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Occupational Exposure to Vapor-Gas, Dust, and Fumes in a Cohort of Rural Adults in Iowa Compared with a Cohort of Urban Adults
Problem/Condition: Many rural residents work in the field of agriculture; however, employment in nonagricultural jobs also is common. Because previous studies in rural communities often have focused on agricultural workers, much less is known about the occupational exposures in other types of jobs in rural settings. Characterizing airborne occupational exposures that can contribute to respiratory diseases is important so that differences between rural and urban working populations can be assessed. Reporting Period: 1994–2011. Description of System: This investigation used data from the baseline...
Aérosols semi-volatils
De l'identification au prélèvement Des études récentes concernant les aérosols semi-volatils ont révélé des interactions entre les particules et les vapeurs. Encore faut-il être capable d'identifier le caractère semi-volatil d'une substance pour développer une méthode de prélèvement et d'analyse prenant en compte les deux phases, particulaire et vapeur. Cet article a pour but de donner une définition adaptée de ce qu'est un aérosol semi-volatil et d'appliquer...
Review of vapour cloud explosion incidents
Major incidents worldwide have involved large vapour cloud explosions, including the Buncefield explosion in 2005. It is important to learn from historical incidents to understand the risk profile of installations. Following the Buncefield explosion, a large body of published research has improved scientific understanding of the release event, the flammable cloud formation and the explosion. This report describes work done by HSE with US safety regulators to consolidate previous research and to incorporate recently published analysis into a single, systematic review of historical incidents. Important...
Evaluation of the DRIFT gas dispersion model version 3.6.4
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) uses gas dispersion modelling in its assessment of the hazards and risks posed by toxic and flammable substances stored at major hazards sites. To update its dispersion modelling capability, HSE recently commissioned ESR Technology to develop a new version of the gas dispersion model DRIFT (Dispersion of Releases Involving Flammables or Toxics). The new version of the model, DRIFT Version 3 (DRIFT 3), includes a significant number of modelling enhancements over the version of DRIFT previously used within HSE (DRIFT 2.31). These include the extension of the...
Détection fixe de gaz et de vapeurs pour l'industrie
L'émission accidentelle ou non contrôlée de gaz ou de vapeurs peut avoir des conséquences graves sur la santé et la sécurité des personnes, les installations industrielles et les biens matériels à proximité, et sur l'environnement. Le détecteur de gaz à poste fixe joue un rôle important dans la maîtrise de ces risques. Cette brochure est une synthèse des principaux éléments à prendre en considération pour le choix d'un détecteur de gaz, son déploiement...
Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, une méthode simple et performante
Le prélèvement passif des gaz et vapeurs, fondé sur le principe de la diffusion moléculaire, simplifie l'étape du prélèvement lors de l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles au risque chimique. Faciles à utiliser, légers et peu coûteux, les badges passifs sont une alternative intéressante et performante aux traditionnels modes de prélèvement actif par pompage. Source: Eddy Langlois. Hygiène et sécurité du travail , 2016. http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=DC%2013
Single and Combined Exposure to Zinc- and Copper-Containing Welding Fumes Lead to Asymptomatic Systemic Inflammation
Objective: Recently, it has been shown that exposure to welding fumes containing both zinc and copper leads to asymptomatic systemic inflammation in humans as shown by an increase of blood C-reactive protein. In the present study, it was investigated which metal is responsible for this effect. Methods: Fifteen healthy male subjects were exposed under controlled conditions to welding fumes containing either zinc, or copper, or copper and zinc. Results: For each exposure blood C-reactive protein increased. Conclusions: Copper- and zinc-containing welding fumes are able to induce systemic inflammation...
Health and Safety Risks for Workers Involved in Manual Tank Gauging and Sampling at Oil and Gas Extraction Sites
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have identified health and safety risks to workers who manually gauge or sample fluids on production and flowback tanks from exposure to hydrocarbon gases and vapors, exposure to oxygen-deficient atmospheres, and the potential for fires and explosions. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2016-108/default.html
A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers
Background: While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods: The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results: Approximately 18% (95%CI ...
Métrologie en temps réel de substances chimiques au poste de travail
Intérêts et limites Les gaz, vapeurs et aérosols peuvent aujourd'hui être mesurés en temps réel à un poste de travail. Les techniques utilisées sont nombreuses et, pour certaines, de plus en plus simples à utiliser. Après avoir présenté les enjeux liés à l'utilisation de ces techniques pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, cet article en explique les intérêts et les limites par type de substances chimiques (gaz/vapeur et aérosols). Source: http://www...
Optimisation de SATURISK, l’outil de calcul du temps de service des cartouches de protection respiratoire contre les vapeurs organiques
L'exposition des travailleurs aux solvants, ou plus largement aux vapeurs organiques, doit être maîtrisée sinon maintenue en deçà des valeurs limites réglementaires. Lorsque l'ensemble des mesures administratives, d'ingénierie et de protection collective ne permet pas d'atteindre des niveaux d'exposition sans danger pour la santé, les travailleurs concernés doivent être équipés d'appareils de protection respiratoire (APR). En l'absence de situations de danger immédiat pour la vie...
Chemical Vapour Deposition In The Semiconductor Industry
This Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) precursors in the semiconductor industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating environmental releases and occupational exposures, and discusses the typical engineering controls used to mitigate exposure to CVD precursors. Source: http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2015)5&doclanguage...
Further validation of the ACE instantaneous source model
ACE (Airborne Concentration Estimate) is a model originally developed by WS Atkins on behalf of HSE for computing source terms arising from instantaneous flashing releases. The model has since been reviewed and enhanced through a series of extensive tests that have been performed by HSL. Inputs to ACE are the substance, its mass and storage conditions and ambient weather conditions. The model then computes the formation of a vapour cloud assuming total loss of containment. This is done in two distinct stages; an explosion phase, which models the initial flashing process and a turbulent growth stage...
Generation of flammable mists from high flashpoint fluids: Literature review
Hazardous Area Classification (HAC) for explosive gas atmospheres is well established, with guidance published in various standards and industry codes of practice. However, the same situation is not currently the case for high flashpoint liquid releases that could give rise to an explosive mist atmosphere. There is a pressing need for clear guidance on mist hazards to allow operators to determine the extent of areas where flammable mists may be present and to select appropriate equipment for use in those areas. This report provides a survey of the recent literature on flammable mists and pulls...
Application of skin contamination studies of ammonia gas for management of hazardous material incidents
In an atmospheric HAZMAT release unprotected public dermal exposure is often of short duration, but with potential secondary exposure if not decontaminated promptly. Mass decontamination is resource intensive and needs to be justified. For many HAZMAT agents there is no evidence-base on which to provide guidance on decontamination, particularly for non-symptomatic worried well. It is important to understand the influence of street clothing and environmental and other factors. Ammonia is a common HAZMAT agent and was selected for in vitro human skin studies of absorption, penetration and off-gassing...
Chemical Exposure among Professional Ski Waxers — Characterization of Individual Work Operations
Background : Preparation of skis prior to skiing competitions involves several individual work operations and the use of a wide variety of chemically based ski waxing products to improve the performance of the skis, including products used after skiing for wax removal and ski sole cleaning. Modern ski waxes consist mainly of petroleum-derived straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, perfluoro-n-alkanes or polyfluorinated n-alkanes. The wax cleaning products contain solvents such as neat aliphatic hydrocarbons (aliphates) or a mixture with limonene. Different ski waxing work operations can result...
Guide d'échantillonnage des contaminants de l'air en milieu de travail, nouv. éd.
Afin d'assister les intervenants en milieu de travail, l’IRSST publie, révise périodiquement et diffuse le Guide d'échantillonnage des contaminants de l'air en milieu de travail. Ce guide comprend une première partie sur la stratégie d'échantillonnage. La deuxième partie décrit succinctement les différentes techniques d’évaluation utilisables dans une démarche d’hygiène du travail selon la nature des substances : gaz et vapeurs ou aérosols. Il est important de noter que certaines...
Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors
NIOSH has released new guidance, Components for Evaluation of Direct-Reading Monitors for Gases and Vapors , along with an associated addendum, Hazard Detection in First Responder Environments. These documents are part of the Direct-Reading Exposure Assessment Methods (DREAM) initiative on direct-reading methods and monitors. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-162/ http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/drm/
Risk assessment for VCE scenario in an aerosol warehouse
In 2006, Dr Graham Atkinson of HSL was asked by HSE to review the risks from fires in large aerosol stores (Atkinson, 2007). Atkinson reviewed incident statistics and reports and concluded that the greatest risk to people from such fires was from explosions, not from the fire itself. He postulated a vapour cloud explosion (VCE) mechanism, whereby a fire of material elsewhere in the warehouse from the aerosols could give rise to a hot air layer close to the ceiling. Aerosols stored close to the ceiling could then fail and release their flammable contents, but not be immediately ignited by the fire...
Vapour cloud formation
Experiments and modelling Hazard analysis for overfilling of a tank with a volatile liquid is a complex and important problem but (prior to the Buncefield incident) had not been the subject of significant research effort. Since the incident HSE has sponsored a programme of experimental and modelling research to investigate the technical issues involved and develop methods of analysis. The objective is that HSE, and industries responsible for filling tanks, will be in a position to agree on a reliable method to determine the character of the vapour cloud generated in the event of an overfill. This...

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