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Occupational Exposure to Metals in Shooting Ranges: A Biomonitoring Study
Background Lead (Pb) exposure in shooting ranges has been reduced by various measures such as jacketed ammunition and lead-free primers. Nevertheless, this may lead to exposure to other metals, potentially resulting in adverse health effects. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 35 subjects from seven different shooting ranges were studied: four shooting instructors, 10 police officers, 15 Special Forces, and six maintenance staff members. Metals and metalloids were determined in blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of most elements did...
Biomonitoring in California Firefighters
Metals and Perfluorinated Chemicals Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations ...
Metals in the Lungs of Ontario Hardrock Miners
The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel, cadmium, and lead in the autopsied lungs of 29 hardrock miners. It involved chemical analysis of the lungs, where each lung was divided horizontally into 3 sections and analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace. The grand mean levels of nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to be 1.84, 1.74, and 2.75 μg/g of dry tissue, respectively. The effect of smoking was also examined. The ratios using the mean values between smoker and nonsmoker for nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to...
Evaluation of Lead Exposure at an Indoor Firing Range
HHE Program investigators evaluated concerns about lead exposures and indoor environmental quality problems at an indoor firing range. Investigators found that airflow along and downrange of the firing line did not meet NIOSH recommendations. Investigators found that exposure for one instructor, one shooter, and the hazardous materials technician were above the occupational exposure limits for lead for an 8-hour time-weighted average. Surface wipe and floor vacuum samples detected lead in various places. Investigators recommended installing a ventilation system that can deliver the NIOSH-recommended...
Preventing Occupational Exposures to Lead and Noise at Indoor Firing Ranges
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) requests help in preventing injury and illness in workers at indoor firing ranges in the United States. Workers are potentially exposed to hazardous amounts of lead and noise at these ranges. They include thousands of employees at the firing ranges as well as more than a million Federal, State, and local law officers who train regularly at these facilities. In addition to workers, 20 million active target shooters are potentially exposed to lead and noise hazards at indoor firing ranges.

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