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Potential Hazards of Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing (AM), commonly referred to as 3-D printing, is becoming more prevalent in industry. AM is a set of processes for making products by selectively joining small amounts of material, using a computer-aided design file. [1,2] The advantages for industry include: shortened production cycles, reduced tooling costs, reduced waste material, easier product customization, novel design options, and new possibilities in distribution and fulfilment. [2–6] The automotive, aerospace, medical device, and electronics manufacturing industries are already using AM, and biomedical applications...
Cancer de la vessie et expositions professionnelles aux fluides de coupe
Étude épidémiologique parmi les travailleurs de la sidérurgie en France L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher s'il existe un risque de cancer de la vessie associé à des expositions professionnelles à des brouillards d'huiles, issus de l'utilisation d'huiles entières ou de fluides aqueux. Une étude cas-témoins a été mise en place au sein d'une cohorte de 22 795 travailleurs de la sidérurgie du Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Les cas de cancer de vessie ont été diagnostiqués...
Potential Health Risk of Endocrine Disruptors in Construction Sector and Plastics Industry
A New Paradigm in Occupational Health Endocrine disruptors (EDs) belong to large and diverse groups of agents that may cause multiple biological effects associated with, for example, hormone imbalance and infertility, chronic diseases such as diabetes, genome damage and cancer. The health risks related with the exposure to EDs are typically underestimated, less well characterized, and not regulated to the same extent as, for example, carcinogens. The increased production and utilization of identified or suspected EDs in many different technological processes raises new challenges with respect to...
Exposure to substances hazardous to health in foundries
Tackling the causes of occupational lung disease is a key priority for HSE. Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a wide range of hazardous substances, including, for example, respirable crystalline silica (RCS), metal fumes and dust, that can cause lung (and other) cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This work was undertaken to understand current exposures to hazardous substances in the foundry industry, to identify examples of good control practice, and to establish benchmark standards of control for the industry. Many examples of good practice were found, which, if...
Exposures to nanoparticles and fibers during injection molding and recycling of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites
In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count. Processing and grinding during...
Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Concentrations among Workers in Industries that Manufacture and Use BPA in the USA
Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity and exposure risk to humans has been the subject of considerable scientific debate; however, published occupational exposure data for BPA are limited. Methods: In 2013-2014, 77 workers at six US companies making BPA, BPA-based resins, or BPA-filled wax provided seven urine samples over two consecutive work days (151 worker-days, 525 samples). Participant information included industry, job, tasks, personal protective equipment used, hygiene behaviors, and canned food/beverage consumption. Total (free plus conjugated) BPA, quantified in urine by mass spectrometry...
Rhinite et asthme dans l'industrie pharmaceutique
L'industrie pharmaceutique en France produit chaque année près de 2 800 substances, présentes dans 11 000 spécialités. Parmi celles-ci, les antibiotiques, les enzymes et d'autres substances végétales comme les gommes sont à l'origine de l'essentiel des cas de rhinite ou d'asthme professionnel (AP) rapportés dans la littérature. Toutefois, les données épidémiologiques sont peu nombreuses et la prévalence des cas apparaît comme faible au regard du nombre de substances mises...
First order risk assessment for nanoparticle inhalation exposure during injection molding of polypropylene composites and production of tungsten-carbide-cobalt fine powder based upon pulmonary inflammation and surface area dose
Inhalation exposure to low toxicity and biodurable particles has shown to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophilia (PMN) in the lungs, which is a strong indicator for lung inflammation. Recently, Schmid and Stoeger (2016) reviewed mice and rat intratracheal instillation studies and assessed the relation between particles dry powder BET surface area dose and PMN influx for granular biodurable particles (GBPs) and transition metal oxides. In this study, we measured workers alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations (μm2 cm− 3) during injection molding of polypropylene (PP) car...
The Effects of Occupational Exposure of Carbon Disulfide on Sexual Hormones and Semen Quality of Male Workers From a Chemical Fiber Factory
Objective: This study is aimed to analyze the relationship between occupational CS2 exposure and reproductive impairments. Methods: Seventy-six CS2-exposed (9.73?±?2.76?mg/m3) male workers and 94 unexposed workers were selected for study. Worker demographics were assessed with a customized questionnaire. Sexual hormones and sperm-related parameters were measured by biochemical or morphological analysis. Results: The CS2-exposed workers had significantly higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lower levels of testosterone (T). Significant...
Guide sur l'entreposage des produits dangereux dans le secteur manufacturier
L'entreposage sécuritaire des produits dangereux consiste à séparer les produits incompatibles les uns des autres dans le but de limiter l'impact d'un déversement et de réduire les risques d'incendie ou de réactions violentes. Ce document propose une méthode en quatre étapes pour aider à organiser et à mettre en place un plan d'entreposage qui répondra aux principales exigences du Code National de Prévention des Incendies (CNPI), du Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité...
Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES) - Carcinogen Exposures Manufacturing Industry
A random, population-based sample of 5528 Australian workers participated in the Australian Work Exposure Study (AWES). Workers answered questions about the tasks they completed and the controls used at work. Based on their responses to those questions, the likelihood of exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens was estimated. The AWES focused on the most common tasks performed at work. Workers were not asked directly about their exposures to carcinogens and exposure levels were not measured in the workplace. This report describes the responses provided by 281 AWES participants categorised...
Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Female Textile Workers in Shanghai, China, Exposed to Metals, Solvents, Chemicals, and Endotoxin
Follow-Up to a Nested Case-Cohort Study Objective: We studied associations between pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures to metals, solvents, chemicals, and endotoxin in a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China. To assess the longer-term influences of these agents on pancreatic cancer we extended follow-up of this previously studied cohort. Methods: We utilized a job exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures for 481 pancreatic cancer cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort of 3191 non-cases. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional...
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. Methods: We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. Results: The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9?V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P?<?0.05). The prevalence of menstrual disorder was 12.0% in the unexposed group, but was 26.8% and 33...
Respiratory morbidity in a coffee processing workplace with sentinel obliterative bronchiolitis cases
Rationale: Obliterative bronchiolitis in former coffee workers prompted a cross-sectional study of current workers. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels were highest in areas for flavoring and grinding/packaging unflavored coffee. Methods: We interviewed 75 (88%) workers, measured lung function, and created exposure groups based on work history. We calculated standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) for symptoms and spirometric abnormalities. We examined health outcomes by exposure groups. Results: SMRs were elevated 1.6-fold for dyspnea and 2.7-fold for obstruction. The exposure group working in both...
Dermatites de contact professionnelles dans l'industrie et les laboratoires pharmaceutiques
L'industrie pharmaceutique comprend la recherche, le développement, la fabrication et la commercialisation de médicaments et de vaccins au service de la santé humaine et animale. Les dermatites de contact professionnelles observées chez le personnel de l'industrie pharmaceutique sont essentiellement des dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques et plus rarement des urticaires de contact et des dermatites de contact aux protéines. Les principaux irritants sont le travail en milieu humide, les détergents, les désinfectants et...
Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers
Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the...
Worker exposure and high time-resolution analyses of process-related submicrometre particle concentrations at mixing stations in two paint factories
The paint and coatings industry is known to have significant particulate matter (PM) emissions to the atmosphere. However, exposure levels are not studied in detail especially when considering submicrometre (PM1) and ultrafine particles (particle diameter below 100nm). The evidence is increasing that pulmonary exposures to these size fractions are potentially very harmful. This study investigates particle emissions during powder handling and paint mixing in two paint factories at two mixing stations in each factory. In each case measurements were made simultaneously at the mixing station (near...
The Use Of Adhesives
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in adhesive products, specifically during the use of adhesives in various industries. It is also intended to serve as a preliminary screening tool for assessing such chemicals. The document focuses primarily on water-based and organic solvent-based solution, hot-melt, pressure-sensitive, and reactive (excluding radiation curable1) adhesives during industrial applications for the purposes of joining substrates. The adhesives may be applied using...
Industrial Use Of Industrial Cleaners
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and release pathways of chemicals used in industrial cleaning, so as to help estimate the amounts of chemicals released into the environment. Source: http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2015)3&doclanguage=en
Portrait de la nanotechnologie au Québec dans les milieux industriels et de la recherche universitaire et publique
La présente étude a pour objectif de dresser le portrait des industries et des laboratoires de recherche universitaire et publique du Québec qui développent, produisent, utilisent ou commercialisent des NP de synthèse. Pour cela, un questionnaire adapté au contexte québécois a été élaboré, validé et complété en ligne grâce à la plateforme informatisée Survey Monkey™. Quelque 2 000 participants et plus de 1 300 entreprises ont été ciblés. Les entreprises...
Évaluation de l'exposition professionnelle aux fibres céramiques réfractaires des techniciens chauffagistes finistériens
L'utilisation des fibres céramiques réfractaires (FCR) comme isolant a été massive dans les chaudières à condensation jusqu'à la fin des années 90. Une campagne de prélèvements atmosphériques, en suivant des techniciens chauffagistes bretons, a permis de mettre en évidence une exposition de ces derniers lors des travaux de maintenance sur ce type de chaudière. Des mesures de prévention collective et individuelle sont à mettre en oeuvre ainsi qu'un suivi médical adapté...
Dermatites de contact professionnelles dans le secteur de l'imprimerie
Les dermatites de contact professionnelles sont fréquentes dans le secteur de l'imprimerie. Il s'agit essentiellement de dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques et plus rarement d'urticaires de contact. Les principaux irritants sont les solvants des produits de nettoyage, les acides, les produits alcalins de décapage et de dégravage, ainsi que les constituants des encres. Les principaux allergènes sont les constituants des résines et des vernis (surtout les acrylates) et les biocides. Le diagnostic étiologique nécessite...
Risk analysis and warning rate of hot environment for foundry industry using hybrid MCDM technique
A person working in extreme hot environment is at greater risk of heat-related disorders and safety problems. Protection of health and safety needs to evaluate the risk and warning rate of hot environment without compromising productivity of the organization. In this paper, a novel hybrid technique was proposed for assessing the work safety in hot environments using multi criteria decision making (MCDM) technique. The proposed model involves analytic network process (ANP) and linguistic fuzzy approach. The ANP approach is used to compute the weights of evaluation factors and triangular fuzzy numbers...
Pulmonary Inflammation in Foundry Workers
Objective: To assess whether cumulative dust exposure in foundry work is associated with airway inflammation measured by the analysis of fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, or by inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate or serum. Methods: We examined 476 dust-exposed and nonexposed foundry workers, and assessed the individual cumulative exposure to dusts and respirable quartz. Bronchial and alveolar NO production and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate and in serum samples were also analyzed. Results: After adjusting for pack-years of smoking, increased...
Worker Exposure to Silica during Countertop Manufacturing, Finishing and Installation
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have identified exposure to silica as a health hazard to workers involved in manufacturing, finishing and installing natural and manufactured stone countertop products, both in fabrication shops and during in-home finishing/installation. This hazard can be mitigated with simple and effective dust controls in most countertop operations. Source: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3768.pdf
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