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Current state of knowledge on the health effects of engineered nanomaterials in workers
A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations Objectives: The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods: A systematic review of human...
Lignes directrices de l'OMS pour la protection des travailleurs contre les risques potentiels des nanomatériaux manufacturés
L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a mis en place un groupe de travail dans le but d’élaborer des lignes directrices qui s’expriment sous forme de recommandations visant à protéger les travailleurs contre les risques potentiels des nanomatériaux manufacturés (NMM) pour la santé. Ces lignes directrices s’appuient sur une série de revues systématiques de la littérature effectuées par des équipes de recherche affiliées à différents centres internationaux. L’Institut...
Continuing to Protect the NANOTECHNOLOGY WORKFORCE: NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Plan for 2018–2025
Nanotechnology and the commercialization of products and devices containing engineered nanomaterials could help address critical global problems concerning energy, transportation, pollution, health, and food. The potential benefits of nanotechnology are immense. However, scientists must also address concerns about the potential adverse human health effects of this technology. Timely, targeted research must further define the hazards, exposures, and risks and provide guidance for the safe handling of nanomaterials. A concerted effort by industry, academia, labor, environmental health and safety...
Assessment of nanofibre dustiness by means of vibro-fluidization
Dustiness testing probes for the propensity of a powdery material to release dust particles following agitation. For high aspect-ratio materials like nanotubes, the most important dust fraction is that of potentially carcinogenic fibres(WHO-fibres).Wedeveloped the fluidizer particularly for fibres thatmakes use of vibro-fluidization in order to effectively disentangle single fibres and agglomerates of multi-walled carbon nanotube powders. Counting rules for morphological characterization of collected particles by means of electron microscopywere established, allowing quantifying the WHO-fibre fraction...
ASTM E2535 - Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings
This guide is intended for use by entities involved in the handling of UNP in occupational settings. This guide covers handling principles and techniques that may be applied, as appropriate, to the variety of UNP materials and handling settings. These settings include research and development activities, material manufacturing, and material use and processing. This guide may also be used by entities that receive materials or articles containing or comprising nanoscale particles fixed upon or within a matrix (that is, bound nanoscale particles), but whose own processes or use may reasonably be expected...
Literature study on the uses and risks of nanomaterials as pigments in the European Union
This report provides a review on the safe use of nano-sized pigments when used by professionals, workers or consumers. Extensive literature searches were carried out in combination with analyses of data from national nano-inventories to capture the current state of play. The report provides a list of nano-sized pigments currently identified on the EU market and discusses potential risks arising from their use in paints, coatings, printer toner cartridges, personal care products, tattooes as well as other potential uses of nanopigments. Data for hazard and risk assessment are not available for the...
A Review of Workplace Risk Management Measures for Nanomaterials to Mitigate Inhalation and Dermal Exposure
This review describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management Measures (RMM) for nanomaterials in the workplace. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of workplace RMM for nanomaterials and to determine whether established effectiveness values of conventional chemical substances applied for modelling purposes should be adopted or revised based on available evidence. A literature review was conducted to collate nano-specific data on workplace RMM. Besides the quantitative efficacy values, the library was populated with important covariables such as the study design, measurement type...
A Systematic Review of the Routes and Forms of Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials
Background: Establishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Methods: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed. Only studies including measurements of inhalation or dermal exposure were selected and used...
EU nanomaterials website updated with two searchable databases
The European Union Observatory for Nanomaterials (EUON ) website has been updated with new information about nanomaterials within the EU regulatory framework, how they are used in different sectors, including food, medicine and environmental research, as well as information on how to use nanomaterials safely at work. In addition, two searchable databases are now accessible in 23 EU languages through the EUON; NanoData , a knowledge base on nano science and technology, and the eNanoMapper , which helps you find safety information about nanomaterials. The EUON home page has also been revamped with...
NIOSH Releases New Nanotechnology Workplace Design Recommendations
Realizing the promise of any scientific advancement requires understanding of its potential human health effects, and its safe and responsible development, even at the level of engineered nanomaterials, which can be nearly atomic-sized. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) launched four new products this week intended to provide options to companies for controlling possible exposure of their workers to nanomaterials on the job. Engineered nanomaterials are intentionally produced to have at least one primary dimension less than 100 nanometers (nm). These very small particles...
Protecting Workers during the Handling of Nanomaterials
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are materials that are intentionally produced to have at least one primary dimension less than 100 nanometers (nm). These materials have new or unique properties different from those of larger forms of the same material, making them desirable for specific product applications. The health effects associated with nanomaterials are not yet clearly understood, so it is important for producers and users of ENMs to reduce employee exposure and manage risks appropriately. In 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a compendium of...
Control of exposure to hexavalent chromium concentration in shielded metal arc welding fumes by nano-coating of electrodes
Background: Cr(VI) is a suspected human carcinogen formed as a by-product of stainless steel welding. Nano-alumina and nano-titania coating of electrodes reduced the welding fume levels. Objective: To investigate the effect of nano-coating of welding electrodes on Cr(VI) formation rate (Cr(VI) FR) from a shielded metal arc welding process. Methods: The core welding wires were coated with nano-alumina and nano-titania using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Bead-on plate welds were deposited on SS 316 LN plates kept inside a fume test chamber. Cr(VI) analysis was done using an atomic absorption...
Nanotechnology in construction and demolition
What we know, what we don’t Nanotechnology is an exciting, innovative area promising great benefits to many areas of life, industry and commerce, including construction and the built environment. However there remains concerns about the health impacts from nanotechnologies. We don’t know which materials contain nanoparticles; we don’t know which nanoparticles are present; we don’t know how easily they could become bio-available; and we don’t know what to do if they do become bio-available. This research, aimed to provide some clarity regarding the current use of nanomaterials...
WHO Guidelines to Protect Workers from Nanomaterials
The term nanomaterials refers to materials that have at least one dimension (height, width or length) that is smaller than 100 nanometres (10−7 metre), which is about the size of a virus particle. This particular size dimension represents a major characteristic of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). The unique properties of MNMs may result in highly desirable behaviour leading to such varying applications as better paints, better drugs and faster electronics. However, for the same reason, MNMs may also present health hazards that differ from those of the substance in bulk form, and may require...
Activation des éosinophiles humains par des nanoparticules
L'économie du Canada, comme celle de bien d'autres pays industrialisés, bénéficie du développement des nanotechnologies dont le fort potentiel peut être exploité dans plusieurs secteurs industriels. Un nombre croissant d'entreprises québécoises de production de nanoparticules (NP) est d'ailleurs déjà implanté et tout porte à croire que d'autres emboîteront le pas dans les années à venir. Ce faisant, non seulement le nombre de travailleurs œuvrant dans la fabrication...
Workplace exposure and release of ultrafine particles during atmospheric plasma spraying in the ceramic industry
Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a frequently used technique to produce enhanced-property coatings for different materials in the ceramic industry. This work aimed to characterise and quantify the impact of APS on workplace exposure to airborne particles, with a focus on ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 100 nm) and nanoparticles (< 50 nm). Particle number, mass concentrations, alveolar lung deposited surface area concentration, and size distributions, in the range 10 nm–20 μm were simultaneously monitored at the emission source, in the potential worker breathing zone, and in outdoor...
Challenges on the toxicological predictions of engineered nanoparticles
The perceived enormous potential of nanotechnology in contributing to sustainable innovation has led to the growth of investments into new industrial applications and consumer products. However, the lack of tools that are needed to generate early knowledge about the potential adverse effects, combined with the uncertainties regarding the health and safety risks of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), are a potential threat to the acceptability by society of the nanotechnology innovations, due to the rising societal concerns that are based on generic worries. In order to tackle these issues, it has...
Opportunité et risques des nanomatériaux
Le Programme national de recherche PNR 64 «Opportunités et risques des nanomatériaux» a démarré début 2010. 23 groupes de recherche de toute la Suisse ont examiné les opportunités et les risques présentés par les nanomatériaux synthétiques aux différents stades de leur cycle de vie. Parmi les groupes de recherche, celui mené par Mickael Riediker, ancien chef de groupe à l'IST, est le seul à s'être chargé d'investiguer l'impact des nanomatériaux...
Exposures to nanoparticles and fibers during injection molding and recycling of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites
In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count. Processing and grinding during...
IARC Monographs Volume 111: Some Nanomaterials and Some Fibres
This volume of the IARC Monographs contains evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans of fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole, silicon carbide fibres and whiskers, and carbon nanotubes. None of these agents had been evaluated previously by the Working Group. Source: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol111/index.php
Évaluation de méthodes de prélèvement et de caractérisation de nanomatériaux manufacturés dans l'air et sur des surfaces des milieux de travail
La surveillance des niveaux de contamination de l'air par des nanomatériaux manufacturés (NMM) est une démarche complexe qui présente plusieurs incertitudes et limites notamment : la présence simultanée de particules de dimensions nanométriques qui ne sont pas des NMM, l'absence d'instruments validés permettant une mesure en zone respiratoire et la multiplicité des indicateurs à apprécier. Certains organismes, dont l'Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) en France et l'Institut...
'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on
In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken — two of the original authors — look at where we have come, and where we still need to go. Source: Maynard, A. D., & Aitken, R. J. (2016). Nature Research . http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v11/n12/full/nnano.2016.270.html
Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles administered at occupationally relevant doses induces pulmonary effects in mice
In spite of the great promises that the development of nanotechnologies can offer, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticle (NP) is raised. We recently identified metal oxide NP in lung tissue sections of welders, located inside macrophages infiltrated in fibrous regions. This suggests a role of these NP in the lung alterations observed in welders. We therefore designed a study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects, in mice, of repeated exposure to NP administered at occupationally relevant doses. We therefore chose four metal oxide NPs representative...
First order risk assessment for nanoparticle inhalation exposure during injection molding of polypropylene composites and production of tungsten-carbide-cobalt fine powder based upon pulmonary inflammation and surface area dose
Inhalation exposure to low toxicity and biodurable particles has shown to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophilia (PMN) in the lungs, which is a strong indicator for lung inflammation. Recently, Schmid and Stoeger (2016) reviewed mice and rat intratracheal instillation studies and assessed the relation between particles dry powder BET surface area dose and PMN influx for granular biodurable particles (GBPs) and transition metal oxides. In this study, we measured workers alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations (μm2 cm− 3) during injection molding of polypropylene (PP) car...
Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0)
Engineered nanomaterial emission and exposure characterization studies have been completed at more than 60 different facilities by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These experiences have provided NIOSH the opportunity to refine an earlier published technique, the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT 1.0), into a more comprehensive technique for assessing worker and workplace exposures to engineered nanomaterials. This change is reflected in the new name Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0) which distinguishes it from NEAT 1.0. NEAT...
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