2012-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Rotating night shift work and polymorphism of genes important for the regulation of circadian rhythm

Objective People living in industrialized societies have developed specific working schedules during the day and at night, including permanent night shifts and rotating night shifts. The aim of this study was to examine the association between circadian polymorphisms and rotating night shift work.
Methods This cross-sectional study comprised 709 nurses and midwives (348 current rotating and 361 current day workers). Genetic polymorphism of selected clock genes BMAL1 (rs2279287), CLOCK (rs1801260), PER1 (rs2735611), PER2 (rs2304672), PER3 (rs10462020), CRY1 (rs8192440), CRY2 (rs10838527, rs10838527) was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays.
Results There were no differences in BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 genotypes among nurses and midwives working rotating night and day shifts. The frequency of women with rare CRY1 TT genotype was higher in the group of rotating night shift than day workers (17.0% versus 13.9%, P=0.06). Moreover, CRY1 TT genotype was associated with the total rotating shift-work duration, compared to women rarely working night shifts.
Conclusions These results suggest that CRY1 (rs8192440) polymorphism may influence the adaptation to the rotating night shift work among nurses and midwives.

Source : Reszka E, Peplonska B, Wieczorek E, Sobala W, Bukowska A, Gromadzinska J, Lie J-A, Kjuus H, Wasowicz W. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.  
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3299

Les transformations des parcours d’emploi et de travail au fil des générations

Lorsqu'on les interroge sur leur passé professionnel, les générations les plus récentes retracent des parcours moins stables que les plus anciennes. En 2006, l'expérience du chômage concernait près d'un individu sur deux pour les générations nées après 1960, alors qu'elle était beaucoup moins fréquente pour les générations antérieures dont les carrières professionnelles étaient pourtant plus longues.
Les nouvelles générations sont plus diplômées et exercent moins souvent des métiers industriels. Pour autant, le ressenti de pénibilités physiques dans le travail reste stable au sein des générations nées après 1940. Les générations les plus récentes signalent davantage que leurs aînées des difficultés liées à l'organisation du travail : leurs compétences leur semblent moins pleinement utilisées, leur travail moins reconnu et davantage exercé sous pression. Ces évolutions peuvent renvoyer aux mutations importantes de l'organisation du travail, mais aussi à une évolution du regard des salariés sur leur travail.
Les salariés ayant un parcours marqué par l'instabilité et le chômage estiment davantage que les autres travailler « sous pression » ou que leur travail est insuffisamment reconnu. Pour les hommes, précarité de l'emploi et pénibilité physique tendent à être associées.

Source : http://www.anact.fr/portal/page/portal/web/publications/NOTINMENU_affichage_document?p_thingIdToShow=25833607

Unité de soins critiques (USC) – Centres hospitaliers de soins de courte durée

Répertoire des guides planification immobilière
L'USC (soins intensifs, intermédiaires et coronariens) est un lieu géographique distinct dans un établissement où sont regroupés les patients instables ou à risque d'instabilité dus à des problématiques multiorganiques simples ou multiples, médicales ou chirurgicales. La prestation des soins critiques requiert un soutien1 humain et technique, fiable et performant. Les patients nécessitent des soins spécialisés, dispensés par des équipes qui travaillent en interdisciplinarité. Ces soins sont généralement associés à une médication complexe, à des technologies de monitorage effractif et non effractif ainsi qu'à des technologies de soutien des fonctions vitales, telles que le soutien circulatoire, ventilatoire et rénal, auxquelles s'ajoutent des interventions thérapeutiques et des examens diagnostiques. L'environnement physique doit être adapté à la nature et à l'intensité des soins prodigués, à la présence des proches, aux caractéristiques et aux besoins des patients et de leurs proches ainsi qu'aux exigences relatives aux tâches accomplies par le personnel qui travaille dans cette unité.

Source : http://publications.msss.gouv.qc.ca/acrobat/f/documentation/2011/11-610-07W.pdf

Shift work disorder: overview and diagnosis

Shift work disorder is a type of sleep disorder that occurs when an individual is unable to successfully synchronize his or her internal clock with a work schedule that requires staying awake and working when it is dark and sleeping when it is light. Approximately 10% of shift workers suffer from this disorder, which seriously impairs their ability to function. Shift work disorder is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal problems, cancer, depression, heart disease, excessive sleepiness and accidents, and decreased productivity. This report describes the prevalence, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and clinical consequences of shift work disorder to help clinicians recognize this impairing condition.

Source : Roth T. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2012; 73(3): e09.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.11073br2

Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees.
Methods: A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Results: Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers.
Conclusions: Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. Implications: A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment.

Source : Keuskamp D, Ziersch AM, Baum FE, Lamontagne AD. Aust. N. Zeal. J. Public Health. 2012; 36(2): 116-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00780.x

Interaction entre la gestion des ressources humaines et la SST

L'enseignement aux futurs gestionnaires
Plusieurs disciplines, dont l'ergonomie, la médecine, la toxicologie, l'andragogie et bien d'autres, ont contribué à l'avancement des connaissances en santé et sécurité au travail (SST). Malgré les avancées scientifiques, un défi demeure, celui de développer les habiletés des gestionnaires et de sensibiliser ces derniers à leur rôle dans la prise en charge des mesures correctrices et préventives en matière de santé et de sécurité. Une équipe de professeurs de l'Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) a proposé de relever ce défi en constituant une banque d'études de cas destinée à l'enseignement aux futurs gestionnaires. Les cas ont été élaborés à partir d'informations obtenues lors d'entretiens menés auprès des gestionnaires des ressources humaines (GRH) et des responsables de la SST de onze entreprises. Lors des interrogatoires, l'emphase a été mise sur les situations d'interaction entre la SST et la GRH dans le cadre de la gestion de l'organisation.
Les objectifs pédagogiques visés par ce projet étaient de développer les compétences des futurs gestionnaires afin qu'ils comprennent les déterminants de la SST et de la GRH, qu'ils sachent poser un diagnostic de SST et qu'ils développent des capacités d'introspection et de prospection sur l'émergence de ces problèmes. Le but était d'aider les futurs gestionnaires à créer des dynamiques favorables à une culture de la SST et à inscrire les mesures de SST dans un
processus de changements organisationnels durables.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/media/documents/PubIRSST/R-730.pdf

Risk management and workers' safety behavior control in coal mine

According to the risk management characteristics and the actual needs of safety production in coal mine, we thoroughly analyze the system of risk management method in coal mine and implement it in Geting Coal Mine. The system manages and controls the potential accident risks, hazard sources and human behavior risks. On this basis, the system of workers' safety behavior control technology in coal mine is further studied, the "three disobeying" is classified and managed, the "three disobeying" database and safety countermeasures database are established, and the application software - the system of risk management and safety countermeasures optimization in coal mine based on B/S mode is developed and applied, which uses intranet to analyze and supervise the "three disobeying", publish early-warning information, optimize management and control countermeasures; at the same time, the important prompting messages can be automatically sent to the mobile phones of relevant managers and the person in charge through public communication system in order to improve the real time capability and effectiveness of unsafe behavior control. The technological system and application software implemented in Geting Coal Mine has achieved good results.

Source : Qing-gui C, Kai L, Ye-jiao L, Qi-hua S, Jian Z. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 909-913.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.08.005

Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers

BACKGROUND: Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. METHODS: A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. RESULTS: The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. CONCLUSIONS: A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces.

Source : Menzel NN, Shrestha PP. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22038

Fifth European Working Conditions Survey

Overview report
Work plays a significant role in the lives of people, companies and society at large. Since its inception, the European Union has paid considerable attention to work, and improving working conditions is one of its key policy goals. The European Working Conditions Survey series (the ‘EWCS') aims to: Measure working conditions across European countries on a harmonised basis; analyse relationships between different aspects of working conditions; identify groups at risks and issues of concern, as well as areas of progress; monitor trends over time; and contribute to European policy development, in particular on quality of work and employment issues. At the time the fifth edition of the survey was carried out, about 216 million people were employed in the EU27 main reference area of the survey. A total of 44,000 workers from 34 European countries were interviewed in 2010 on their working and employment conditions.

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1182.htm

A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work

A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism
Background: Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption.
Methods: The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism.
Results: In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Conclusions: Individual interventions (like CBT) improve individuals' mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence.

Source : Bhui KS, Dinos S, Stansfeld SA, White PD. J. Environ. Public Health. 2012; 2012: 515874.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/515874

Retrospective cohort study of the risk of impaired glucose tolerance among shift workers

Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift working on the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Methods : This study comprised 6413 male employees (5608 daytime workers, 512 3-shift workers and 293 2-shift workers) whose work schedules remained constant during the follow-up period (mean follow-up period 9.9 years). IGT was defined as Hemoglobin A1c ≥5.9%. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of developing IGT, after making adjustments for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline. Analysis was additionally performed for a sub-cohort of 1625 workers with BMI of 20.0–25.0 kg/m2 that did not change by >2.0 kg/m2 during the follow up period.
Results : The risk of developing IGT was significantly elevated among both 3-shift workers [hazard ratio (HR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.49– 2.14] and 2-shift workers (HR 2.62, 95% CI 2.17–3.17). Significant elevations of the risk were still observed at the additional analysis on the sub-cohort (3-shift work: HR 3.55, 95% CI 2.02–6.25; 2-shift work: HR 4.86, 95% CI 2.62–9.01).
Conclusions : Both 2- and 3-shift workers were associated with a high risk factor of developing IGT compared to day workers. Moreover, 2-shift workers had a higher risk than 3-shift workers. The risk was observed even among workers whose body mass remained within the normal range.

Source : Oyama I, Kubo T, Fujino Y, Kadowaki K, Kunimoto M, Shirane K, Tabata H, Sabanai K, Nakamura T, Matsuda S. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3297

A Review of the Knowledge Base on Healthy Worksite Culture

Objective: To identify the need for worksite cultures of health, the organizational factors that support worksite cultures of health, the tools that have been used to measure worksite cultures of health, and the research needs related to healthy worksite culture.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving a sample of 500 companies representing a broad spectrum of industries and business sectors. A literature review was conducted.
Results: Similar to a culture of safety that encourages safer behaviors and enables a safer workplace, a culture of health provides a supportive work leadership with a favorable work environment and health-related policies that promote employee health and result in substantial decrease in employee health risks and medical costs.
Conclusion: Worksite policies and environments supporting a culture of health are important to helping employees adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.

Source : Aldana, Steven G. PhD; Anderson, David R. PhD, LP; Adams, Troy B. PhD; Whitmer, R. William MBA; Merrill, Ray M. PhD, MPH; George, Victoria MA, MPH; Noyce, Jerry BBA. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2012 - Volume 54 - Issue 4 - p 414–419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31824be25f

Using Social Marketing to Address Barriers and Motivators to Agricultural Safety and Health Best Practices

Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the “cons” or “costs” of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the “pros,” “benefits,” or “influencing factors” of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

Source : http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2012.658298

Working conditions in Korea

Survey highlights
The Korean service sector has grown since the first survey on working conditions was conducted in 2006. The characteristics of the labour market are similar to those of the EU labour market, although long working hours are still a major issue to be tackled, along with discrimination against women, older workers and temporary employees. The principal work-related risk factor is poor ergonomics, particularly in smaller businesses, which have poorer working environments than larger companies. The survey is modelled on Eurofound's European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS).

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1219.htm

Building a Resilient Workforce

Opportunities for the Department of Homeland Security - Workshop Summary
Every job can lead to stress for a variety of reasons. How a person responds to stress in the workplace can be determined by the workplace environment. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has raised concerns that long-term exposures to stressors may reduce individual resilience and negatively affect employee's physical and mental well-being. DHS employs a diverse staff that includes emergency responders, border patrol agents, federal airs marshals, and policy analysts.  These employees may be exposed to traumatic and disturbing information as part of their jobs. Additionally, many positions within DHS require employees to have a security clearance, which can make it difficult to seek assistance.

Source : http://iom.edu/Reports/2012/Building-a-Resilient-Workforce-Opportunities-for-the-Department-of-Homeland-Security.aspx?utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=Institute%20of%20Medicine&utm_campaign=04.09.12+Report+-+DHS+Workforce&utm_content=New%20Reports&utm_term=Non-profit

Assessing sleepiness and sleep disorders in Australian long-distance commercial vehicle drivers

Self-report versus an "at home" monitoring device
STUDY OBJECTIVES: As obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a higher risk of motor vehicle crashes, there is increasing regulatory interest in the identification of commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers with this condition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between subjective versus objective assessment of OSA in CMV drivers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: Heavy vehicle truck stops located across the road network of 2 large Australian states. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of long distance commercial vehicle drivers (n = 517). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Drivers were interviewed regarding their driving experience, personal health, shift schedules, payments, and various questions on sleep and tiredness in order to describe their sleep health across a range of variables. In addition, home recordings using a flow monitor were used during one night of sleep. Only 4.4% of drivers reported a previous diagnosis of sleep apnea, while our at home diagnostic test found a further 41% of long-distance heavy vehicle drivers likely to have sleep apnea. The multivariable apnea prediction index, based on self-report measures, showed poor agreement with the home-monitor detected sleep apnea (AUC 0.58, 95%CI = 0.49-0.62), and only 12% of drivers reported daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 10). Thirty-six percent of drivers were overweight and a further 50% obese; 49% of drivers were cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnea remains a significant and unrecognized problem in CMV drivers, who we found to have multiple health risks. Objective testing for this sleep disorder needs to be considered, as symptom reports and self-identification appear insufficient to accurately identify those at risk. CITATION: Sharwood LN; Elkington J; Stevenson M; Grunstein RR; Meuleners L; Ivers RQ; Haworth N; Norton R; Wong KK. Assessing sleepiness and sleep disorders in Australian long-distance commercial vehicle drivers: self-report versus an "at home" monitoring device.

Source : Sharwood LN, Elkington J, Stevenson M, Grunstein RR, Meuleners L, Ivers RQ, Haworth N, Norton R, Wong KK. Sleep 2012; 35(4): 469-475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1726

Effects of a Comprehensive Police Suicide Prevention Program

Background: Police suicides are an important problem, and many police forces have high rates. Montreal police suicide rates were slightly higher than other Quebec police rates in the 11 years before the program began (30.5/100,000 per year vs. 26.0/100,000). Aims: To evaluate Together for Life, a suicide prevention program for the Montreal police. Methods: All 4,178 members of the Montreal police participated. The program involved training for all officers, supervisors, and union representatives as well as establishing a volunteer helpline and a publicity campaign. Outcome measures included suicide rates, pre-post assessments of learning, focus groups, interviews, and follow-up of supervisors. Results: In the 12 years since the program began the suicide rate decreased by 79% (6.4/100,000), while other Quebec police rates had a nonsignificant (11%) increase (29.0/100,000). Also, knowledge increased, supervisors engaged in effective interventions, and the activities were highly appreciated. Limitations: Possibly some unidentified factors unrelated to the program could have influenced the observed changes. Conclusions: The decrease in suicides appears to be related to this program since suicide rates for comparable populations did not decrease and there were no major changes in functioning, training, or recruitment to explain the differences. Comprehensive suicide prevention programs tailored to the work environment may significantly impact suicide rates.

Source : Mishara BL, Martin N. Crisis, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000125

Utility optimization strategy of safety management capability of coal mine

A case study of JCIA
This article describes optimization strategy of SMCCM from perspective of utility of coal miner with the method of empirical research. Four elements of SMCCM are put forward which consist of "employee safety knowledge", "equipment safety knowledge", "environment safety knowledge" and "rule safety knowledge". Eight elements of utility are put forward which consist of "benefit satisfaction", "promotion satisfaction", "job satisfaction", "enterprise satisfaction", "management satisfaction", "colleague satisfaction", "relationship satisfaction" and "communication satisfaction". Then hypotheses of influence path between SMCCM and utility are proposed. JCIA is chosen as the sample to carry out survey, which questionnaire is designed based on the likert six-point scale to avoid the middle tendency of the test samples. Data analysis is done from following angles: analysis of the structure and utility of test samples, variables analysis of SMCCM and utility, model analysis of interaction between SMCCM and utility. And then results are obtained from the analysis of elements of SMCCM and elements of utility. Conclusions: first, "rule safety knowledge" should be strengthened above all; second, "job satisfaction" should be paid more attention to; third, coal miner's benefit should be concerned specially.

Source : Liu T, Wang Z, Li W, Li Z. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 684-688.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.08.051

Status and future tasks of coal mining safety in China

In general, contexts of coal mining safety involve technology, administration and socioeconomic environment as well. This paper presents statistical analysis of China coal mine accidents in recent years and analyzes the reasons causing coal mining high risk from technical and socioeconomic viewpoints. Social and economic reform has been unleashing social, economical factors that are driving a fundamental transformation of new workplace safety problems and making China coal mining safety take on Chinese features. Compared with major state-owned and local state-owned coalmines, township and village coalmines are most dangerous coal mines with highest occupational risks. The incidence and death toll of ceiling accidents are higher than those of accidents such as gas, machinery, electricity, transportation, flood, and fire. New organizational risks appeared with rapid development of state-owned coal mines' reorganization. Low skilled labors restrict both technical renovation and safety management. The Government has adopted a systematic arrangement to improve coal mining safety such as closing the township and village coalmines that cannot meet the standard of safety, reinforcing the supervision over coal mining safety, strengthening technological renovation and enhancing work safety input.

Source : He X, Song L. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 894-898.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.08.012

Work-related injury and ill-health among mountain instructors in the UK

In most industrialised countries, work-related injury and ill-health presents a major burden to society. Musculoskeletal disorders and stress are the most common reported illness types with those working in some industries more at risk than others. This study aimed to understand the occupational health issues of those working as mountain instructors in the outdoor sector within the UK and to identify the cultural norms and behaviours among this unique occupational group which influence health. Semi-structured, telephone interviews were conducted with 20 qualified mountaineers to gain information on work-related injury and ill-health. The majority of interviewees reported a current work-related musculoskeletal problem. Key factors were identified which prevented effective rehabilitation, including; a 'macho' attitude among young instructors, self-imposed extended working hours/days and mismanagement of injuries. Self-employed instructors reported that sick leave after a minor injury or illness was not financially viable. Work-related issues leading to stress were also reported.

Source : McDermott H, Munir F. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 1104-1111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.014

The influence of supervisor leadership practices and perceived group safety climate on employee safety performance

The current study investigates the influence of the leadership practices of first-line supervisors on the safety compliance and safety participation of the employees who work for them. Contingent reward and transformational leadership are examined under conditions of positive and non-positive group safety climate in both the manufacturing and constructions sectors. Using moderated regression models (Aguinis, 2004) results indicate that greater levels of transformational and contingent reward leadership are both associated with greater levels of safety compliance and safety participation behavior, however group safety climate moderates the leadership-safety compliance relationships. Under positive group safety climate conditions employee safety compliance behavior improves as supervisor's leadership practices increase; under non-positive group safety compliance conditions there is no improvement in safety compliance with improvements in supervisor's leadership practices. The results provide further support to the growing literature on the value of strong group safety climates for improving safety compliance behavior, as well as the value in improving the leadership practices of first-line supervisors.

Source : Kapp EA. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 1119-1124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.011

A framework for learning from incidents in the workplace

Learning from Incidents (LFI) in the workplace has been gaining increasing importance in the Health, Safety and Environment context. Although organisations adopt a variety of LFI initiatives, it is often unclear what learning approaches are the most appropriate and the most effective for different types of incidents across a range of contexts. The aim of the paper is to surface factors that are important for effective Learning from Incidents (LFI). The paper builds on a conceptual framework for learning from incidents, developed through an earlier study. This conceptual framework was validated through empirical data collected at two multinational corporations in the energy sector. From this data a refined framework for learning from incidents was devised with five factors important for LFI: participants of learning, type of incidents, learning process, type of knowledge and learning context. This framework can be used as an evaluation tool and as a guidance tool to develop holistic, organisational learning approaches.

Source : Lukic D, Littlejohn A, Margaryan A. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 950-957.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.12.032

New recruit safety expectations

Relationships with trust and perceived job risk
Very little research has examined the safety expectations of new recruits, particularly those of individuals about to enter full-time work for the first time. There is evidence that new recruits have proportionally more accidents in the first period of their employment. One possible explanation for this is that the safety expectations of new recruits do not match the reality of the workplace they are about to enter. In Study 1 data on workplace safety expectations were collected from 142 final year high school students from six schools. Study 2 collected data from 40 organizations on the safety expectations of a new recruit and compared it with safety expectation data from a manager of the job they were entering. Both studies found that new recruit safety expectations were significantly correlated with ratings of safety specific trust in co-workers and management. Study 2 found that new recruits safety expectation scores were significantly higher than those given by managers. The results suggest that organizations need to develop a clear safety-specific psychological contract with new recruits.

Source : Burt CDB, Williams S, Wallis D. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(4): 1079-1084.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.019

Is it possible to influence safety in the building sector?

A literature review extending from 1980 until the present
The available literature on construction safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety management systems do not work, or are limited, the business processes executed are fragmentary, it is not clear who is responsible for safety and parties lower in the construction hierarchy tend to be saddled with the consequences. Safety detracts from the primary production process and is seen as a bureaucratic burden. But there are some positive developments as well. Lists of prevalent accident scenarios and central events are available and information is published on barrier failures. What is missing is a reliable exposure gauge of the relative importance of scenarios and the identification of pivotal events. The more clearly the cause-effect chains of accident processes can be recorded, the more specific the measures, solutions and interventions can be when it comes to avoiding or reducing the effects of accident scenarios. Audit methods have also been developed, such as the Safety Index, which can be used to not only negatively but also positively assess safety. Finally an approach that can best be described as 'frappez toujours' seems to yield noticeable results. In such cases it does not really matter what safety intitatives are taken. Simply highlighting the issue is a factor that can, in itself, have an effect.

Source : Swuste P, Frijters A, Guldenmund F. Safety Sci. 2012; 50(5): 1333-1343.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.12.036

The effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure

Objectives : Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure.
Methods : The sample consisted of 122 blue- and white collar workers (men=72, women=50). The Job Content : Questionnaire was used to measure job psychological demands, job control, and social support. The ratio of job demands to job control was used to assess job strain. Nighttime blood pressure dipping was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed on three workdays.
Results : Men with high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure from awake to sleep state than those with low job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the salient component of job strain associated with blood pressure dipping (P=0.03).
Conclusions : High job strain is associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease.

Source : Fan L, Blumenthal JA, Hinderliter AL, Sherwood A. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3294

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