2013-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Effect of safety investments on safety performance of building projects

The construction industry is increasingly reliant on the voluntary effort of contractors to reduce accidents on construction sites. This study aims to investigate the effects of contractors’ safety investments on safety performance and identify the factors influencing the effects of safety investments on safety performance. To fulfill the research aims, a regression/correlation research design was adopted. Data were collected using multiple techniques (structured interviews, archival data and questionnaires) with 47 completed building projects. Bivariate correlation and moderated regression techniques were used to analyze the data collected. The results show that the effect of basic safety investments on safety performance does not hold constant under different project conditions. Basic safety investments have a stronger positive effect on accident prevention under a higher safety culture level and a project hazard level; while the effect of basic safety investments on accident prevention might not be positive if the project hazard level and safety culture level of the project were low. The implication of the findings is that more protection and safer environment do not always produce better safety performance without the improvement of safety culture. To achieve better safety performance, contractors need to implement the interventions that synthesize physical protection with cultivation of positive safety culture. The findings of this study offer a better understanding of the theory behind the role of safety investments in accident prevention and provide the theoretical basis to support contractors’ decisions to invest in safety.

Source :
Yingbin Feng, Effect of safety investments on safety performance of building projects, Safety Science, vol. 59, Nov. 2013, p. 28-45.

The effect of external non-driving factors, payment type and waiting and queuing on fatigue in long distance trucking

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of external influences on long distance trucking, in particular, incentive-based remuneration systems and the need to wait or queue to load or unload on driver experiences of fatigue. METHODS: Long distance truck drivers (n=475) were recruited at truck rest stops on the major transport corridors within New South Wales, Australia and asked to complete a survey by self-administration or interview. The survey covered demographics, usual working arrangements, details of the last trip and safety outcomes including fatigue experiences. RESULTS: On average drivers' last trip was over 2000km and took 21.5h to complete with an additional 6h of non-driving work. Incentive payments were associated with longer working hours, greater distances driven and higher fatigue for more drivers. Drivers required to wait in queues did significantly more non-driving work and experienced fatigue more often than those who did not. Drivers who were not paid to wait did the longest trips with average weekly hours above the legal working hours limits, had the highest levels of fatigue and the highest levels of interference by work with family life. In contrast, drivers who were paid to wait did significantly less work with shorter usual hours and shorter last trips. Multivariate analysis showed that incentive-based payment and unpaid waiting in queues were significant predictors of driver fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that mandating payment of drivers for non-driving work including waiting would reduce the amount of non-driving work required for drivers and reduce weekly hours of work. In turn this would reduce driver fatigue and safety risk as well as enhancing the efficiency of the long distance road transport industry.

Source : Williamson A, Friswell R. Accid. Anal. Prev. 2013; 58C: 26-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.04.017

Do cultural dimensions predict prevalence of fatal work injuries in Europe?

Work injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet, countries differ dramatically on the prevalence of fatal work injuries (FWIs). Are these differences only a function of national economies and infrastructure or also related to entrenched cultural differences? This study tested whether the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, assessed in the 1970s, predict recent FWI in 22 European countries. We hypothesized that Power-Distance Index (PDI) and Masculinity would be positively correlated with FWI, while Individualism and Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) would be inversely correlated with FWI. We obtained the Hofstede cultural dimensions from Hofstede’s online data, and obtained data on prevalence of FWI as well as national income and alcohol consumption. Results revealed that PDI was indeed positively and significantly correlated with FWI (r = 0.611, p < .05) while Individualism was inversely significantly related to FWI (r = −0.604, p < .05), independent of national income and alcohol consumption. Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity turned out not to be significantly correlated with FWI. These results show that cultural differences between countries can independently predict future risk of FWI on an international scale. The results also have implications towards organizational management and prevention management concerning FWI. Our study indicates that self-leadership can be a powerful approach to improve occupational safety.

Source:  Genserik Reniers, Yori Gidron, Safety Science, vol. 58, 2013, p. 76-80.

Role of governments and social partners in keeping older workers in the labour market

Ce rapport examine les initiatives nationales et sectorielles adoptées par les gouvernements et les partenaires sociaux en Europe, afin de maintenir les travailleurs âgés sur le marché de l’emploi. Il se fonde essentiellement sur les contributions de 28 correspondants nationaux de l’Observatoire européen des relations industrielles (EIRO) et examine les initiatives et les mesures introduites pour améliorer les conditions de travail, la santé et le cadre de travail des travailleurs, ainsi que la formation et l’employabilité des travailleurs âgés. Ces mesures visent toutes à inciter les travailleurs à demeurer actifs plus longtemps.

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2013/23/en/1/EF1323EN.pdf
Résumé en français : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2013/231/fr/1/EF13231FR.pdf

Genre : des inégalités de santé et de conditions de travail ?

Depuis 10 ans, l'analyse des statistiques d'accidents du travail, de trajet et de maladies professionnelles montre des évolutions différenciées selon le sexe. Si en 2010, les accidents du travail des femmes représentent un tiers des 650 000 accidents du travail, leur nombre a augmenté de 23% sur la période 2000-2010, alors que le nombre d'accidents du travail des hommes a diminué de 21%. En 2009, pour la 1ère fois, les accidents de trajet des femmes dépassent ceux des hommes. En 2010, pour la 1ère fois, le nombre de maladies professionnelles déclarées des femmes dépasse celui des hommes.
Les effets du travail sur la santé des femmes et des hommes s'expliquent par des conditions de travail différentes pour les deux populations, qui proviennent de 4 facteurs : la répartition sexuée des emplois et des activités ; le cumul des activités et charges professionnelles et familiales en lien avec des horaires atypiques ; l'invisibilité des pénibilités, risques et violences dans certains emplois ; les critères de mobilité pénalisants pour les parcours. Les femmes au travail sont autant exposées à la pénibilité physique ou mentale que les hommes, mais elle est moins visible : travail en relation constante avec le public, avec des personnes en situation de détresse, travail morcelé et interrompu, isolé, travail répétitif, à la chaîne, avec des postures contraignantes, ou travail permanent sur écran.
Certains problèmes de santé au travail qui se traduisent par de l'absentéisme, du turn-over, du stress, de l'usure sont plus finement diagnostiqués et font l'objet de mesures de prévention plus pertinentes quand l'analyse a intégré les questions de genre. 

Source : http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee-statistique-publique/colloques/inegalites/pdf/chappert_presentation.pdf

Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers

Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

Source : Vitório DM, Masculo FS, Melo MO. Work 2012; 41(Suppl 1): 2831-2839. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-0531-2831


Working late: strategies to enhance productive and healthy environments for the older workforce

Aims and objectives: Working Late is a 4 year multidisciplinary research project addressing practice and policy issues associated with later life working. The project is funded by the New Dynamics of Ageing (NDA) Programme. Methods: The Working Late research adopts a mixed method research approach of focus groups, interviews, surveys, interventions and the development of a design resource to enhance health and quality of working life across the life span. Results: This paper describes findings from the surveys and physical activity interventions along with the development of the design resource which captures the needs of the older workforce. Discussion: This research unites key policy themes: the need to maintain workforce capacity and flexibility; the need to retain older people in the workforce; and the need to support active healthy ageing. Conclusion: This project brings together the policy domains of employment dynamics, work systems design and health and the outputs will inform policies and practices aiming to remove barriers to later life workforce participation, and promote the health and well-being of older workers.

Source : Haslam C, Haslam R, Clemes S, Kazi A, Duncan M, Twumasi R, Kerr L. Proc. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. Annu. Meet. 2012; 56(1): 140-143.


Contributions of ergonomics to the construction of bus drivers health and excellence in public transport and at work

This article is the product of research that analyzed the work of bus drivers of a public transportation company that is considered a benchmark reference in its field of operations, in which it strives to achieve operating excellence. Within this context, the authors sought to understand how such a company has managed to maintain a policy that is capable of reconciling quality public transport while also providing working conditions compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of its workers. Ergonomic work analysis and activity analysis were the guiding elements used in this study. Initial analyses indicate that the activity of drivers includes serving a population and providing mobility for it, which depends on driving the vehicle itself and on relationships with colleagues, users, pedestrians, drivers and others.

Source : Brunoro C, Sznelwar LI, Bolis I, Abrahão J. Work 2012; 41 Suppl 1(ePub): 30-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-0131-30

Reducing work and family conflict in teachers: a randomised controlled trial of Workplace Triple P

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a workplace parenting intervention aimed at reducing work-family conflict and improving work and family functioning in teachers. One hundred and seven teachers (who were also parents) were randomly allocated to either a Workplace Triple P intervention condition or a waitlist control condition. Analyses indicated the intervention had a positive effect on a range of occupational variables including work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, occupational stress and teaching efficacy. Intervention effects were also found for family- and personal adjustment-related variables including dysfunctional parenting styles, child behaviour, parenting efficacy, and depression and anxiety. Small to large effect sizes were obtained (Cohen's d = .34-.85), and all intervention effects were maintained at 4-month follow-up. The results indicate that a parenting intervention can reduce work-family conflict and occupational stress and improve family functioning in teachers balancing work and family. The implications for supporting teachers with family interventions delivered in the workplace are discussed.

Source :  D. M. Haslam, M.R. Sanders, K. Sofronoff .School Mental Health, June 2013, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 70-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12310-012-9091-z

Une nouvelle enquête révèle que l'insécurité de l'emploi et les restructurations sont les causes premières de stress lié au travail
  • La moitié des travailleurs européens considère que le stress lié au travail est un problème courant, et quatre personnes sur dix estiment que ce problème n'est pas correctement pris en charge par leur employeur.
  • L'insécurité de l'emploi et les restructurations apparaissent comme les causes premières de stress lié au travail.
  • Peu de gens ont connaissance des politiques et programmes d'aide aux travailleurs qui poursuivent leur carrière jusqu'à l'âge de la retraite et au-delà, bien qu'une majorité soutienne la mise en place de telles mesures.
  • Voici ce que nous révèle la 3e édition de l'enquête d'opinion paneuropéenne menée par Ipsos MORI au nom de l'Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail (EU-OSHA).

Source : https://osha.europa.eu/fr/press/press-releases/new-poll-reveals-job-insecurity-or-job-reorganisation-is-thought-to-be-the-most-common-cause-of-work-related-stress

British Columbia's Provincial Violence Prevention Curriculum

The curriculum provides employees with education and tools to prevent, defuse, and/or deal with potentially violent situations. There are eight e-learning modules in the curriculum: modules 1-7 are recommended for health care workers and module 8 is recommended for staff involved with behavioural care planning. It is also recommended that this curriculum is supplemented with site-specific information to ensure workers can apply specific violence prevention strategies at their workplace.

Source :

Evaluation du stress au travail après mesures de prévention dans une caisse de retraite

Objectif : Le stress au travail et ses répercussions sur la santé ont déjà été décrits. Toutefois, très peu de publications analysent les évolutions après la mise en place de mesures pour lutter contre ce facteur de risque psychosocial. C'est le but de cette étude. Méthodes : Deux enquêtes ont été réalisées en octobre 2009 et 2011. Le premier échantillon est composé de 150 salariés et la deuxième comporte 108 salariés. Soixante-quatorze salariés ont participé aux deux enquêtes et ont été appariés. Le personnel a été invité à participer volontairement aux deux enquêtes et a rempli trois questionnaires. Résultats : L'étude montre une stabilité concernant la santé perçue médiocre, les accidents, les hospitalisations, les arrêts-maladies, la prise de médicaments, les troubles musculo-squelettiques, la détresse psychosociale et le stress au travail. Cependant, il existe une nette diminution de l'iso-strain et une amélioration de sa composante, le soutien social. Il s'agit des résultats les plus importants de cette étude. L'iso-strain diminue surtout chez les femmes (p < 0,002) et les employés (p < 0,001). L'amélioration du soutien professionnel des supérieurs et des collègues bénéficie aux femmes et aux employés, l'amélioration du soutien émotionnel des supérieurs et des collègues profite surtout aux employés. Ces variables sont associées aux troubles psychologiques et aux troubles musculo-squelettiques. Conclusion : La nette diminution d'iso-strain et l'amélioration du soutien social constituent des résultats encourageants qui incitent à poursuivre les efforts pour combattre les facteurs de stress au travail.

Source : La Rosa-Rodriguez, E. Santé publique, vol. 25, no 1, 2013, p. 59-67. http://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2013-1-page-59.htm

Occupational Health Policy and Immigrant Workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Sector

Background Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. Methods This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies and practices in the Southeastern US. Results Worker protection in the AgFF sector is limited. Regulatory protections are generally weaker than other industrial sectors and enforcement of existing regulations is woefully inadequate. The vulnerability of the AgFF workforce is magnified by worker immigration status. Agricultural workers in particular are affected by a long history of “exceptionalism” under the law as many regulatory protections specifically exclude this workforce. Conclusions
A vulnerable workforce and high-hazard industries require regulatory protections that, at a minimum, are provided to workers in other industries. A systematic policy approach to strengthen occupational safety and health in the AgFF sector must address both immigration policy and worker protection regulations.

Source : Liebman, A. K., Wiggins, M. F., Fraser, C., Levin, J., Sidebottom, J. and Arcury, T. A. (2013), Occupational Health Policy and Immigrant Workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Sector. Am. J. Ind. Med.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22190

immigrant workers;migrant workers;farmworkers;agriculture;forestry;fishing;health policy;occupational policy;health disparities;minority health

Stressful incidents of physical violence against emergency nurses

Physical violence against nurses has become an endemic problem affecting nurses in all settings. The purpose of this study was to describe acts of physical violence against emergency nurses perceived as stressful using a qualitative descriptive design with a national sample of emergency nurses. The guiding conceptual model for the study was the Ecological Occupational Health Model of Workplace Assault. Narrative accounts of physical violence were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis method. Key findings included risks related to employee, workplace, and aggressor factors, and descriptions of physical violence. Discussion of the study findings suggests that efforts to prevent violence and promote workplace safety need to focus on designing work environments that allow for the quick egress of employees, establishing and consistently enforcing policies aimed at violence prevention, and maintaining positive working relationships with security officers. While patients with mental health or substance use complaints are deemed most likely to commit physical violence, they are not the only patients to become violent. Risk reduction efforts should target all patients and visitors.

Source : Gillespie GL, Gates DM, Berry P. Online . Stressful incidents of physical violence against emergency nurses . J. Issues Nurs. 2013; 18(1): 2.

Livre blanc sur le télétravail et les nouveaux espaces de travail. Tour de France du télétravail 2012

Le développement du télétravail et des tiers lieux participent de l'évolutions des formes d'organisation du travail et des espaces de travail. Mais leur mise en place suscite encore bien des interrogations du point de vue des entreprises : Comment gérer la mobilité croissante des employés ? Quels impacts en matière d'équilibre entre vie privée et vie professionnelle ? Quels outils pour organiser le télétravail ? Quelles solutions pour travailler entre le bureau et le domicile ? Quel rôle pour les collectivités dans l'émergence de nouveaux espaces de travail ? Quels sont ou seront leurs modèles économiques ? Quels services et usages peut-on imaginer dans ces lieux ? [...] Ce document donne un état des lieux chiffré du télétravail en 2012. Il apparaît que la France est en train de combler son retard en la matière face à d'autres pays européens précurseurs comme le Royaume Uni ou les Pays-Bas. Le recours au télétravail est moins associé à une facilité d'applications liées au métier qu'à l'évolution de la culture managériale des entreprises. Il ressort de l'enquête que deux tiers des salariés qui télétravaillent le font dans un cadre non réglementaire, seuls un tiers étant couvert par un accord au sein de leur entreprise. Ce Livre blanc pointe également les enjeux de ce mode d'organisation à la fois pour les salariés et les employeurs ainsi que des points de vigilance. L'autre partie de l'étude concerne les tiers lieux. Il s'agit de nouveaux lieux de travail « hybrides » (coworking, télécentres) à mi-chemin entre bureau et domicile, destinés à des télétravailleurs ou des travailleurs indépendants.

Source : Mazenod, Xavier de, et al.Zevillage.net (Editeur ) 2013, 51 p. http://tourdefranceduteletravail.fr/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/LivreBlanc_TourTT2012.pdf

Near Misses in High–Risk Occupations

 In this study, the authors hypothesize that safety-specific job engagement is important to prevent occupational near misses in high-risk occupations. The authors also hypothesize that safety program–focused justice perceptions and the absence of job distractions provide the workplace conditions necessary to support this engagement. Further, safety-specific job engagement mediates the prediction of occupational near misses by justice perceptions and job distractions. Results of a survey administered to 2,488 full-time employees working in the manufacturing, nuclear research and production, and mining industries provide support for the hypothesized relationships among the individual constructs and partial support for the mediation hypothesis. Through structural equation modeling, the authors found that safety-specific job engagement mediated the relationship between safety program–focused justice perceptions and near misses. Another finding was that the relationship among job distractions, safety-specific job engagement, and near misses is more complex, and a clear understanding of their relationship is subject to future investigation.

Source : Yorio, Patrick L.,  Wachter, Jan K. Near Misses in High–Risk Occupations.  Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture,  vol. 4, no 1, 2013,  p. 68-85.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpoc.21090

Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) ou Indicateur de santé perceptuelle de Nottingham (ISPN)

Ce questionnaire permet une mesure de la santé perçue en population générale ou chez des malades, en quantifiant la perception des problèmes de santé sur le plan physique, émotionnel et social.
Ce document appartient à une série publiée régulièrement dans la revue. Elle analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail.
Le dossier médico-technique TC 134 "Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail" présente cette série et propose au préventeur une méthode adaptée pour choisir l'outil d'évaluation le mieux adapté.

Source : http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.FRPS

Horaires atypiques de travail : Le point des connaissances sur ...

L'expression "horaire atypique" s'applique à tous les aménagements du temps de travail situés en dehors du cadre de la "semaine standard" (c'est-à-dire : 5 jours travaillés, du lundi au vendredi ; horaires compris entre 7h00 et 20h00 ; régularité des jours et heures travaillés ; absence de travail les jours fériés).
Les formes d'horaires atypiques les plus connues sont le travail de nuit, le travail posté et le travail de fin de semaine.
Au sommaire de cette synthèse :
- nombre de salariés, en France et en Europe, concernés par les horaires atypiques ;
- risques professionnels (effets sur les accidents du travail, sur la santé physique et sur la santé psychologique) ;
- mesures de prévention à mettre en place.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/horaires-atypiques-de-travail.html

Questionnaire d'évaluation des représentations des déterminants organisationnels et psychosociaux (QERDOPS)

Lors de l'analyse ergonomique du travail, cet outil complète les observations et verbalisations pour accéder à la réalité représentée et cerner ses liens avec les réalités prescrite et effective.
Ce document appartient à une série publiée régulièrement dans la revue. Elle analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail. Le dossier médico-technique TC 134 "Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail" présente cette série et propose au préventeur une méthode adaptée pour choisir l'outil d'évaluation le mieux adapté.

Source : http://www.rst-sante-travail.fr/rst/pages-article/ArticleRST.html?refINRS=RST.FRPS

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