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Current state of knowledge on the health effects of engineered nanomaterials in workers
A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations Objectives: The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods: A systematic review of human...
Santé travail : enjeux et actions. Les cancers reconnus d'origine professionnelle. Evolution statistique, actions de prévention et d'accompagnement des salariés exposés
Sur la période 2013-2017, l'Assurance Maladie - Risques professionnels a reconnu, en moyenne 1 840 cancers d'origine professionnelle par an,soit 0,5 % des nouveaux cas de cancers recensés en France. Sur la même période, plus de 50 000 maladies professionnelles ont été reconnues par an, liées majoritairement à des troubles musculo-squelettiques. Parmi les cancers professionnels reconnus, la part liée à l'amiante est prépondérante (80 % sur la période 2013-2017). Il s'agit de cancers du poumon...
Description par type de cancer des situations professionnelles à risque : synthèse des données du réseau RNV3P
L'ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail) et le RNV3P (Réseau National de Vigilance et de Prévention des Pathologies Professionnelles) mettent en ligne un rapport identifiant les situations professionnelles à risque pour plusieurs types de cancers. Sont abordés les cancers broncho-pulmonaires, les cancers urothéliaux, les hémopathies lymphoïdes matures, les leucémies myéloïdes, le cancer du larynx, le cancer des fosses nasales et des sinus, le cancer...
Investigation d’un syndrome collectif inexpliqué parmi le personnel d’un centre de recherche dans l’Hérault
En février 2017, Santé publique France (région Occitanie) est contactée pour un signalement concernant un problème d'odeur dans un centre de recherche. Depuis le mois d'avril 2016, des épisodes d'odeurs (décrites comme des odeurs de solvants ou d'éther) incommodent fortement les personnels travaillant dans le bâtiment de l'animalerie. La plupart de ces personnels décrit des symptômes tels que maux de tête, nausées, vomissement, irritations des voies aériennes… Une réunion...
NIOSH Reviews Scientific Literature on Infectious Diseases in the Workplace
NIOSH recently published a study conducting a review of infectious disease investigations in workplaces across the United States to better understand the range of cases, the risk factors for workers, and the ways to prevent infectious disease transmission on the job. Source : https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/18-0708_article
Revue de la littérature épidémiologique sur le risque de cancer chez les pompiers
Une revue des publications sur le cancer chez les pompiers parues depuis l'analyse documentaire réalisée en 2007 par le CIRC a été entreprise dans le but de mettre en évidence de nouvelles preuves de liens ou des indicateurs d'associations possibles entre la profession de pompier et le cancer. Cette revue de la littérature a porté sur 21 sièges de cancer à l'égard desquels certaines preuves de lien non concluantes étaient ressorties des revues antérieures. Plus de 600 publications sur l'exposition...
Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
Cancer de la vessie et expositions professionnelles aux fluides de coupe
Étude épidémiologique parmi les travailleurs de la sidérurgie en France L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher s'il existe un risque de cancer de la vessie associé à des expositions professionnelles à des brouillards d'huiles, issus de l'utilisation d'huiles entières ou de fluides aqueux. Une étude cas-témoins a été mise en place au sein d'une cohorte de 22 795 travailleurs de la sidérurgie du Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Les cas de cancer de vessie ont été diagnostiqués...
Association of Parkinson’s disease with industry sectors
A French nationwide incidence study In order to identify working environments at risk for Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated the relation between the importance of industry sectors, used as a surrogate for occupational exposures, and PD incidence in French cantons. The number of incident PD cases (2010–2014) in 3689 cantons of metropolitan France was determined using drug claims from French National Health Insurance databases. The proportions of workers in 38 industry sectors in 2006 were calculated for each canton. Associations between the proportions of workers in industry sectors...
Firefighters and cancer: the epidemiological evidence
It is recognised that firefighters can be exposed to many different harmful substances. In 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer convened a working group to assess the carcinogenicity of a variety of occupations, increased rates of testicular, prostate and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were identified for firefighting. This report examines the research published since an IOM review for the UK Industrial Injuries Advisory Council, by carrying out a systematic review and meta-analyses of the epidemiological evidence for specific cancers in firefighters. In total 304 publications were...
Occupational self-coding and automatic recording (OSCAR)
A novel web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job histories in large population-based studies The traditional manual collection and coding of lifetime job histories is unfeasible in large epidemiological studies. To overcome this, we have developed OSCAR, a new, validated, web-based tool that enables participants to self-collect and code their lifetime job-history efficiently. OSCAR could become the new standard approach to collect and code lifetime occupational exposures in large epidemiological studies. Source: De Matteis S, Jarvis D, Young H, Young A, Allen N, Potts J, Darnton A, Rushton...
Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer
An Evaluation of Recent Epidemiological Evidence for Quantitative Risk Assessment This report contains the intensive review and analysis of the newest studies of mine and truck workers exposed to older diesel engine exhaust conducted by an Expert Panel appointed by the HEI Board of Directors. In its report, HEI's Diesel Epidemiology Panel concluded that the studies are well prepared and are useful for applying the data to calculate the cancer risk due to exposure to diesel exhaust. The Panel noted, however, that efforts to apply these studies to estimate human risk at today's ambient levels...
La radioprotection des travailleurs
Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France Dans le cadre de sa mission de surveillance de l'exposition des travailleurs aux rayonnements ionisants, l'IRSN vient de publier ses résultats pour l'année 2013. Ceux-ci révèlent une baisse du nombre de travailleurs surveillés, avec 352 082 travailleurs surveillés en 2013, en léger recul de 0,7% par rapport à 2012. Si la dose collective enregistrée est en léger recul (-1% par rapport en 2012), l'IRSN pointe l'augmentation exceptionnelle des cas...
Diseases attributable to asbestos exposure: Years of potential life lost, United States, 1999–2010
Background Although asbestos use has been restricted in recent decades, asbestos-associated deaths continue to occur in the United States. Objectives We evaluated premature mortality and loss of potentially productive years of life attributable to asbestos-associated diseases. Methods Using 1999–2010 National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, we identified decedents aged ≥25 years whose death certificate listed asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma as the underlying cause of death. We computed years of potential life lost to life expectancy (YPLL) and to age 65 (YPLL65). Results...
354 665 travailleurs exposés aux rayonnements ionisants en 2012 - France
L’IRSN publie son bilan 2012 des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants portant sur la surveillance de 354 665 travailleurs. Comme chaque année, l’IRSN vient de publier le bilan des résultats de la surveillance des expositions professionnelles aux rayonnements ionisants, pour l’ensemble des activités civiles et de défense (secteurs privé et public). Les résultats portent sur 354 665,travailleurs, en augmentation de 3% par rapport à 2011. Ils travaillent dans les domaines médical (et vétérinaire...
Occupational carbon monoxide fatalities in the US from unintentional non-fire related exposures, 1992-2008
OBJECTIVE: To analyze characteristics of, and trends in, work-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities in the US. METHODS : Records of unintentional, non-fire related fatalities from CO exposure were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Integrated Management Information System for years 1992-2008 and analyzed separately. RESULTS: The average number of annual CO fatalities was 22 (standard deviation = 8). Fatality rates were highest among workers aged ≥65, males, Hispanics...
Occupational Hygiene implications of processing waste at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs): Exposure to bioaerosol and dust - RR977
This report presents the findings of a study to investigate exposures to dust and its microbiological components amongst workers employed at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs). The report shows the potential for workers to be exposed to general airborne dust above the level where it is considered a substance hazardous to health (10 mg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA). Also, there is the potential for exposure to fungi and bacteria, as well as endotoxins, which are agents known to have harmful effects on human health. Endotoxin exposures may be at levels greater than the health-based limit identified by the...
Work-related allergic respiratory disease and asthma in spice mill workers is associated with inhalant chili pepper and garlic exposures
Objective The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for allergic respiratory disease in spice mill workers. Methods A cross-sectional study of 150 workers used European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaires, Phadiatop, serum specific IgE (garlic, chili pepper), spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Personal air samples (n=62) collected from eight-hour shifts were analysed for inhalable particulate mass. Novel immunological assays quantified airborne garlic and chili pepper allergen concentrations. Results Mean dust particulate mass (geometric...
Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products
Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected...
The use of Nanomaterials in UK Universities: an overview of occupational health and safety
HSE wishes to increase its knowledge and understanding of the occupational use and manufacture of engineered nanoparticles in the UK. It has worked with the UK NanoSafety Group to gain an overview of the work with nanomaterials in a small number of UK universities. METHODOLOGY : HSE, working with The UK NanoSafety Group, distributed questionnaires in the form of ‘feedback' forms to university health and safety officers who, in turn, distributed them to various research groups working with nanomaterials within the universities. During the summer of 2011 visits were made by a specialist...
Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers, 2001–2008
World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers were exposed to a complex mix of pollutants and carcinogens. Cancers among 20,984 consented participants in the WTC Health Program were identified through linkage to state tumor registries in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare cancers diagnosed in responders to predicted numbers for the general population. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate associations with degree of exposure. Source : http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/6/ehp.1205894...
Short, fine and WHO asbestos fibers in the lungs of Quebec workers with an asbestos-related disease
Background The possible role of short asbestos fibers in the development of asbestos-related diseases and availability of lung fiber burden data prompted this study on the relationships between fiber characteristics and asbestos-related diseases among compensated workers. Methods Data collected between 1988 and 2007 for compensation purposes were used; lung asbestos fibers content of 123 Quebec workers are described according to socio-demographic characteristics, job histories and diseases (asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer). Results Most workers (85%) presented chrysotile fibers in their lungs...
Occupation and environmental heat-associated deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: a case-control study
Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death...
Second Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada
The Second Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada, published by Health Canada, summarizes the results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 2 (2009-2011). The CHMS is a joint initiative of Statistics Canada, Health Canada, and the Public Health Agency of Canada to collect information from Canadians about their general health. In addition, the CHMS collects blood and urine samples to test for chronic and infectious diseases, nutrition and environment markers. The report presents data on concentrations of 91 environmental chemicals in Canadians. Many chemicals...
Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene and the risk of lymphoma, liver, and kidney cancer in four Nordic countries
Objectives Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Perchloroethylene (PER) are two chlorinated solvents that are applied widely as degreasers of metal parts, and in dry cleaning and other applications. In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified TCE as carcinogenic to humans and PER as probably carcinogenic to humans. We explored exposure–response relations for TCE and PER and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and cancers of the kidney and liver in the Nordic Occupational Cancer cohort. Methods The cohort was set up by linking occupational information from...
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