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ASTM E2625 - Standard Practice for Controlling Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica for Construction and Demolition Activities
These practices and criteria were developed for occupational exposures during construction and demolition activities. They are intended to (1) protect against clinically significant disease from exposure to respirable crystalline silica, (2) be measurable by techniques that are valid, reproducible, and readily available, and (3) be attainable with existing technology and protective practices. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E2625.htm
Transformation du granit - Caractérisation et contrôle de la poussière de la silice émise par le polissage
La présente étude contribue à l'avancement des connaissances nécessaires pour déterminer des moyens d'élimination et de réduction à la source des poussières fines et ultrafines contenant de la silice cristalline et qui sont émises lors de la transformation du granit. L'élimination et la réduction à la source des émissions sont les moyens privilégiés pour assurer un environnement de travail sain et sécuritaire; l'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle...
Dangers, expositions et risques relatifs à la silice cristalline
L'expertise visait à déployer les actions suivantes : - Réaliser un état des lieux des études et données concernant les dangers et effets sur la santé de la silice cristalline en se focalisant en particulier sur les études de cancérogénicité, la silice cristalline ayant été classée par le CIRC en cancérogène de Catégorie 1 ; - Identifier l'ensemble des pathologies associées à une exposition à la silice cristalline et en évaluer la pertinence...
Exposure-response relationships for silicosis and its progression in industrial sand workers
Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the relationship between radiographic silicosis and exposure to respirable quartz and determine how exposure affects disease progression. Methods: Surveillance chest radiographs from a cohort of 1902 workers were examined to identify 67 cases of radiographic silicosis and 167 matched controls. Exposures were estimated by linking work histories to a job exposure matrix (JEM) based on samples collected by the participating companies and historical estimates. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine exposure-response relationships. Sequential...
NIOSH Releases Beta Version of New Respirable Crystalline Silica Monitoring Software
Mines can now monitor worker exposure to hazardous respirable crystalline silica (RCS) more effectively thanks to new software developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Program in beta version. This novel, field-based tool called “FAST” (Field Analysis of Silica Tool), works together with commercially available FTIR analyzers (Fourier Transform Infrared) to determine a worker's exposure to RCS dust, providing detailed results immediately following a worker's shift. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-10-03-18.html
Study on the implementation of the autonomous agreement on workers’ health protection through the good handling and use of crystalline silica and products containing it
Crystalline silica is a mineral naturally abundant and a component of materials used in a wide variety of industries. However, prolonged inhalation of respirable crystalline silica may cause a specific type of lung damage. A multi-sectoral agreement bringing together social partners from 14 sectors was signed in 2006 to protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica, minimise the exposure through good practices and increasing the knowledge about potential health effects. This study provides an assessment of the implementation and impact of the agreement. Source: http://ec.europa.eu/social...
Surveillance for Silicosis
Michigan and New Jersey, 2003–2011 CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), state health departments, and other state entities maintain a state-based surveillance program of confirmed silicosis cases. Data on confirmed cases are collected and compiled by state entities and submitted to CDC. This report summarizes information for cases of silicosis that were reported to CDC for 2003–2011 by Michigan and New Jersey, the only states that continue to provide data voluntarily to NIOSH. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/63/wr/mm6355a7.htm
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid microRNA-146a: A Biomarker of Disease Severity and Pulmonary Function in Patients With Silicosis
Objective: To examine the impact of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) on pulmonary function and disease severity in silicosis patients. Methods: Twenty-nine silicosis patients and six observation subjects were recruited. MiR-146a expression level was detected by qRT-PCR, and pulmonary function was assessed with a spirometer. Results: MiR-146a expression level was higher in silicosis patients than in observation subjects, and the probability of suffering from silicosis increased with increasing miR-146a level. MiR-146a was associated with the severity of silicosis. As the miR-146a increased, the probability...
Captage des poussières de silice sur les chantiers de rabotage routier aux États-Unis
En France, pour diminuer l'exposition à la silice lors des travaux de recyclage routier, il est conseillé d'équiper les raboteuses d'un dispositif de captage des poussières. Aux États-Unis, des mesures ont été réalisées en atelier et sur le terrain sur le sujet depuis 2003 et ont fait l'objet d'une publication (NIOSH 2015-105)2. Une efficacité de captage des poussières supérieure à 90 % est préconisée. Un protocole de vérification de cette efficacité a été...
Cross-Sectional Study on Nonmalignant Respiratory Morbidity due to Exposure to Synthetic Amorphous Silica
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the health impact of chronic exposure to synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) on nonmalignant respiratory morbidity. Methods: We used multiple linear and logistic regression models and Monte Carlo multimodel analyses of two exposure scenarios to evaluate the effect of cumulative exposure to inhalable SAS dust on symptoms, spirometry, and chest films in 462 male workers from five German SAS-producing plants. Results: Exposure to SAS was associated with a reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) in one of the two exposure scenarios but had no effect on...
Influence of Cytokines and Soluble Receptors in the Quality of Life and Functional Capacity of Workers Exposed to Silica
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma levels of inflammatory mediators in subjects exposed to silica, with and without silicosis compared with unexposed control group; and to check the association between inflammatory mediators with pulmonary function, quality of life, functional capacity, and dyspnea grade. Methods: Inflammatory mediators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were 30 subjects exposed to silica and 24 control group. Results: Interleukin-6 plasma levels were higher in subjects exposed to silica with and without silicosis than in the control...
Surveillance for Silicosis
Michigan and New Jersey, 2003-2010 CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), state health departments, and other state entities maintain a state-based surveillance program of confirmed silicosis cases. Data on confirmed cases are collected and compiled by state entities and submitted to CDC. This report summarizes information for cases of silicosis that were reported to CDC for 2003-2010. The data for this report were final as of December 31, 2010. Data are presented in tabular form on the prevalence of silicosis, the number of cases and the distribution of cases...
Silicosis Update
Silicosis is a potentially fatal but preventable occupational lung disease caused by inhaling respirable particles containing crystalline silicon dioxide (silica). Quartz, a type of crystalline silica, is the second most abundant mineral in the earth's crust and workers across a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to silica-containing dusts. The risks, causes, and prevention of this avoidable disease have been known for decades. There is no cure for silicosis and only symptomatic treatment is available, including lung transplantation for the most severe cases. New national...
Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure When Cutting Fiber-Cement Siding
Construction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing silica when cutting fiber-cement siding. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that workers' exposures could be reduced by attaching a regular shop vacuum to a dust-collecting circular saw providing a simple low-cost solution. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2015-185/
Best Practice Engineering Control Guidelines to Control Worker Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica during Asphalt Pavement Milling
This document represents more than ten years of collaborative research by labor, industry, and government to reduce respirable crystalline silica exposure during asphalt pavement milling in highway construction. The collaborative research began when the Silica/Asphalt Milling Machine Partnership was formed at the 2003 National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Annual Meeting, and studies on milling machine dust controls began later that year. The Silica/Asphalt Milling Machine Partnership is coordinated by NAPA and includes all U.S. and foreign manufacturers of heavy construction equipment that...
Worker Exposure to Silica during Countertop Manufacturing, Finishing and Installation
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have identified exposure to silica as a health hazard to workers involved in manufacturing, finishing and installing natural and manufactured stone countertop products, both in fabrication shops and during in-home finishing/installation. This hazard can be mitigated with simple and effective dust controls in most countertop operations. Source: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3768.pdf
Silicosis Mortality Trends and New Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica
United States, 2001–2010 Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust and can progress to respiratory failure and death (1). No effective specific treatment for silicosis is available; patients are provided supportive care, and some patients may be considered for lung transplantation. Chronic silicosis can develop or progress even after occupational exposure has ceased (1). The number of deaths from silicosis declined from 1,065 in 1968 to 165 in 2004 (2). Hazardous occupational exposures to silica dust have long been...
Occupational exposure to crystalline Silica related to lung cancer scientific evidence synthesis
Silica is a compound made up of silicon and oxygen, in the form of SiO2 (silicon dioxide or crystalline silica). It appears in nature in the form of sand, granite, clay, etc. Occupational exposure to silica dust occurs during underground mining and quarry mining activities; construction; smelting; cement manufacturing and aggregate processing; manufacturing, handling, and processing of glass, ceramics; etc. The inhalation of silica dust may lead to a pneumoconiosis in humans called silicosis. Pneumoconiosis are a group of diseases caused by the accumulation of dust in the lungs and tissue reactions...
Outbreak of silicosis in Spanish quartz conglomerate workers
Objectives: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of an outbreak of occupational silicosis and the associated working conditions. Methods: Cases were defined as men working in the stone cutting, shaping, and finishing industry in the province of Cádiz, diagnosed with silicosis between July 2009 and May 2012, and were identified and diagnosed by the department of pulmonology of the University Hospital of Puerto Real (Cádiz). A census of workplaces using quartz conglomerates was carried out to determine total numbers of potentially exposed workers. A patient telephone...
Silica Hazards from Engineered Stone Countertops
A new engineered stone countertop product known as “quartz surfacing,” was created in the late 1980s by combining quartz aggregate with resins to create a product for use in home building and home improvement. Manufacturing of this material, including products such as CaesarStone™, Silestone™, Zodiaq™, or Cambria™ is a fast growing industry. First made in Israel and Spain, production of these materials has grown world-wide, driving quartz slab imports to the U.S. up 63% between 2011 and 2012 and 48% between April 2012 and April 2013 (Schwartzkopf 2013, StatWatch...
Cross-Sectional Study on Respiratory Morbidity in Workers After Exposure to Synthetic Amorphous Silica at Five German Production Plants
Exposure Assessment and Exposure Estimates Objectives: Synthetic amorphous silicas (SASs) are nanostructured polymorphs of silicon dioxide. We compared two different exposure assessments. Methods: This study estimated cumulative exposure to inhalable SAS dust in 484 male workers from five German SAS-producing plants. Two procedures (P1 and P2) were applied. P1 was based on an expert assessment. P2 was a multiple exposure assessment (15 scenarios) anchored by a recent measurement series (1375 personal measurements of inhalable SAS dust concentration) and used expert assessments. Results: Cumulative...
Cross-Sectional Study on Respiratory Morbidity in Workers After Exposure to Synthetic Amorphous Silica at Five German Production Plants
Exposure Assessment and Exposure Estimates Objectives: Synthetic amorphous silicas (SASs) are nanostructured polymorphs of silicon dioxide. We compared two different exposure assessments. Methods: This study estimated cumulative exposure to inhalable SAS dust in 484 male workers from five German SAS-producing plants. Two procedures (P1 and P2) were applied. P1 was based on an expert assessment. P2 was a multiple exposure assessment (15 scenarios) anchored by a recent measurement series (1375 personal measurements of inhalable SAS dust concentration) and used expert assessments. Results: Cumulative...
OSHA Proposes Silica Rule for Construction
After decades of discussion and bureaucratic red tape, OSHA finally issued a proposed standard to protect workers from silica on August 23, 2013. Occurring naturally as sand or quartz, silica is commonly used in a variety of industrial settings. It is a key component of concrete, and its dust is a long-recognized hazard for construction workers. When inhaled, it can cause silicosis, a progressive lung disease. In 1997, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) definitively labeled silica a cancer-causing agent. For decades, OSHA has maintained an exposure limit for silica, but it is...
Determinants of Respirable Silica Exposure in Stone Countertop Fabrication: A Preliminary Study
A preliminary study of personal exposure to respirable quartz was conducted in four shops that used a variety of wet and dry methods to fabricate countertops from granite and quartz-containing synthetic stone-like materials. Full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures exceeded the ACGIH threshold limit value of 0.025 mg/m3 for all workers who used dry fabrication methods, even for very limited time, during any part of the work shift (n = 15 person-days). The geometric mean of exposures for workers who used dry methods extensively was about 1 mg/m3 (n = 12 person-days). Workers who operated...
Occupational Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica During Hydraulic Fracturing
This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica (“frac sand”) is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage...
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