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The NIOSH Occupational Exposure Banding Process for Chemical Risk Management
Occupational exposure banding, also known as hazard banding or health hazard banding, is a systematic process that uses qualitative and quantitative hazard information on selected health-effect endpoints to identify potential exposure ranges or categories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) occupational exposure banding process seeks to create a consistent and documented process with a decision logic to characterize chemical hazards so that timely, well-informed risk management decisions can be made for chemical substances that lack OELs. Users can band a chemical...
NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Atrazine
As the largest organ of the body, the skin performs multiple critical functions, such as serving as the primary barrier to the external environment. For this reason, the skin is often exposed to potentially hazardous agents, including chemicals, which may contribute to the onset of a spectrum of adverse health effects ranging from localized damage (such as irritant contact dermatitis and corrosion) to induction of immune-mediated responses (such as allergic contact dermatitis and pulmonary responses), or systemic toxicity (such as neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity). Understanding the hazards related...
A Review of Workplace Risk Management Measures for Nanomaterials to Mitigate Inhalation and Dermal Exposure
This review describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management Measures (RMM) for nanomaterials in the workplace. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of workplace RMM for nanomaterials and to determine whether established effectiveness values of conventional chemical substances applied for modelling purposes should be adopted or revised based on available evidence. A literature review was conducted to collate nano-specific data on workplace RMM. Besides the quantitative efficacy values, the library was populated with important covariables such as the study design, measurement type...
Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971–2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational...
Occupational exposures and cancer: a review of agents and relative risk estimates
Objectives: The contribution of occupational exposures to the cancer burden can be estimated using population-attributable fractions, which is of great importance for policy making. This paper reviews occupational carcinogens, and presents the most relevant risk relations to cancer in high-income countries using France as an example, to provide a framework for national estimation of cancer burden attributable to occupational exposure. Methods: Occupational exposures that should be included in cancer burden studies were evaluated using multiple criteria: classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic...
Travaux de revêtement routier: de multiples risques à prendre en compte
Travailler à la fabrication de routes n'est pas sans risque pour les opérateurs, car ils manipulent des enrobés bitumineux chauds qui peuvent présenter des effets sur la santé, soit par les fumées dégagées, soit par contact cutané. Ce dossier présente un état des lieux des différents travaux menés par la profession et les organismes de prévention pour améliorer la prévention de ces risques, ainsi que des méthodes d'évaluation des expositions des travailleurs aux...
Microorganismes dans les fontaines biologiques de dégraissage
Évaluation de l'exposition professionnelle dans les ateliers d'entretien mécanique Les fontaines biologiques appelées fontaines de biodégradation ou simplement biofontaines contiennent des dégraissants qui renferment des bactéries dont la tâche est de dégrader, par minéralisation, les salissures hydrocarbonées (huiles et graisses). Les fabricants de dégraissants pour biofontaines affirment que les microorganismes utilisés dans leurs préparations sont inoffensifs puisqu'ils se classent dans le groupe...
The Deepwater Horizon Incident: Fire and Explosion Issues
The loss of life and serious environmental damage from the blow out incident on the semi-submersible drilling rig Deepwater Horizon in 2010 in the US sector of the Gulf of Mexico has forced a reappraisal of the risks associated with drilling. HSE commissioned this work in order to consider the lessons to be learned from this international incident. It is important for HSE to stimulate and inform consideration of fire and explosion risks amongst the designers and operators of drilling rigs. Well control is clearly the first priority but some residual risk of blowout normally remains. This report...
Taking Multiple Exposure Into Account Can Improve Assessment of Chemical Risks
During work, operators may be exposed to several chemicals simultaneously. Most exposure assessment approaches only determine exposure levels for each substance individually. However, such individual-substance approaches may not correctly estimate the toxicity of ‘cocktails' of chemicals, as the toxicity of a cocktail may differ from the toxicity of substances on their own. This study presents an approach that can better take into account multiple exposure when assessing chemical risks. Almost 30000 work situations, monitored between 2005 and 2014 and recorded in two French databases...
Evaluation of Chemotherapy Drug Exposure in an Outpatient Infusion Center
We evaluated employee exposure to chemotherapy drugs at an outpatient infusion center. We found low levels of surface contamination of platinum throughout the workplace. Handling platinumcontaining compounds is the likely source of this contamination. Although we cannot definitively link all of the reported symptoms to chemotherapy drug exposures, many were consistent with those reported in the literature. Employees inconsistently used personal protective equipment. We recommended employees use chemotherapy gowns and gloves when handling chemotherapy drugs, and the company implement a medical surveillance...
Nanotechnology and human health
Scientific evidence and risk governance Nanotechnology, the science and application of objects smaller that 100 nanometres, is evolving rapidly in many fields. Besides the countless beneficial applications, including in health and medicine, concerns exist on adverse health consequences of unintended human exposure to nanomaterials. In the 2010 Parma Declaration on Environment and Health, ministers of health and of environment of the 53 Member States of the WHO Regional Office for Europe listed the health implications of nanotechnology and nanoparticles among the key environment and health challenges...
Health-care workers and antineoplastic drugs
Evaluating the risks and identifying determinants of exposure Health-care workers may be exposed to hazardous antineoplastic drugs—i.e. drugs used in chemotherapy—when handling them and/or when touching surfaces contaminated by them. Most studies looking at exposures to antineoplastic drugs in hospitals have been limited to select departments and/or workers with certain job titles. This may lead to an underestimation of the risk if all exposures during the circulation of the drug within a facility from cradle to grave (known as the hospital medication system) are not taken into account...
Développement d'un modèle de gestion graduée du risque pour le choix de la protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols
La sélection d'un appareil de protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols peut s'avérer une tâche complexe compte tenu de l'absence de valeurs limites d'exposition et de données toxicologiques, ainsi que des limites des techniques d'échantillonnage actuelles et de la grande diversité des bioaérosols. Dans ces circonstances, une méthode qualitative d'évaluation et de gestion du risque fournit une alternative aux méthodes quantitatives utilisées en hygiène du travail. Ce rapport propose...

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