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ASTM E3193 - Standard Test Method for Measurement of Lead (Pb) in Dust by Wipe, Paint, and Soil by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS)
This test method covers the determination of lead (Pb) in dust by wipe, paint, and soil collected in and around buildings and related structures by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) and is derived from Test Methods D4185 and E1613. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3193.htm
Occupational Exposure to Metals in Shooting Ranges: A Biomonitoring Study
Background Lead (Pb) exposure in shooting ranges has been reduced by various measures such as jacketed ammunition and lead-free primers. Nevertheless, this may lead to exposure to other metals, potentially resulting in adverse health effects. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 35 subjects from seven different shooting ranges were studied: four shooting instructors, 10 police officers, 15 Special Forces, and six maintenance staff members. Metals and metalloids were determined in blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of most elements did...
The association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular diseases among lead-exposed male workers
The contribution of lead exposure to cardiovascular disease is not yet fully understood. This study found an association between blood lead levels and increased hospital admission of ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Greater efforts are needed to reduce lead exposure for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Source: Min, Y. S., & Ahn, Y. S. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3631
Decision Regulation Impact Statement for managing risks associated with lead in the workplace
Blood lead removal levels and workplace exposure standard This Decision Regulation Impact Statement (RIS) is the result of Safe Work Australia’s review of the current toxicological information and overseas trends in the regulation of lead in the workplace. It examines options to reduce the adverse health outcomes caused by exposure to lead in the workplace. In line with international standards and current Australian research, this Decision RIS presents a preferred option of lowering the blood lead removal levels and maximum permissible airborne concentration of lead to afford greater protection...
Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Employed Adults
United States, 1994–2013 Since 1987, NIOSH and state health departments have maintained the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) Program, a state-based surveillance program of laboratory-reported adult BLLs. The BLL is an often-used estimate of recent external exposure to lead. This report summarizes data on elevated BLLs among employed adults during January 1, 1994–December 31, 2013. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/63/wr/mm6355a5.htm
Statistics Western Australia: Lead levels in blood 1994-2015
The WA Occupational Safety and Health Regulations (1996) require that health surveillance, including blood lead level tests, is provided to workers undertaking lead risk work. This report summarises these results by calendar year for the period 1 January 1994 – 15 May 2015 (date of test). Source: http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/publications/statistics-western-australia-lead-levels-blood-1994-2015
Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Employed Adults
United States, 1994-2012 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and state health departments collect data on laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels (BLLs). This report presents data on elevated blood lead levels among employed adults in the United States for 1994-2012. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6254a4.htm
Occupational Lead Exposure and Associations with Selected Cancers
The Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study Cohorts Background: Epidemiologic studies of occupational lead exposure have suggested increased risks of cancers of the stomach, lung, kidney, brain, and meninges; however, the totality of the evidence is inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relationship between occupational lead exposure and cancer incidence of these five sites in two prospective cohorts in Shanghai, China. Methods: Annual job/industry-specific estimates of lead fume and lead dust exposure, derived from a statistical model combining expert lead intensity ratings with...
Biomonitoring in California Firefighters
Metals and Perfluorinated Chemicals Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations ...
A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies of the Association Between Chronic Occupational Exposure to Lead and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Objective: The association between occupational exposure to lead and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was examined through systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant epidemiological studies and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Methods: Relevant studies were searched in multiple bibliographic databases through September 2013; additional articles were tracked through PubMed until submission. All records were screened in DistillerSR, and the data extracted from included articles were synthesized with meta-analysis. Results: The risk of developing ALS among individuals with a history...
Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES) - Lead and lead compounds
The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 2012-2022 (the Strategy) describes work-related cancer as a priority disorder and understanding current hazardous exposures and the effectiveness of controls as a research priority. The Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES) was a national survey that investigated work-related exposures among Australian workers to 38 agents classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as known or suspected carcinogens. Some forms of lead are considered to be probable carcinogens and the work described in this report uses AWES data to: •...
Exposition au plomb chez les vitraillistes
Le vitrailliste, créateur ou restaurateur de vitraux, est exposé à de nombreux risques et, en particulier, au risque chimique lié à l'omniprésence du plomb dans son activité. Cette étude a évalué l'exposition au plomb chez trois salariés reçus en consultation de pathologie professionnelle et pour lesquels des études de postes ont été réalisées. La voie digestive via le portage mains-bouche (mains souillées lors de l'activité ou à partir de surfaces...
Occupational Determinants of Cumulative Lead Exposure
Analysis of Bone Lead Among Men in the VA Normative Aging Study Objectives: To examine the relation between occupation and cumulative lead exposure—assessed by measuring bone lead—in a community-dwelling population. Method: We measured bone lead concentration with K-shell X-Ray Fluorescence in 1320 men in the Normative Aging Study. We categorized job titles into 14 broad US Census Bureau categories. We used ordinary least squares regression to estimate bone lead by job categories adjusted for other predictors. Results: Service workers, construction, and extractive craft workers and...
Exposure to Lead in Great Britain 2014
There was an overall reduction in the number of British workers under medical surveillance for work with lead over the past decade. Women have consistently accounted for a small proportion of the total under surveillance, and the number of young people (under 18 years) under surveillance remains low. The most recent medical surveillance data show: - The total number of workers under medical surveillance fell by 47% from 7949 in 2011/12 to 4240 in 2012/13 - The industry sector with the highest number of males under surveillance was the lead battery manufacture sector, with numbers similar to previous...
Les effets du plomb sur la santé associés à des plombémies inférieures à 100 µg/L
Dans un avis scientifique « Plomb dans l’alimentation » publié en avril 2010, l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) faisait état d’effets neurotoxiques, sur le développement, cardiovasculaires et rénaux associés à des plombémies (1) inférieures à 100 µg/L, valeur de surveillance communément admise au niveau international. Cette valeur de 100µg/L est celle retenue par ailleurs pour la surveillance du dépistage et de la déclaration...
Metals in the Lungs of Ontario Hardrock Miners
The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel, cadmium, and lead in the autopsied lungs of 29 hardrock miners. It involved chemical analysis of the lungs, where each lung was divided horizontally into 3 sections and analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace. The grand mean levels of nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to be 1.84, 1.74, and 2.75 μg/g of dry tissue, respectively. The effect of smoking was also examined. The ratios using the mean values between smoker and nonsmoker for nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to...
Occupational exposure to lead and lung cancer: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada
Objectives We investigated the association between workplace lead exposure and lung cancer risk, separately for organic lead and for inorganic lead, from either engine emissions or from other sources. Methods Two population-based case-control studies were carried out in Montreal (1979–1986 and 1996–2002) to investigate occupational factors in relation to lung cancer among 1593 men with histologically confirmed incident lung cancer, and 1426 controls from the general population. Interviews elicited information on sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime smoking and occupational history...
Reducing Exposure to Lead and Noise at Outdoor Firing Ranges
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently published recommendations for reducing exposure to lead and noise at indoor firing ranges [NIOSH 2009]. However, workers and users of outdoor firing ranges may be exposed to similar hazards. This followup document examines exposures at these ranges and recommends steps to reduce such exposures. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2013-104/pdfs/2013-104.pdf
Exposure to lead
There was an overall reduction in the number of British workers under medical surveillance for work with lead over the past decade. Women have consistently accounted for a small proportion of the total under surveillance, and the number of young people (under 18 years) under surveillance remains low. The most recent medical surveillance data show: - The total number of workers under medical surveillance rose by 4% to 7472 in 2010/11 from 7162 in 2009/10. - The industry sector with the highest number of males under surveillance was the smelting, refining, alloying and casting sector. - In 2010/11...
Evaluation of Lead Exposure at an Indoor Firing Range
HHE Program investigators evaluated concerns about lead exposures and indoor environmental quality problems at an indoor firing range. Investigators found that airflow along and downrange of the firing line did not meet NIOSH recommendations. Investigators found that exposure for one instructor, one shooter, and the hazardous materials technician were above the occupational exposure limits for lead for an 8-hour time-weighted average. Surface wipe and floor vacuum samples detected lead in various places. Investigators recommended installing a ventilation system that can deliver the NIOSH-recommended...
Les écrans à tubes cathodiques : comment réduire le risque chimique
Les écrans à tubes cathodiques sont des déchets dangereux du fait de la présence de plomb, de poudres luminescentes, de baryum, de cadmium et de verres spécifiques. Ces équipements présentent donc un risque chimique particulier pour l'homme et l'environnement. Ce document traite uniquement du risque chimique, l'un des principaux risques dans cette filière. Il s'adresse aux entreprises concernées par les opérations de traitement des écrans à tubes cathodiques (démanteleurs d'écrans...
NIOSH Posts New Database Resource on Rates, Trends in Elevated Blood Lead Levels
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) posted a new interactive, Web-based resource to help users identify, monitor, and address harmful overexposures to lead. The web page provides data on cases of elevated levels of lead in the blood of adults, and trends in those cases over time. It also allows users – particularly occupational and environmental health professionals and researchers – to create customized data products from those data. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-11-03-10.html
Dangerous lead
Using never before published data, Hazards can reveal tens of thousands of workers are at risk of kidney and heart disease, brain damage, cancer and other serious disorders at the UK's ‘safe' workplace lead exposure limit. Source : http://www.hazards.org/lead/index.htm
Evaluation of Health Concerns at a Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Plant
The Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Programme evaluated employees' concerns about exposure to lead solder paste and fumes and noise at a printed circuit board manufacturing plant. Investigators found that auto insertion operators' noise exposures were very low. Investigators found lead on employees' hands, on work surfaces, and in a break room. Investigators recommended improving general housekeeping and using engineering controls when removing solder dross and cleaning wave solder machines. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2007-0201-3086.pdf
Preventing Occupational Exposures to Lead and Noise at Indoor Firing Ranges
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests help in preventing injury and illness in workers at indoor firing ranges in the United States. Workers are potentially exposed to hazardous amounts of lead and noise at these ranges. They include thousands of employees at the firing ranges as well as more than a million Federal, State, and local law officers who train regularly at these facilities. In addition to workers, 20 million active target shooters are potentially exposed to lead and noise hazards at indoor firing ranges. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2009-136/
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