans, a été menée par un groupe de 20 chercheurs provenant des quatre coins de la planète. Elle démontre principalement que les motivations au travail restent inchangées, que l'on habite en Amérique (Canada), en Afrique (Sénégal), en Europe (Belgique, France, Royaume-Uni, Norvège, Suisse) ou en Asie (Indonésie, Chine). L'article déboulonne certains mythes et prouve, entre autres, que l'argent est loin d'être la motivation la plus efficace pour les travailleurs!

Source: http://www.newswire.ca/fr/story/1320311/les-motivations-au-travail-sur-4-continents-une-etude-dans-7-langues-et-9-pays-confirme-que-les-motivations-au-travail-ne-sont-pas-toutes-aussi-benefi

Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

BACKGROUND: Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects.The aim of this study was to describe farmers' pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported.
METHODS: The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration.
RESULTS: Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%).Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95%CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95%CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE. The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers' knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge-based strategies, comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce both exposure and health risks, including training, improvements in labeling, measures to reduce cost barriers to the adoption of safe behaviours, , promotion of control measures other than PPE and support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Source: Lekei EE, Ngowi AV, London L. BMC Public Health 2014; 14(1): 389.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-389

Healthy workplaces - managing stress

Stress at work is a topic that has been discussed and researched at length over the last decade and even earlier. This is not surprising, because the global world of work, just as the world in general, has changed considerably and we are constantly experiencing re-organizations, downsizing, job insecurity, increased workloads, and deteriorating work environments – all with the aim of constantly saving costs. But does this really happen? And if so, at what expense; our mental health, our physical health, early disability, increased health costs, our dignity, our social lives and work-life balance, increased competition and decreased solidarity at work or more precarious jobs? All these, and maybe even more factors are affected.

Source: African Newsletter, Vol. 24, no 1, April 2014.
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/african_newsletter/Documents/AfricanNewsletter1-2014pdf.pdf

Invisibilisation de la pénibilité au travail, mixité et rapports de genre

Conducteurs et agents commerciaux dans le secteur ferroviaire
L'article s'emploie à mettre à jour les modalités sexuées d'une reconnaissance de la pénibilité au travail à partir d'une enquête comparative réalisée auprès de deux catégories socioprofessionnelles d'une entreprise de transports (conducteurs et agents commerciaux). Il montre que l'invisibilisation des atteintes à la santé des femmes tient pour beaucoup aux mécanismes de répartition du travail entre les sexes et aux représentations sociales traditionnelles de la pénibilité au travail, souvent fondées sur une approche associant le travail considéré comme pénible aux seules activités masculines en milieu technique/industriel.

Source: Sabine Fortino, Santé au travail : regards sociologiques, 2014, no. 4.
http://nrt.revues.org/1422

Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among chinese underground coal miners

Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents). Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OC), perceived physical environment (PPE), work-family conflict (WFC), and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99). Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers' family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

Source: Liu L, Wang L, Chen J. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/987305

Travailleurs immigrants et santé et sécurité du travail

Ce numéro Travailleurs immigrants et santé et sécurité du travail (SST) veut apporter un modeste éclairage sur le cumul des précarités liées aux conditions de SST au travail, au statut migratoire, aux liens fragiles d'emploi, à la faiblesse des revenus, à la non-reconnaissance des compétences et à l'incapacité d'exercer ses droits. Les travaux de SST ici regroupés s'intéressent aux travailleurs ayant divers profils : des résidents permanents embauchés par les petites entreprises manufacturières, des travailleurs étrangers temporaires employés dans les secteurs saisonniers et des travailleurs d'agences de location de main-d'œuvre, appelés aussi des travailleurs intérimaires. Les lecteurs sont invités à poser un regard critique sur les inégalités sociales de santé chez les travailleurs immigrants engendrées par les pratiques non adaptées de SST.

Source: Pistes, 2014, vol. 16, numéro 2.
http://pistes.revues.org/3631

Workplace mental health needs a unique approach, study says

Implementing preventive measures adapted to each company's unique culture would help reduce mental health issues in the workplace, a new study has suggested.
The study, entitled Improving workplace mental health, was conducted over four years and involved 2,162 workers from 63 organizations across all sectors. Researchers examined factors such as work schedules and workload, management policies, supervision styles, marital status and family life, alcohol consumption and self-esteem, which were identified as triggers or inhibitors in the development of psychological distress, depression or burnout. After preparing a diagnosis for each company, the researchers developed intervention programs tailored to each company's working environment and culture.

Source: http://www.ohscanada.com/news/workplace-mental-health-needs-a-unique-approach-study-says/1003020818/

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