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La lambda-cyhalothrine comme insecticide en milieu agricole
Étude de la toxicocinétique de biomarqueurs pour le suivi de l'exposition des travailleurs L'objectif général du présent projet de recherche a été de combler le manque de connaissance sur la toxicocinétique de biomarqueurs d'exposition à la lambda-cyhalothrine chez l'humain, pour une meilleure interprétation des données de biosurveillance des travailleurs exposés à ce pesticide et une meilleure évaluation des risques associés. Ce projet a été divisé en deux...
NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Atrazine
As the largest organ of the body, the skin performs multiple critical functions, such as serving as the primary barrier to the external environment. For this reason, the skin is often exposed to potentially hazardous agents, including chemicals, which may contribute to the onset of a spectrum of adverse health effects ranging from localized damage (such as irritant contact dermatitis and corrosion) to induction of immune-mediated responses (such as allergic contact dermatitis and pulmonary responses), or systemic toxicity (such as neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity). Understanding the hazards related...
Prévalences de l’exposition des viticulteurs aux pesticides arsenicaux entre 1979 et 2001
L'évaluation rétrospective des expositions aux pesticides des travailleurs agricoles est une démarche nécessaire pour comprendre et établir des liens entre leurs activités tout le long de leur carrière et de potentielles pathologies graves telles les cancers ou les maladies neurodégénératives. Les outils fiables soutenus par une méthodologie précise et structurée sont peu nombreux. L'arsenic inorganique est considéré comme un cancérogène avéré pour l'homme...
Manutention des conteneurs fumigés dans les ports - risques pour la santé et pratiques de prévention
Ce rapport examine les risques potentiels pour la sécurité et la santé liés à la manutention, dans les ports, de conteneurs ayant été fumigés avec des pesticides. Les auteurs examinent la législation et la littérature internationales (publications scientifiques mais aussi lignes directrices et articles), identifient les risques liés à la sécurité et à la santé au travail et décrivent des exemples pratiques de mesures et de stratégies préventives. Ils concluent qu'il...
Handling fumigated containers in ports - health risks and prevention practices
This report reviews the potential safety and health risks arising from handling containers in ports that have been fumigated with pesticides. The authors review the legislation, identify the risks and describe practical examples of preventive measures and strategies. They conclude that there are important gaps in our knowledge. The problem is also underestimated because of poor record-keeping of adverse health effects and because fumigated containers are rarely labelled. The authors recommend prioritising control measures such as risk assessment of containers before opening, routine screening of...
IARC Monographs Volume 112: Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides
This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of some organophosphate insecticides and herbicides, including diazinon, glyphosate, malathion, parathion, and tetrachlorvinphos. Diazinon acts on a wide range of insects on crops, gardens, livestock, and pets, but most uses have been restricted in the USA, Canada, and the European Union since the 1980s. Glyphosate is the most heavily used agricultural and residential herbicide in the world, and has been detected in soil, air, surface water, and groundwater, as well as in food. Malathion is one of the oldest and most...
Comparative study on exposure of workers and bystanders during pest control of the Oak Processionary Moth by spray application
Biocidal products used for spray application against the oak processionary moth (OPM) require authorisation in accordance with Regulation (EU) No. 528/2012 of the European Parliament for that use. For authorisation, a risk assessment based on exposure estimation is performed for all intended uses of the respective product. Detailed information on the application process and the resulting exposure of operators and of bystanders was lacking until now. It is expected that the main routes of exposure are dermal and inhalation. Spray applications carried out for control of OPM show significant differences...
Exposition et santé des agriculteurs
Rapport et recommandations Afin d'effectuer un état des lieux des données et des besoins existants sur la santé des agriculteurs exposés aux pesticides, l'Institut universitaire romand de Santé au Travail (IST) en collaboration avec le Service de Prévention des Accidents dans l'Agriculture (SPAA) et le Secrétariat d'état à l'économie (SECO) ont organisé un workshop le 08 juin 2017 à Lausanne. Ce workshop a réuni des spécialistes de différents domaines d'expertise et a...
Molecular detection of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis and hematological and biochemical analyses in agricultural sprayers exposed to pesticides
A cross-sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan during 2014–2016 We determined the correlation between a pesticide exposure, physical health and susceptibility toward tuberculosis along with hematological indices and liver enzymes' alterations in sprayers exposed to pesticides. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis was detected by targeting histone-like protein (hupB) gene. The WBC (white blood cells) and RBC (red blood cells) levels of male sprayers and non-sprayers were significantly different (P<0.05). In female spray workers, the WBC and neutrophils...
Harvesters in strawberry fields
A literature review of pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and a model for exposure prediction Strawberry harvesters hand-pick fruit that may result in pesticide exposure from hand foliar contact. This paper included a review of publications on harvester pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and development of an alternative model for pesticide exposure prediction. Previous studies monitored the dermal pesticide exposure of strawberry harvesters and found most of the exposure (>70%) was on the hands. Exposure rates (ERs) were calculated as pesticide...
Dermatites de contact professionnelles dans le secteur agricole
Dans le secteur agricole, les dermatites de contact professionnelles peuvent être des dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergique, des photodermatites de contact, des urticaires de contact ou des dermatites de contact aux protéines. Les principaux irritants sont les produits phytosanitaires, les végétaux, les désinfectants et détergents, le travail en milieu humide, les huiles et les graisses. Les principaux allergènes sont les produits d'origine végétale et animale, les additifs du caoutchouc, les biocides, notamment...
Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposures
A systematic literature review and meta-analyses Objectives: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies fulfilling good scientific epidemiological standards for use in meta-analyses of relevant risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Methods: Our search identified 103 original publications on associations between work and Parkinson's disease. GRADE guidelines were used to ensure high scientific quality, and reliable guidelines were applied to classify the papers. Of the 103 articles, 47 fulfilled good scientific standards while 56 were methodologically deficient and thus...
Prévention des risques liés aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes
État des lieux et actions à mener pour une meilleure protection individuelle Au Québec, on dénombrait près de 29 000 exploitations qui procuraient 125 000 emplois à des travailleurs du secteur de la production agricole (2007). Alors que les pesticides ont pour fonction de lutter contre les parasites des cultures, ils peuvent avoir des effets, à court et long termes, sur la santé des producteurs qui y sont exposés, majoritairement par la peau. Leur utilisation est donc encadrée et des mesures de prévention du risque sont...
Organophosphate Pesticide Urinary Metabolites Among Latino Immigrants
North Carolina Farmworkers and Non-farmworkers Compared Background: This analysis documents detections and concentrations of the six dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolite of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides among North Carolina Latino migrant farmworkers, with comparison to non-farmworker Latino immigrants. Methods: Participants provided up to four urine samples during the 2012 and 2013 agricultural seasons. Composite urine samples for each year were analyzed. Results: DAP urinary metabolite detections were similar in farmworkers and non-farmworker; for example, for 2012, 75.4% of farmworkers...
Développement et application d’une approche pour l’évaluation de l’exposition des travailleurs agricoles aux pyréthrinoïdes
L'exposition aux pyréthrinoïdes est une préoccupation croissante en milieu de travail. Cette classe de pesticides est maintenant abondamment utilisée en agriculture dans toute une variété de cultures et tend à remplacer les insecticides organophosphorés. Bien qu'utilisés comme insecticides en raison de leur action neurotoxique, ils peuvent causer ces mêmes effets chez les humains. L'exposition à ces insecticides a aussi été reliée à des changements immunitaires et endocriniens. Les...
Publication du rapport sur les expositions professionnelles aux pesticides
Mieux connaître et réduire les expositions En France, plus d’un million de professionnels du secteur agricole sont potentiellement exposés aux pesticides. L’Anses s’est autosaisie en 2011 pour mener une expertise collective visant à identifier, évaluer et caractériser les expositions aux pesticides des personnes travaillant dans l’agriculture. Dans l’avis qu’elle publie ce jour, l’Anses recommande la diminution des expositions par la réduction du recours aux pesticides, ainsi que différentes mesures...
Brain Anatomy in Latino Farmworkers Exposed to Pesticides and Nicotine
Objective: Migrant tobacco farmworkers experience regular occupational exposure to pesticides and nicotine. The present study was designed to determine whether there are differences in brain anatomy between Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Methods: Magnetic resonance brain images were compared between farmworkers and non-farmworkers. In addition, blood cholinesterase activity and urinary cotinine levels were also used to identify associations with pesticide and nicotine exposure. Results: Farmworkers had greater gray matter signal in putamen and cerebellum, and lower gray matter signal in...
Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma
Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. Methods: A pooled analysis of two case–control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Results: Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18–5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling...
Olfactory Function in Latino Farmworkers
Subclinical Neurological Effects of Pesticide Exposure in a Vulnerable Population Objectives: We compared olfactory function in pesticide-exposed Latino farmworkers and nonfarmworkers to explore its use as a subclinical indicator of neurological pesticide effects. Methods: We recruited 304 current farmworkers and 247 nonfarmworkers. All completed odor identification (14 odors) and threshold tests (16 concentrations of n-butanol) using a well-established methodology. Results: Farmworkers reported significantly greater lifetime pesticide exposure. Performance on both olfactory tests declined with...
Prostate cancer risk among French farmers in the AGRICAN cohort
Objectives: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among men worldwide. Its etiology is largely unknown, but an increased risk has been repeatedly observed among farmers. Our aim was to identify occupational risk factors for prostate cancer among farmers in the prospective cohort study AGRICAN. Methods: Data on lifetime agricultural exposures (type of crops, livestock and tasks including pesticide use, re-entry and harvesting) were collected from the enrolment questionnaire. During the period from enrolment (2005–2007) to 31 December 2009, 1672 incident prostate cancers were...
Magnitude and characteristics of acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US: 1998–2013
Background: Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives: Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US Methods: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison...
Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety
A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and test solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were 1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and 2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five...
Drift from the use of handheld knapsack pesticide sprayers in Boyacá (Colombian Andes)
Offsite pesticide losses in tropical mountainous regions have been little studied. One example is measuring pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for surface water, soil, bystanders, off target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, within one of the highest potato producing regions in Colombia, characterized by small plots and mountain orography, is presented. High drift values encountered in our study...
Acute Occupational Pesticide-Related Illness and Injury
United States, 2007-2010 CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illnesses and injuries reported by 11 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, New Mexico [2007-2008 only], New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes data on illnesses and injuries arising from occupational exposure to conventional pesticides during 2007-2010. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6254a2.htm
Longitudinal Assessment of Blood Cholinesterase Activities Over 2 Consecutive Years Among Latino Nonfarmworkers and Pesticide-Exposed Farmworkers in North Carolina
Objective: This study (1) describes patterns of whole blood total cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities across the agricultural season, comparing farmworkers and nonfarmworkers; and (2) explores differences between farmworkers' and non-farmworkers' likelihood of cholinesterase depression. Methods: Blood samples from 210 Latino male farmworkers and 163 Latino workers with no occupational pesticide exposure collected 8 times across 2 agricultural seasons were analyzed. Mean cholinesterase activity levels and depressions 15% or more were compared by month...
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