Parcourir par tags

Tous les tags » Secteur de l'industrie extractive (RSS)
Human exposure to uranium in South African gold mining areas using barber-based hair sampling
Uranium (U) measurements in water, soil, and food related to gold mining activities in populated areas in Gauteng Province, South Africa, suggest the possibility of exposure levels that may lead to adverse health consequences, including cancer. Theoretical considerations on pathways of human uptake of significant exposures are plausible, but few data on directly measured human exposure are available. A cross-sectional study was conducted using human measurements to compare U levels with other settings around the globe (based on literature review), to explore potential exposure variability within...
Effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust on acute myocardial infarction
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz (RQ) on first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). RQ causes pulmonary diseases like silicosis and has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation is hypothesised as the underlying pathway. Methods: We performed a 1:3 matched case–control study nested in a cohort of male uranium miners. We included cases (identified from hospital records and validated according to WHO criteria) who had suffered their first AMI while still employed and <65 years of age. Controls were...
Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
NIOSH Releases Beta Version of New Respirable Crystalline Silica Monitoring Software
Mines can now monitor worker exposure to hazardous respirable crystalline silica (RCS) more effectively thanks to new software developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Program in beta version. This novel, field-based tool called “FAST” (Field Analysis of Silica Tool), works together with commercially available FTIR analyzers (Fourier Transform Infrared) to determine a worker's exposure to RCS dust, providing detailed results immediately following a worker's shift. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-10-03-18.html
In-cab air filtration in plant vehicles to control exposure to hazardous dust
Quarry industry example Tackling occupational lung disease is a priority for HSE. In-cab air filtration systems are installed on plant vehicles used in a wide range of industries where drivers can potentially breathe in hazardous airborne dust, such as farming, waste management and quarrying. Plant vehicles include tractors, diggers, dumper trucks, excavators and mechanical shovels. However, little is known about the effectiveness of in-cab air filtration as a control measure. This report describes research to develop this evidence; the research was carried out with the support of the quarry industry...
Design, Testing, and Modeling of Environmental Enclosures for Controlling Worker Exposure to Airborne Contaminants
Environmental enclosures such as cabs, booths, rooms, etc. are one of the mainstay engineering control methods for reducing operators' exposure to airborne contaminants generated outside the enclosure. In order to achieve a cleaner air environment, air filtration is typically incorporated into the enclosure's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has jointly conducted collaborative research efforts with HVAC system manufacturers, cab filtration/pressurization component manufacturers, original equipment...
Diesel engine exhaust exposure in underground mines
Comparison between different surrogates of particulate exposure Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is frequently assessed by measuring indicators of carbon speciation, but these measurements may be affected by organic carbon (OC) interference. Furthermore, there are still questions regarding the reliability of direct-reading instruments (DRI) for measuring DPM, since these instruments are not specific and may be interfered by other aerosol sources. This study aimed to to assess DPM exposure in two underground mines by filter-based methods and DRI; and to assess the relationship between...
Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners From 3 Clinics in Virginia
Since 1970, the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP), administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has offered periodic chest radiographs to working US coal miners.1 The primary purpose of the CWHSP is early detection of coal workers' pneumoconiosis to prevent progression to disabling lung disease, including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). By the late 1990s, PMF was rarely identified among miners participating in the CWHSP. However, a 2014 report documented an increase in the prevalence of PMF in Appalachia.2 On February 1, 2017, the director...
Coal miner participation in a job transfer program designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis, United States, 1986–2016
The Part 90 program was designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis in U.S. coal miners by establishing their right to transfer to a less dusty job in the mine. We calculated the proportion of Part 90-eligible miners who participated during 1986–2016, examined participation by region, and compared characteristics of miners by participation status. Of the 3,547 eligible miners, 14.4% exercised their Part 90 option. Miners working in states outside central Appalachia, and those with more severe pneumoconiosis, were more likely to participate. The primary goal of respiratory health surveillance...
The Deepwater Horizon Incident: Fire and Explosion Issues
The loss of life and serious environmental damage from the blow out incident on the semi-submersible drilling rig Deepwater Horizon in 2010 in the US sector of the Gulf of Mexico has forced a reappraisal of the risks associated with drilling. HSE commissioned this work in order to consider the lessons to be learned from this international incident. It is important for HSE to stimulate and inform consideration of fire and explosion risks amongst the designers and operators of drilling rigs. Well control is clearly the first priority but some residual risk of blowout normally remains. This report...
Evaluation of high blood pressure and obesity among US coal miners participating in the Enhanced Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program
Since 2005, the Enhanced Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (ECWHSP) has offered respiratory examinations to coal miners in a mobile examination unit. As little is known about the cardiovascular health of coal miners, we describe the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and obesity among ECWHSP participants. During 2015, 1402 ECWHSP health examinations were performed. The prevalence of BP consistent with hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg), prehypertension (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg), and hypertensive crisis (systolic...
NIOSH Releases Updated Hazard Assessment Software
EVADE Software Expanded to Identify Multiple Hazardous Exposures. The latest version of the EVADE software has been expanded to show mine workers exactly where they are being exposed to hazards on the job, and therefore where an intervention can be effective. When mines try to reduce harmful exposures to their workers, it's often a matter of guesswork and trial and error not only to pinpoint the sources, but to know where fixes might offer the greatest impact. EVADE puts the power to identify and then correct exposure hazards in the hands of mine operators. While NIOSH originally developed...
Resurgence of Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners - Eastern Kentucky, 2016
The prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis fell precipitously after implementation of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act and reached historic lows in the 1990s, with the most severe form, progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), nearly eradicated. Since that time, increases in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis have occurred, especially in central Appalachia. During January 1, 2015–August 17, 2016, a total of 60 patients identified through a single radiologist's practice had radiographic findings consistent with PMF; 49 had their radiograph taken during...
Spontaneous ignition of gas turbine lubricants at temperatures below their standard auto-ignition temperatures
In order to determine how process conditions can influence minimum auto-ignition temperatures in gas turbine enclosures, and other industrial installations, a novel type of calorimeter has been developed at HSE's Buxton research laboratory. This instrument, a Spontaneous Combustion Calorimeter (SCC), has been used to investigate the ignition properties of pure substances, such as n-heptane and compare the results with minimum ignition temperatures determined using standard methods. This was followed by a more detailed investigation of the ignition of gas-turbine lubricants. Source: http://www...
Health and Safety Risks for Workers Involved in Manual Tank Gauging and Sampling at Oil and Gas Extraction Sites
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have identified health and safety risks to workers who manually gauge or sample fluids on production and flowback tanks from exposure to hydrocarbon gases and vapors, exposure to oxygen-deficient atmospheres, and the potential for fires and explosions. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2016-108/default.html
Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions
Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along...
Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen
Smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case–control studies Objectives: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and quarrymen. Methods: We estimated lung cancer risks of coal and ore miners and quarrymen among 14 251 lung cancer cases and 17 267 controls from the SYNERGY pooled case–control study, controlling for...
Is There an Association of Circulatory Hospitalizations Independent of Mining Employment in Coal-Mining and Non–Coal-Mining Counties in West Virginia?
Objective: Exposures associated with coal mining activities, including diesel fuel exhaust, products used in coal processing, and heavy metals and other forms of particulate matter, may impact the health of nearby residents. We investigated the relationships between county-level circulatory hospitalization rates (CHRs) in coal and non–coal-mining communities of West Virginia, coal production, coal employment, and sociodemographic factors. Methods: Direct age-adjusted CHRs were calculated using West Virginia hospitalizations from 2005 to 2009. Spatial regressions were conducted to explore...
Debilitating Lung Disease Among Surface Coal Miners With No Underground Mining Tenure
Objective: To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Methods: Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Results: Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest...
Cancer burden of diesel exhaust steep for exposed workers
Almost five per cent of all lung cancers diagnosed in Canadian males each year are attributable to occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). This burden was uncovered by Occupational Cancer Research Centre (OCRC) researchers as part of a wider project to estimate the current overall burden of occupational cancers suffered by Canadian workers. The OCRC released preliminary data recently estimating the proportion of new DEE-related diagnosed lung cancers to be 4.92% for males, 0.29% for females and 2.70% overall. Considering it can take years, even decades, from initial exposure to carcinogens...
Preliminary Field Studies on Worker Exposures to Volatile Chemicals during Oil and Gas Extraction Flowback and Production Testing Operations
This blog describes NIOSH evaluations of worker exposures to specific chemicals during oil and gas extraction flowback and production testing activities. These activities occur after well stimulation and are necessary to bring the well into production. Included are descriptions of initial exposure assessments, findings, and recommendations to reduce worker exposures to potential hazards. Further details about these assessments can be read in a recently published peer-reviewed journal article, “Evaluation of Some Potential Chemical Exposure Risks during Flowback Operations in Unconventional...
Reports of Worker Fatalities during Flowback Operations
Although worker safety hazards in the oil and gas extraction industry are well known, there is very little published data regarding occupational health hazards (e.g., types and magnitude of risks for chemical exposures) during oil and gas extraction operations. To address the lack of information, NIOSH requests assistance from oil and gas stakeholders in further characterizing risks for chemical exposures during flowback operations and, as needed, develop and implement exposure controls. This blog briefly describes flowback operations and addresses reports made known to NIOSH of recent worker fatalities...
Expression Levels of Surfactant-Associated Proteins and Inflammation Cytokines in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Among Coal Miners
A Case-Control Study Objective: To investigate whether the Th1/Th2 balance and expressions of surfactant-associated proteins and cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are associated with the development of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 72 CWP cases and 68 controls. Th1 and Th2 populations were measured by flow cytometry. Expressions of surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SPA and SPD) and cytokines in serum and BALF were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. Data were analyzed by t test and logistic...
Heat Strain and Hydration Status of Surface Mine Blast Crew Workers
Objective: Dehydration and symptoms of heat illness are common among the surface mining workforce. This investigation aimed to determine whether heat strain and hydration status exceeded recommended limits. Methods: Fifteen blast crew personnel operating in the tropics were monitored across a 12-hour shift. Heart rate, core body temperature, and urine-specific gravity were continuously recorded. Participants self-reported fluid consumption and completed a heat illness symptom inventory. Results: Core body temperature averaged 37.46 ± 0.13°C, with the group maximum 37.98 ± 0.19°C...
Occupational Heat Strain in a Hot Underground Metal Mine
Objective: In a hot underground metal mine, this study evaluated the relationship between job task, physical body type, work shift, and heat strain. Methods: Thirty-one miners were evaluated during 98 shifts while performing deep shaft-sinking tasks. Continuous core body temperature, heart rate, pre- and postshift urine specific gravity (USG), and body mass index were measured. Results: Cutting and welding tasks were associated with significantly (P < 0.05) increased core body temperature, maximum heart rate, and increased postshift urine specific gravity. Miners in the obese level II and III...
Plus de Messages Page suivante »

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives