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Heme oxygenase 1 polymorphism, occupational vapor, gas, dust, and fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Danish population-based study
Objectives: The number of dinucleotide repeats (GT)n modulate expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a stress response gene. Multiple repeats might affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. We aimed to investigate the association of this polymorphism with COPD and its interaction with occupational exposures (vapor, gas, dust, or fumes). Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4703 Danes, aged 45–84 years. HMOX1 (GT)n was genotyped and grouped as short: ≤26, medium: 27–32 and long: ≥33 alleles. COPD was defined by the lower limit...
Programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM)
Vingt années de surveillance (1998-2017) des cas de mésothéliome, de leurs expositions et des processus d'indemnisation En 1998, la Direction générale du travail (DGT) et la Direction générale de la santé (DGS) des ministères respectifs ont saisi Santé publique France pour mettre en place un programme national de surveillance des effets sanitaires de l'amiante : le programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM), marqueur spécifique des expositions passées à l'amiante...
Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
Exposure-response relationships for silicosis and its progression in industrial sand workers
Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the relationship between radiographic silicosis and exposure to respirable quartz and determine how exposure affects disease progression. Methods: Surveillance chest radiographs from a cohort of 1902 workers were examined to identify 67 cases of radiographic silicosis and 167 matched controls. Exposures were estimated by linking work histories to a job exposure matrix (JEM) based on samples collected by the participating companies and historical estimates. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine exposure-response relationships. Sequential...
Expositions professionnelles à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires chez les salariés en 2010
Introduction – Les cancers respiratoires sont les plus fréquents des cancers professionnels, mais très peu de données sont disponibles pour quantifier l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes respiratoires. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer en France la proportion de salariés exposés à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires et d'identifier les groupes professionnels les plus exposés, à des fins de prévention. Méthode – À partir des données...
Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction. Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter...
Burden of lung cancer attributable to occupational diesel engine exhaust exposure in Canada
Objective: To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of incident and fatal lung cancers in Canada from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: DEE exposure prevalence and level estimates were used with Canadian Census and Labour Force Survey data to model the exposed population across the risk exposure period (REP, 1961–2001). Relative risks of lung cancer were calculated based on a meta-regression selected from the literature. PAFs were calculated using Levin's equation and applied to the 2011 lung cancer statistics obtained from the Canadian...
Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. The long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. Objectives: This paper aims to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and chronic airway obstruction. Methods: The ECRHS study has investigated a multi-centre population based cohort...
Cas incidents des maladies à déclaration obligatoire reliées à une exposition professionnelle à l’amiante dans le Système MADO-Chimique, Québec, 2006 – 2015
L'analyse des 2 234 cas incidents de maladies à déclaration obligatoire (MADO) reliées à une exposition professionnelle à l'amiante enregistrés dans le système MADO-Chimique entre 2006 et 2015 montre que : 98 % des cas sont des hommes. Chez les femmes, les mésothéliomes sont les maladies reliées à l'exposition à l'amiante les plus fréquentes, alors que chez les hommes ce sont les amiantoses qui prédominent. Près de 60 % des cas d'amiantose, près de 50 % des cas de...
Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners From 3 Clinics in Virginia
Since 1970, the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP), administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has offered periodic chest radiographs to working US coal miners.1 The primary purpose of the CWHSP is early detection of coal workers' pneumoconiosis to prevent progression to disabling lung disease, including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). By the late 1990s, PMF was rarely identified among miners participating in the CWHSP. However, a 2014 report documented an increase in the prevalence of PMF in Appalachia.2 On February 1, 2017, the director...
Coal miner participation in a job transfer program designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis, United States, 1986–2016
The Part 90 program was designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis in U.S. coal miners by establishing their right to transfer to a less dusty job in the mine. We calculated the proportion of Part 90-eligible miners who participated during 1986–2016, examined participation by region, and compared characteristics of miners by participation status. Of the 3,547 eligible miners, 14.4% exercised their Part 90 option. Miners working in states outside central Appalachia, and those with more severe pneumoconiosis, were more likely to participate. The primary goal of respiratory health surveillance...
Exposure to substances hazardous to health in foundries
Tackling the causes of occupational lung disease is a key priority for HSE. Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a wide range of hazardous substances, including, for example, respirable crystalline silica (RCS), metal fumes and dust, that can cause lung (and other) cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This work was undertaken to understand current exposures to hazardous substances in the foundry industry, to identify examples of good control practice, and to establish benchmark standards of control for the industry. Many examples of good practice were found, which, if...
Respiratory Symptoms in Hospital Cleaning Staff Exposed to a Product Containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Peracetic Acid, and Acetic Acid
Cleaning and disinfecting products consisting of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (HP), peracetic acid (PAA), and acetic acid (AA) are widely used as sporicidal agents in health care, childcare, agricultural, food service, and food production industries. HP and PAA are strong oxidants and their mixture is a recognized asthmagen. However, few exposure assessment studies to date have measured HP, PAA, and AA in a health care setting. In 2015, we performed a health and exposure assessment at a hospital where a new sporicidal product, consisting of HP, PAA, and AA was introduced 16 months prior. We collected...
Mesothelioma incidence and asbestos exposure in Italian national priority
Objectives This study aimed to (i) describe mesothelioma incidence in the Italian national priority contaminated sites (NPCS) on the basis of data available from the Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) and (ii) profile NPCS using Bayesian rank analysis. Methods: Incident cases of mesothelioma and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated for both genders in each of the 39 selected NPCS in the period 2000–2011. Age-standardized rates of Italian geographical macro areas were used to estimate expected cases. Rankings of areas were produced by a hierarchical Bayesian model...
Respiratory and Ocular Symptoms Among Employees of an Indoor Waterpark Resort
In July 2015, a municipal health department in Ohio received complaints of respiratory and ocular symptoms from patrons of an indoor waterpark resort. In response, the health department conducted an online survey in August 2015 through which 19 (68%) patron and employee respondents reported eye burning, nose irritation, difficulty breathing, and vomiting. On August 11, 2015, the health department requested a health hazard evaluation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to characterize the prevalence of symptoms among employees and determine the etiology of work-related...
Occupational exposures to solvents and metals are associated with fixed airflow obstruction
Our study is the first to investigate the associations between exposures to solvents and metals using lifetime work history calendars and fixed airflow obstruction (AO). We have shown that increasing cumulative exposure-unit years to chlorinated solvents is associated with fixed AO. We found that women were at increased risk of fixed AO with increasing cumulative exposed-unit-years to chlorinated solvents but not men. Source: Alif SM, Dharmage SC, Benke G, Dennekamp M, Burgess JL, Perret, Lodge CJ, Morrison S, Johns DP?, Giles GG, Gurrin LC, Thomas PS, Hopper JL, Wood-Baker R, Thompson BR, Feather...
Summary of evidence – Solvent-based hydrophobic coatings and risks for acute respiratory toxicity
Water repellent coatings are increasingly used by different industries to reduce water and dirt sticking to surfaces. The coatings can be applied by processes that minimise the risk that operators inhale the product but there is evidence that some products are applied by spraying, creating an inhalable mist. This review examined evidence about these coatings and whether lung disease occurs when applied by spraying. Scientific studies on the hazardous properties of these products, and clinical studies reporting lung disease in people using them, were considered. A consistent finding was that some...
Molecular detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis and hematological and biochemical analyses in agricultural sprayers exposed to pesticides
A cross-sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan during 2014–2016 We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils...
Faisabilité d’accroître la déclaration obligatoire des maladies liées à une exposition à l’amiante par les médecins des hôpitaux
L'amiantose et le mésothéliome sont des maladies à déclaration obligatoire (MADO) par les médecins du Québec. Or, une faible proportion d'entre eux s'acquitte de cette obligation. Si tous les médecins déclaraient leurs cas, la base de données dans laquelle on enregistre l'information sur les personnes atteintes de MADO, le système MADO-Chimique, serait plus complète et pourrait servir à des fins de surveillance des maladies reliées à l'amiante. Un projet pilote a été...
Health problems and disinfectant product exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital
Background: Hospital staff expressed health concerns after a surface disinfectant product containing hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid was introduced. We sought to determine if this product posed a health hazard. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire on work and health characteristics was completed by 163 current staff. Symptoms that improved away from work were considered work-related. Forty-nine air samples were taken for hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using Poisson regression, and standardized morbidity...
Behaviour of chemical respiratory allergens in novel predictive methods for skin sensitisation
Asthma resulting from sensitisation of the respiratory tract to chemicals is an important occupational health issue, presenting many toxicological challenges. Most importantly there are no recognised predictive methods for respiratory allergens. Nevertheless, it has been found that all known chemical respiratory allergens elicit positive responses in assays for skin sensitising chemicals. Thus, chemicals failing to induce a positive response in skin sensitisation assays such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA) lack not only skin sensitising activity, but also the potential to cause respiratory...
Risks to respiratory health in the grain industry
A detailed literature search was carried out to summarise evidence about respiratory disease caused by exposure to grain dust. Long term epidemiological studies examining the risk for respiratory disease in grain workers were undertaken in Canada and the USA from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Smaller studies were undertaken in the UK and Europe but mostly focussed on respiratory disease in arable and livestock farmers. The conclusion of this review is that the damaging effects of grain dust on the respiratory tract are accumulative and occur at high concentrations of exposure. Acute responses also...
Rhinite et asthme dans l'industrie pharmaceutique
L'industrie pharmaceutique en France produit chaque année près de 2 800 substances, présentes dans 11 000 spécialités. Parmi celles-ci, les antibiotiques, les enzymes et d'autres substances végétales comme les gommes sont à l'origine de l'essentiel des cas de rhinite ou d'asthme professionnel (AP) rapportés dans la littérature. Toutefois, les données épidémiologiques sont peu nombreuses et la prévalence des cas apparaît comme faible au regard du nombre de substances mises...
Resurgence of Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners - Eastern Kentucky, 2016
The prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis fell precipitously after implementation of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act and reached historic lows in the 1990s, with the most severe form, progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), nearly eradicated. Since that time, increases in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis have occurred, especially in central Appalachia. During January 1, 2015–August 17, 2016, a total of 60 patients identified through a single radiologist's practice had radiographic findings consistent with PMF; 49 had their radiograph taken during...
Respiratory and Ocular Symptoms Among Employees at Swedish Indoor Swimming Pools
Background: This study investigated trichloramine exposure and prevalence of respiratory and ocular symptoms among Swedish indoor swimming pool workers. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to pool workers and referents. Lung function and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured before and after work. Exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes was measured over work shifts. Results: The mean personal trichloramine exposure was 36 μg/m3. Significantly more exposed workers reported ocular and nasal symptoms. There were significant differences between groups in FeNO change following...
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