2014-03-01 12:00 - Messages

Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. METHODS: Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. RESULTS: First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P < 0.03). Third, NW with SWD had a DLMO at 20:27 ± 5.0 h, whereas healthy NW had a DLMO at 05:00 ± 3.4 h (U = 43.5; z = -2.22, P < 0.03). Finally, acute sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers.

Source: Gumenyuk V, Howard R, Roth T, Korzyukov O, Drake CL. Sleep 2014; 37(3): 545-556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.3494

Les questionnaires au travail en révèlent plus que vous ne le croyez

Les réponses que vous inscrivez dans des questionnaires psychologiques pourraient correspondre à une signature biologique distincte témoignant de votre état de santé.
De nouvelles recherches démontrent en effet une correspondance entre la perception qu'ont les travailleurs de leur propre bien-être et ce que leur corps manifeste en réalité. Il s'agit d'un enjeu de taille en santé au travail, quand on sait que le stress en milieu de travail arrive au premier rang des motifs invoqués pour les congés de maladie liés à la dépression et à l'épuisement professionnel. L'étude, qui a recruté plus de 400 travailleurs dans 35 entreprises, a été réalisée par des chercheurs de l'Université de Montréal, de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal et de l'Université McGill.

Source: http://www.nouvelles.umontreal.ca/recherche/sciences-de-la-sante/20140311-les-questionnaires-au-travail-en-revelent-plus-que-vous-ne-le-croyez.html

The distinct role of performing euthanasia on depression and suicide in veterinarians

Veterinarians are more likely to experience mood disorders and suicide than other occupational groups (Fritschi, Morrison, Shirangi & Day, 2009; Platt, Hawton, Simkin, & Mellanby, 2010). The performance of euthanasia has been implicated as contributing determinately to the prevalence of suicide risk and psychological distress in veterinarians (Bartram & Baldwin, 2008, 2010). In contrast, the application of psychological approaches would suggest a possible protective role for euthanasia administration. This paper is the first to investigate the association between euthanasia-administration frequency and depressed mood and suicide risk. A cross-sectional survey sampled 540 Australia-registered veterinarians (63.8% women), ranging in age from 23 to 74.

Source: Tran L, Crane MF, Phillips JK. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035837

Un guide pour l'accompagnement à la mise en place des plans de prévention des RPS

Le ministère français de la fonction publique met à disposition une série d'outils pour accompagner les employeurs publics dans la mise en place des plans de prévention des risques psychosociaux. L'accord-cadre relatif à la prévention des risques psychosociaux dans la fonction publique du 22 octobre 2013 impose à tout employeur public d'élaborer un plan d'évaluation et de prévention des RPS d'ici 2015. Pour les accompagner dans cette démarche, le ministère de la fonction publique a élaboré plusieurs outils.
Parmi eux, un guide méthodologique d'aide à l'identification, l'évaluation et la prévention des RPS dans la fonction publique détaille les différentes étapes à suivre pour élaborer un plan d'actions. La première partie de ce guide est consacrée au diagnostic. Celui-ci permettra d'identifier les facteurs de risques et d'évaluer les niveaux de risques. En deuxième partie, le guide expose les différentes formes de prévention : primaire, secondaire, tertiaire. Le processus d'élaboration du plan d'actions  et de choix des actions de prévention à mener est expliqué en détail, ainsi que la nécessaire évaluation a posteriori.

Source: http://www.preventica.com/actu-enbref-guide-accompagnement-plans-prevention-rps-1190314.php

Economic stress in workplace

The impact of fear of the crisis on mental health
BACKGROUND: Since 2008, a deep financial crisis, which started in the United States, has widely spread around the world. Scientists expressed their worry about this crisis by pointing out that potential negative health effects can be created by collective fear and panic.
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this cross-sectional study on the fear of the crisis has been to examine its impact on mental health through the use of structural equation modeling. In the trial a new model of economic stress we were also interested in identifying if fear of the crisis has an indirect relationship with employees' health (e.g. related to a poor social support or to work-related stress). Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether a full or a partial mediation model best fits the data.
METHODS: Data collection took place between 2010 and 2011. During this period several private organizations that comprised of 1236 employees participated in the study.
RESULTS: It was found that social support and job stress fully mediated the relationship between fear of the crisis and health, with all fit indices meeting their respective criteria, and with all path coefficients being significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Implications for discussion of the crisis among employees were presented. In conclusion, fear of the crisis appeared to be an important innovative construct for organizational wellbeing.

Source: Giorgi G, Arcangeli G, Mucci N, Cupelli V. Work 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-141844

Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization

INTRODUCTION: International research indicates that internal health and safety organizations (HSO) and health and safety committees (HSC) do not have the intended impact on companies' safety performance. The aim of this case study at an industrial plant was to test whether the HSO can improve company safety culture by creating more and better safety-related interactions both within the HSO and between HSO members and the shop-floor.
METHODS: A quasi-experimental single case study design based on action research with both quantitative and qualitative measures was used.
INTERVENTION: Based on baseline mapping of safety culture and the efficiency of the HSO three developmental processes were started aimed at the HSC, the whole HSO, and the safety representatives, respectively.
RESULTS: Results at follow-up indicated a marked improvement in HSO performance, interaction patterns concerning safety, safety culture indicators, and a changed trend in injury rates. These improvements are interpreted as cultural change because an organizational double-loop learning process leading to modification of the basic assumptions could be identified.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The study provides evidence that the HSO can improve company safety culture by focusing on safety-related interactions.

Source: Nielsen KJ. J. Saf. Res. 2014; 48: 7-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.10.003

Présentéisme

Une autre face de l'épuisement professionnel
Dépasser ses horaires en permanence, travailler le soir et le week-end, ne pas prendre ses congés, venir au travail même malade… autant de signes du présentéisme. La présence excessive au travail est un symptôme de dysfonctionnements qu'il faut apprendre à décrypter.

Source : Travail & changement, No. 353, Mars-avril 2014
http://www.anact.fr/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/14900380.PDF

The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training on flight attendants' safety attitudes

INTRODUCTION: A number of well-known incidents and accidents had led the aviation industry to introduce Crew Resource Management (CRM) training designed specifically for flight attendants, and joint (pilot and flight attendant) CRM training as a way to improve teamwork and communication. The development of these new CRM training programs during the 1990s highlighted the growing need for programs to be evaluated using research tools that had been validated for the flight attendant population. METHOD: The FSAQ (Flight Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Flight Attendants) was designed specifically to obtain safety attitude data from flight attendants working for an Asia-Pacific airline. Flight attendants volunteered to participate in a study before receiving CRM training (N=563) and again (N=526) after CRM training. RESULTS: Almost half (13) of the items from the 36-item FSAQ showed highly significant changes following CRM training. Years of experience, crew position, seniority, leadership roles, flight attendant crew size, and length of route flown were all predictive of safety attitudes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: CRM training for flight attendants is a valuable tool for increasing positive teamwork behaviors between the flight attendant and pilot sub-groups. Joint training sessions, where flight attendants and pilots work together to find solutions to in-flight emergency scenarios, provide a particularly useful strategy in breaking down communication barriers between the two sub-groups.

Source: Ford J, Henderson R, O'Hare D. J. Saf. Res. 2014; 48: 49-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.11.003

Risk of burn-out among medical staff

A study of medical staff in Belgium has found that work pressure and high levels of emotional exhaustion are having a negative impact on staff working in hospitals. Around 60% of the medical staff said they felt engaged by their work, and they appreciated support from colleagues. However, 18% of nurses and 13% of doctors said they felt at risk of ‘burn-out'. They did not single out one single aspect of their work as the cause, but said they were under pressure generally and blamed conflict over the division of labour.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2014/01/BE1401021I.htm

Physical Activity in Police Beyond Self-Report

Objective: Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report.
Purpose: To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity.
Methods: Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour.
Results: Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex.
Conclusions: Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

Source: Ramey, Sandra L. PhD, RN; Perkhounkova, Yelena PhD; Moon, Mikyung PhD, RN; Tseng, Hui-Chen PhD, RN; Wilson, Annerose MSN, RN; Hein, Maria MSW; Hood, Kristin BA; Franke, Warren D. PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 3 - p 338–343.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000108

L'analyse sexuée des chiffres-clés de la sinistralité au travail révèle d'importantes inégalités femmes-hommes

L'Anact a réalisé une analyse sexuée des chiffres de la sinistralité au travail qui met en lumière des inégalités entre les femmes et les hommes en matière de santé au travail. Constats, analyse et préconisations. L'analyse sexuée et longitudinale des données sur la sinistralité publiées par la Cnamts permet plusieurs constats :
- Si les accidents du travail baissent globalement entre 2001 et 2012, ils progressent nettement pour les femmes.
- Depuis 2001, les accidents de trajet sont en baisse pour les hommes mais en progression pour les femmes.
- Les maladies professionnelles progressent près de deux fois plus rapidement pour les femmes que pour les hommes.

Source: http://www.anact.fr/web/actualite/essentiel?p_thingIdToShow=36977640

Prévenir le risque routier professionnel

Si les chiffres de la sécurité routière sont en nette amélioration depuis plusieurs années du fait de l'engagement des pouvoirs publics, l'accident de la route reste la première cause de décès au travail.
Les entreprises ont du mal à intégrer le risque routier comme relevant du domaine de la prévention professionnelle, surtout lorsque la route n'est pas leur cœur de métier.
Le risque d'accident de trajet reste élevé et mal appréhendé par les entreprises. Il fait partie depuis 2011 des priorités des institutions de prévention dans le domaine des risques professionnels, dans un objectif de santé au travail et de développement durable.

Source: http://www.preventica.com/risque-routier-professionnel.php

Pourquoi les TIC ont amplifié le stress au travail

Alors que les nouvelles technologies de l'information devaient faciliter notre travail, elles sont devenues une source majeure de stress. Thierry Venin a conduit un important travail de recherche sur les interactions entre risques psychosociaux et TIC sur le poste de travail tertiaire. Il nous en livre les principaux enseignements.

Source: http://www.preventica.com/actu-interview-venin-agence-departementale-numerique.php

Effectiveness of a Combined Social and Physical Environmental Intervention on Presenteeism, Absenteeism, Work Performance, and Work Engagement in Office Employees

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention as well as the effectiveness of both separate interventions.
Methods: In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 412 office employees were allocated to the combined social and physical environmental intervention, to the social environmental intervention only, to the physical environmental intervention only, or were part of the control group. Data on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement were obtained with questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Multilevel analyses were performed.
Results: The combined intervention showed a decrease in contextual performance and dedication. The social environmental intervention showed an improvement in task performance. The physical environmental intervention revealed an improvement in absorption.
Conclusion: Although the study showed some promising results, it is not recommended to implement the current interventions.

Source: Coffeng, Jennifer K. MSc; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M. PhD; Duijts, Saskia F. A. PhD; Twisk, Jos W. R. PhD; van Mechelen, Willem PhD; Boot, Cécile R. L. PhD. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: March 2014 - Volume 56 - Issue 3 - p 258–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000116

 

Les risques d’exposition à la violence au travail

Une question de sexe
Dans le cadre de la Journée de la femme 2014, les chercheurs de l'équipe VISAGE (VIolence au travail selon le Sexe et le GEnre) de l'Institut présentent une revue de la littérature qui constate que les femmes sont davantage victimes d'actes de violence grave au travail que les hommes. Par contre, les victimes d'homicides sont majoritairement des hommes.
Cette différence s'explique en partie par le fait que les hommes sont beaucoup plus souvent victimes d'attaques avec une arme. En effet, ils représenteraient 93 % des victimes d'attaques avec une arme blanche et 97 % des victimes d'attaques avec une arme à feu. Les femmes seraient quant à elles plus à risque d'être victimes de voies de fait simples (84 % des victimes).

Source: http://www.iusmm.ca/actualites/risques-exposition-violence-travail-question-sexe.html

Probable PTSD and impairment in witnesses of work-related fatalities

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, steel, oil, and mining are among the nation's most dangerous industries. This study assessed probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, life functioning, and well-being in a unique sample of 89 members of the United Steelworkers who reported directly witnessing an occupational fatality. Of the sample, 25.8% reported symptoms consistent with probable PTSD, while 21.3% reported symptoms consistent with subthreshold PTSD. These two groups differed significantly from the non-PTSD group on measures of depressive symptoms, well-being, and life functioning. These findings highlight the further need for assessment and intervention for workers exposed to fatalities.

Source: Blake RA, Lating JM, Sherman MF, Kirkhart MW. J. Loss Trauma. 2014; 19(2): 189-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2013.775889

Santé mentale chez les agriculteurs

Métro, boulot, dodo. La conciliation travail-famille est dans l'air du temps. Bien réussie, elle constitue une source de bien-être et de santé. Mais peut-on aussi dire : moissonneuse-batteuse, boulot, dodo? Voyons comment une meilleure compréhension de la conciliation travail-famille chez les agriculteurs pourrait jeter un éclairage nouveau sur les défis que comporte leur réalité.

Source: http://www.qualaxia.org/sante-mentale-dossiers-thematiques/sante-mental-agriculteurs/

Mental health and work

United Kingdom
Awareness of the importance of mental health at work in the UK is among the highest in the world. However, a number of challenges remain to help people with mental health problems stay in work and facilitate their early return to work. The UK has put in place and is putting in place a number of very important reforms. It will be important to implement those reforms rigorously; to modify and strengthen the reforms that have not yet delivered and to close the remaining gaps identified in the report.
 
Source: http://www.oecd.org/els/emp/mentalhealthandwork-unitedkingdom.htm

Is Work Bad for Health?

The Role of Constraint vs Choice
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of work on health. We consider work along two dimensions: (i) the intensive margin, i.e. how many hours an  individual works and (ii) the extensive margin, i.e. whether an individual is in employment or not, independent of the number of hours worked. We show that most of the evidence on the negative health impact of work found in the literature is based on situations in which workers have essentially no control (no choice) over the amount of work they provide. In essence, what is detrimental to health is not so much work per se as much as the gap which may exist between the actual and the desired amount of work, both at the intensive and extensive margins.

Source: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7891.pdf

Personal relations at work no. 1 cause of stress

Levels of work-related stress are high among Czech workers, according to an online survey by market research company GfK. The 2013 research revealed stress had increased particularly among managers and highly-qualified workers. Despite these increases, those surveyed said employers had not introduced measures to prevent stress in the workplace. Almost half of the interviewees said worries about ‘interpersonal relationships' were a major cause of work-related stress.

Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2014/02/CZ1402019I.htm

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