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The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases
An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement Rationale: Workplace inhalational hazards remain common worldwide, even though they are ameliorable. Previous American Thoracic Society documents have assessed the contribution of workplace exposures to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on a population level, but not to other chronic respiratory diseases. The goal of this document is to report an in-depth literature review and data synthesis of the occupational contribution to the burden of the major nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including airway...
Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Organic Flame Retardants: A Systematic Review
Background: Flame retardants (FRs) are widespread in common goods, and workers in some industries can be exposed to high concentrations. Numerous studies describe occupational exposure to FRs, but the diversity of methods and of reported results renders their interpretation difficult for researchers, occupational hygienists, and decision makers. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to compile and summarize the scientific knowledge on occupational exposure to FRs as well as to identify research gaps and to formulate recommendations. Methods: Five databases were consulted for this systematic...
Current state of knowledge on the health effects of engineered nanomaterials in workers
A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations Objectives: The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods: A systematic review of human...
NIOSH Reviews Scientific Literature on Infectious Diseases in the Workplace
NIOSH recently published a study conducting a review of infectious disease investigations in workplaces across the United States to better understand the range of cases, the risk factors for workers, and the ways to prevent infectious disease transmission on the job. Source : https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/18-0708_article
Lignes directrices de l'OMS pour la protection des travailleurs contre les risques potentiels des nanomatériaux manufacturés
L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a mis en place un groupe de travail dans le but d’élaborer des lignes directrices qui s’expriment sous forme de recommandations visant à protéger les travailleurs contre les risques potentiels des nanomatériaux manufacturés (NMM) pour la santé. Ces lignes directrices s’appuient sur une série de revues systématiques de la littérature effectuées par des équipes de recherche affiliées à différents centres internationaux. L’Institut...
Revue de la littérature épidémiologique sur le risque de cancer chez les pompiers
Une revue des publications sur le cancer chez les pompiers parues depuis l'analyse documentaire réalisée en 2007 par le CIRC a été entreprise dans le but de mettre en évidence de nouvelles preuves de liens ou des indicateurs d'associations possibles entre la profession de pompier et le cancer. Cette revue de la littérature a porté sur 21 sièges de cancer à l'égard desquels certaines preuves de lien non concluantes étaient ressorties des revues antérieures. Plus de 600 publications sur l'exposition...
Utilisation des composés organiques volatils microbiens comme biomarqueurs de l'exposition aux moisissures en milieu de travail ? Étude de faisabilité
La problématique de la qualité de l'air est un aspect important de la santé et de la sécurité au travail. Les moisissures et leurs composés sont des contaminants auxquels les travailleurs peuvent être exposés. Ces microorganismes sont responsables de nombreux problèmes de santé (maladies ou inconforts), incluant des allergies aiguës, de l'asthme, des sinusites/rhinites, des céphalées, de l'hypersensibilité environnementale, des irritations et des inflammations. La surveillance classique de...
IARC Scientific Publication No. 165: Tumour Site Concordance and Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has published a new Scientific Publication that reviews the information on cancer sites and mechanistic events for the more than 100 agents classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans) by the IARC Monographs Programme. This publication is based on a systematic identification and comparison of the cancer sites observed in humans and those observed in experimental animals, as well as a compilation of mechanistic events for agents known to cause cancer in humans. Relevant information was analysed on all the agents classified in Group 1 in IARC...
NIOSH Reviews Scientific Literature on Infectious Diseases in the Workplace
It may be obvious when people get injured at work, but it may not always be apparent when people acquire infections resulting from exposures at work. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently published a study conducting a review of infectious disease investigations in U.S. workplaces to better understand the range of cases, the risk factors for workers, and the ways to prevent infectious disease transmission on the job. Source : https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/18-0708_article
A Systematic Review of the Routes and Forms of Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials
Background: Establishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Methods: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed. Only studies including measurements of inhalation or dermal exposure were selected and used...
Treatments to prevent hand skin irritation in the workplace
Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is a skin disease that occurs on the hands of employees in certain jobs. The first signs are red and scaly patches in the finger webs and on the knuckle area of the hands. Itchy blisters, painful cracks, and possibly infection are common, and eventually the skin becomes thickened. Hand skin irritation can affect employees who regularly come into contact with water, detergents, chemicals, and other irritants, or who wear gloves during their working day. People at particular risk include hairdressers, nurses, cleaners, builders, and people who work in...
Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis
Background: Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) causes significant functional impairment, disruption of work, and discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures such as protective gloves, barrier creams and moisturisers can be used, but it is not clear how effective these are. This is an update of a Cochrane review which was previously published in 2010. Objectives: To assess the effects of primary preventive interventions and strategies (physical and behavioural) for preventing OIHD in healthy people (who have no hand dermatitis) who work in occupations where the...
Workplace Measurements of Ultrafine Particles
A Literature Review Workers are exposed to ultrafine particles (UFP) in a number of occupations. In order to summarize the current knowledge regarding occupational exposure to UFP (excluding engineered nanoparticles), we gathered information on UFP concentrations from published research articles. The aim of our study was to create a basis for future epidemiological studies that treat UFP as an exposure factor. The literature search found 72 publications regarding UFP measurements in work environments. These articles covered 314 measurement results and tabled concentrations. Mean concentrations...
History of knowledge and evolution of occupational health and regulatory aspects of asbestos exposure science: 1900–1975
The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health...
Occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetics: a systematic review
Background: The effects of long-term occupational exposure to small concentrations of volatile anaesthetics on health professionals are still uncertain despite the research literature available on this subject. Aims: To analyse the existing literature on the health effects of volatile anaesthetics on exposed health professionals. Methods: We performed a systematic review from March 2013 to January 2014. The literature was searched in the Medline and Cochrane libraries using the following keywords: ‘Anaesthetics AND occupational health', ‘Volatile anaesthetics AND occupational health'...
État des connaissances sur la relation entre les concentrations d’amiante dans le sol et dans l’air
Les activités reliées à des travaux d'aménagement, de sécurisation ou de réhabilitation de sites contaminés par de l'amiante peuvent entraîner la mise en suspension de fibres dans l'air. Les concentrations de fibres dans l'air peuvent dépendre de plusieurs paramètres dont la connaissance peut influer sur le choix de mesures de prévention et de protection des travailleurs. La présente étude visait donc à dresser l'état des connaissances sur la relation entre les concentrations...
Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A systematic literature review Objective : Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. Methods : We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational...
Risk perception and risk communication with regard to nanomaterials in the workplace
Manufactured nanomaterials can bring huge benefits to society but there are concerns about their health and environmental hazards. This literature review shows that there are also serious gaps in the awareness of the potential risks involved in handling manufactured nanomaterials in the workplace, and serious shortcomings in the way that those risks are communicated to the workplace. Effective, transparent, balanced and open risk communication strategies tailored to workplaces are needed to help employers and workers make informed decisions and put adequate prevention measures in place. Source...
Effects of Chemical Co-exposures at Doses Relevant for Human Safety Assessments
Chemical regulation is mainly based on single substances, but exposure is to complex mixtures, which raises the question of whether the regulatory framework is adequate and protective. There has long been an interest in the toxicology of mixtures, but most studies have been conducted at effect levels for the components of a mixture. This review focused specifically on studies where a mixture has been tested at doses which are at or below the NO(A)EL for every component of the mixture. This is the only dose region in which mixture toxicity could threaten regulatory safety margins. A thorough literature...
Exposition des travailleurs de la construction à la silice cristalline : bilan et analyse de la littérature
Dans le secteur de la construction, l’exposition professionnelle à la silice cristalline est fréquente dans plusieurs métiers, en raison de sa présence dans de nombreux matériaux manipulés, par exemple le béton, le mortier et la brique, et à cause des procédés mis en oeuvre impliquant des opérations telles que le cassage, le meulage ou le sciage. Au Québec, tout comme dans d’autres juridictions, les niveaux d’exposition à la silice cristalline dans le secteur de la construction dépassent...
Revue sélective de la littérature (1995 à 2009) sur la cancérogénicité du trichloroéthylène (TCE)
En 1995, un groupe de travail du Centre international de recherche sur le cancer (CIRC – International Agency for Research in Cancer – IARC) a conclu que le trichloroéthylène (trichloroéthène; TCE; numéro d'enregistrement CAS : 79-01-6) pouvait causer le cancer chez les rongeurs de laboratoire, et qu'il était probablement cancérogène pour les humains (IARC, 1995). Afin de déterminer si ces conclusions ont été modifiées de façon notable par les publications scientifiques plus récentes...

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