Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode

A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study
Background
The association between overtime work and depression is still unclear. This study examined the association between overtime work and the onset of a major depressive episode (MDE).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Prospective cohort study with a baseline examination of working hours, psychological morbidity (an indicator of baseline depression) and depression risk factors in 1991–1993 and a follow-up of major depressive episode in 1997–1999 (mean follow-up 5.8 years) among British civil servants (the Whitehall II study; 1626 men, 497 women, mean age 47 years at baseline). Onset of 12-month MDE was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at follow-up. In prospective analysis of participants with no psychological morbidity at baseline, the odds ratio for a subsequent major depressive episode was 2.43 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 5.30) times higher for those working 11+ hours a day compared to employees working 7–8 hours a day, when adjusted for socio-demographic factors at baseline. Further adjustment for chronic physical disease, smoking, alcohol use, job strain and work-related social support had little effect on this association (odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 5.65).
Conclusions/Significance
Data from middle-aged civil servants suggest that working long hours of overtime may predispose to major depressive episodes.

Source : Virtanen M, Stansfeld SA, Fuhrer R, Ferrie JE, Kivimäki M (2012) Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode: A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study. PLoS ONE 7(1).
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0030719

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