2013-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Lean manufacturing

Cette brochure a pour objectif d'apporter à l'ensemble des acteurs de la prévention, ainsi qu'aux décideurs, un éclairage sur les questions que pose le lean vis-à-vis des aspects de santé et de sécurité au travail. En particulier, elle entend donner des repères pour identifier ce qui, dans une organisation de type lean, peut entraîner des situations à l'origine d'accidents, de troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) ou de risques psychosociaux (RPS).
Des pistes d'action sont également proposées pour aborder les aspects de santé et de sécurité au travail.

Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%206144

 

Santé psychologique Le présentéisme : Tour d’horizon avec Michel Vézina

Le nouveau bulletin de l'APSSAP comportera désormais une section « Tour d'horizon en six questions ». Six questions touchant un thème seront posées à un expert en la matière.

Pour le premier « Tour d'horizon », j'ai interrogé le docteur Michel Vézina, professeur à l'Université Laval et expert conseil en santé mentale au travail à l'Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ). Il a également agi à titre de chercheur responsable de l'enquête québécoise sur les conditions de travail, d'emploi et de santé et de sécurité du travail (EQCOTESST)1. Je l'ai questionné sur un thème dont on entend souvent parler… le présentéisme

Source : http://apssap.qc.ca/blogue/le-presenteisme-tour-dhorizon-avec-michel-vezina/

 

Les clés du succès : manager la santé et la sécurité au travail

Des employeurs de plus en plus nombreux choisissent aujourd'hui d'intégrer la prévention dans la gestion globale de leur entreprise en mettant en place un management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail. Cette approche peut favoriser une amélioration continue et durable de la santé et de la sécurité. Mais pour être réellement efficace, elle impose de respecter certains principes clés.

Source : http://kiosque.inrs.fr/lettre/archives/001/001_070.html

Tuteurs et formateurs en entreprise

Une publication de l'observatoire Evrest (Évolutions et Relations en Santé au Travail) apporte un éclairage sur les fonctions de tuteur et de formateur en entreprise. Environ un quart des salariés interrogés (22446 au total) ont eu dans l'année « un rôle de formateur, de tuteur », principalement parmi les cadres. L'étude montre également que la proportion de tuteurs diminue avec l'âge. En termes de conditions de travail, les tuteurs semblent dépasser souvent leurs horaires normaux de travail. Cette pression horaire accrue apparaît, d'une certaine façon, « compensée » par un plus fort sentiment de reconnaissance, et de plus nombreuses occasions d'apprendre dans le travail. Il est par ailleurs à noter qu'une recommandation de l'Assurance maladie – Risques professionnels existe sur le sujet.

Source :

http://evrest.istnf.fr/_front/Pages/article.php?art=61

http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=R%20460

Economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics intervention in a textile plant

In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts.

Source : Emile Tompa, Roman Dolinschi, Julianne Natale. Economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics intervention in a textile plant. Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 44, no 3, May 2013, p. 480–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2012.10.019

La Dares souligne le rôle important des conditions de travail dans les absences au travail

L'absentéisme est souvent perçu comme un comportement opportuniste du salarié. Or une publication récente de la DARES soutient que les variations du taux absentéisme relèvent pour beaucoup des différentes contraintes physiques et/ou mentales auxquelles les salariés peuvent être exposés.
Les enquêtes statistiques exhaustives sur l'absentéisme sont rares. L'étude "Les absences au travail des salariés pour raisons de santé : un rôle important des conditions de travail" publiée par la Direction de l'animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques (Dares) contribue à combler ce manque.

Ses auteurs dressent un panorama de l'absentéisme professionnel au regard de différents facteurs, tels que la nature du contrat de travail, l'âge et le sexe, la catégorie socioprofessionnelle ou le secteur d'activité. En soulignant que l'exposition aux contraintes physiques et psychosociales est un facteur détérminant.

Source : http://www.anact.fr/web/actualite/essentiel?p_thingIdToShow=32125604

The incidence and impact of recurrent workplace injury and disease: a cohort study of WorkSafe Victoria, Australia compensation claims

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and impact of recurrent workplace injury and disease over the period 1995-2008. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using data from the state workers' compensation system database. SETTING: State of Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 448 868 workers with an accepted workers' compensation claim between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008 were included into this study. Of them, 135 349 had at least one subsequent claim accepted for a recurrent injury or disease during this period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of initial and recurrent injury and disease claims and time lost from work for initial and recurrent injury and disease. RESULTS: Over the study period, 448 868 workers lodged 972 281 claims for discrete occurrences of work-related injury or disease. 53.4% of these claims were for recurrent injury or disease. On average, the rates of initial claims dropped by 5.6%, 95% CI (-5.8% to -5.7%) per annum, while the rates of recurrent injuries decreased by 4.1%, 95% CI (-4.2% to -0.4%). In total, workplace injury and disease resulted in 188 978 years of loss in full-time work, with 104 556 of them being for the recurrent injury. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent work-related injury and disease is associated with a substantial social and economic impact. There is an opportunity to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting secondary prevention programmes targeted at workers who have incurred an initial occupational injury or disease.

Source : Ruseckaite R, Collie A. The incidence and impact of recurrent workplace injury and disease: a cohort study of WorkSafe Victoria, Australia compensation claims. BMJ Open 2013; 3(3): 12-002396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002396

Inmates-to-staff assaults, PTSD and burnout: profiles of risk and vulnerability

Prison employees are often confronted with critical incidents and chronic stressors that may lead to trauma or burnout symptoms. However, most of the research on clinical aspects of interpersonal violence in prisons (inmates-to-staff violence, specifically) focuses either on trauma or on burnout. The purpose of the present study is (a) to examine both burnout and posttraumatic stress among prison staff and (b) to examine the influences of inmates-to-staff violent relations on posttraumatic stress in terms of risk profile to develop PTSD. A random sample of French correctional employees has completed various self-reported questionnaires assessing burnout, posttraumatic stress, and stress as well as victimization and demographic characteristics. Correctional employees demonstrated high levels of PTSD symptoms, burnout, and stress. Violent interactions with inmates lead to experienced trauma of all types (PTSD, secondary, or vicarious trauma). Results have highlighted a prison worker's profile prone to PTSD: he or she expresses high levels of emotional exhaustion, intense levels of stress, high levels of depersonalization, and high levels of intrusion, avoidance, and hyperreactivity. This study contributes to an understanding of the literature by explaining the complex association between burnout and posttraumatic stress after interpersonal violence. These findings suggest a need to support prison workers and to address inmates-to-staff relational dynamics.

Source : Boudoukha AH, Altintas E, Rusinek S, Fantini-Hauwel C, Hautekeete M. Inmates-to-staff assaults, PTSD and burnout: profiles of risk and vulnerability. J. Interpers. Violence 2013; ePub(ePub) http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260512475314

Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers

The call center industry, a burgeoning sector is characterized by unique job demands, which render it susceptible to high attrition rates and negative health concerns. This study examined the relationship between job stress from interpersonal factors, job stress from work factors, coping, inadequate sleep, and negative physical health reports among call center shift workers (n = 239), a relatively under-researched population. Inadequate sleep and job stress from interpersonal factors were associated with negative physical health outcome for the participants in this study. Further, spending longer in the call center industry was associated with negative health outcome for the shift worker participants.

Source : Anjali Rameshbabu, Diane M. Reddy, Raymond Fleming, Correlates of negative physical health in call center shift workers, Applied Ergonomics, vol.44, no 3, May 2013, p. 350-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2012.09.002

Job stress survey (JSS)

Ce document appartient à une série publiée régulièrement dans la revue. Elle analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail.
Le dossier médico-technique TC 134 "Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail" présente cette série et propose au préventeur une méthode adaptée pour choisir l'outil d'évaluation le mieux adapté.

Source : Langevin, V., Boini, S., François, M., Riou, A. Job Stress Survey (JSS). Références en santé au travail, no 132, déc. 2012. p. 93-95.
http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=FRPS%2028

Working to rule, or working safely? Part 1: A state of the art review

The paper reviews the literature from 1986 on the management of those safety rules and procedures which relate to the workplace level in organisations. It contrasts two different paradigms of how rules and their development and use are perceived and managed. The first is a top-down classical, rational approach in which rules are seen as static, comprehensive limits of freedom of choice, imposed on operators at the sharp end and violations are seen as negative behaviour to be suppressed. The second is a bottom-up constructivist view of rules as dynamic, local, situated constructions of operators as experts, where competence is seen to a great extent as the ability to adapt rules to the diversity of reality. The paper explores the research underlying and illustrating these two paradigms, drawn from psychology, sociology and ethnography, organisational studies and behavioural economics. In a separate paper following on from this review (Hale and Borys, this issue) the authors propose a framework of rule management which attempts to draw the lessons from both paradigms. It places the monitoring and adaptation of rules central to its management process.

Source : Andrew Hale, David Borys, Working to rule, or working safely? Part 1: A state of the art review, Safety Science, vol. 55, June 2013, p. 207-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.05.011.

 

Working to rule or working safely? Part 2: The management of safety rules and procedures

Part 1, the companion paper to this paper (Hale and Borys, this issue) reviews the literature from 1986 on the management of those safety rules and procedures which relate to the workplace level in organisations. It contrasts two different paradigms of how work rules and their development and use are perceived and managed. The first is a top-down classical, rational approach in which rules are seen as static, comprehensive limits of freedom of choice, imposed on operators at the sharp end and violations are seen as negative behaviour to be suppressed. The second is a bottom-up constructivist view of rules as dynamic, local, situated constructions of operators as experts, where competence is seen to a great extent as the ability to adapt rules to the diversity of reality. That paper explores the research underlying and illustrating these two paradigms. In this second paper we draw on that literature study to propose a framework of rule management which attempts to draw the lessons from both paradigms. It places the monitoring and adaptation of rules central to its management process and emphasises the need for participation of the intended rule followers in the processes of rule-making, but more importantly in keeping those rules alive and up to date in a process of regular and explicit dialogue with first-line supervision, and through them with the technical, safety and legal experts on the system functioning. The framework is proposed for testing in the field as a benchmark for good practice.

Source : Andrew Hale, David Borys, Working to rule or working safely? Part 2: The management of safety rules and procedures, Safety Science, vol. 55, June 2013, p. 222-231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.05.013

 

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