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Development of a bar code-based exposure assessment method to evaluate occupational exposure to disinfectants and cleaning products
A pilot study Objective: Healthcare workers are highly exposed to various types of disinfectants and cleaning products. Assessment of exposure to these products remains a challenge. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a method, based on a smartphone application and bar codes, to improve occupational exposure assessment among hospital/cleaning workers in epidemiological studies. Methods: A database of disinfectants and cleaning products used in French hospitals, including their names, bar codes and composition, was developed using several sources: ProdHyBase (a database of disinfectants managed...
Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction. Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter...
Association of hand and arm disinfection with asthma control in US nurses
Objectives: To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. Methods: In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Nurses were asked about the daily frequency...
Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. The long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. Objectives: This paper aims to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and chronic airway obstruction. Methods: The ECRHS study has investigated a multi-centre population based cohort...
Respiratory Symptoms in Hospital Cleaning Staff Exposed to a Product Containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Peracetic Acid, and Acetic Acid
Cleaning and disinfecting products consisting of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (HP), peracetic acid (PAA), and acetic acid (AA) are widely used as sporicidal agents in health care, childcare, agricultural, food service, and food production industries. HP and PAA are strong oxidants and their mixture is a recognized asthmagen. However, few exposure assessment studies to date have measured HP, PAA, and AA in a health care setting. In 2015, we performed a health and exposure assessment at a hospital where a new sporicidal product, consisting of HP, PAA, and AA was introduced 16 months prior. We collected...
Associations Between Disinfection By-Product Exposures and Craniofacial Birth Defects
Objective: Examine associations between craniofacial birth defects (CFDs) and disinfection by-product (DBP) exposures, including the sum of four trihalomethanes (THM4) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) (i.e., DBP9). Methods: We calculated first trimester adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for different DBPs in a matched case-control study of 366 CFD cases in Massachusetts towns with complete 1999-2004 THM and HAA data. Results: We detected elevated aORs for cleft palate with DBP9 (highest quintile aOR = 3.52; 95%CI: 1.07, 11.60), HAA5, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and dichloroacetic acid. We detected elevated...
Health problems and disinfectant product exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital
Background: Hospital staff expressed health concerns after a surface disinfectant product containing hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid was introduced. We sought to determine if this product posed a health hazard. Methods: An interviewer-administered questionnaire on work and health characteristics was completed by 163 current staff. Symptoms that improved away from work were considered work-related. Forty-nine air samples were taken for hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using Poisson regression, and standardized morbidity...
Occupational use of high-level disinfectants and fecundity among nurses
Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between occupational use of high-level disinfectants (HLD) and fecundity among female nurses. Methods: Women currently employed outside the home and trying to get pregnant (N=1739) in the Nurses' Health Study 3 cohort (2010–2014) were included in this analysis. Occupational exposure to HLD used to disinfect medical instruments and use of protective equipment (PE) was self-reported on the baseline questionnaire. Every six months thereafter women reported the duration of their ongoing pregnancy attempt. Multivariable accelerated failure...
Presentation of an approach for risk characterization of exposure to chemicals in cleaning work
Background: Workplace risk assessment methods require expertise which cleaning companies may lack. Objective: To present a methodological, easy-to-implement approach for risk characterisation of cleaning work, and elaborate on its applicability. Materials and method: Determinants of chemical exposure including, inter alia, frequency of use (ν), use of PPE (θ) and spray bottle (σ), dilution of chemicals (δ), and workplace ambience (ξ) are used to characterise risk of cleaning work. These, are assigned numerical factors according to how they manifest in work situations. The...
Occupational health risks associated with the use of germicides in health care
Environmental surfaces have been clearly linked to transmission of key pathogens in health care facilities, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus , Clostridium difficile , norovirus, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli. For this reason, routine disinfection of environmental surfaces in patient rooms is recommended. In addition, decontamination of shared medical devices between use by different patients is also recommended. Environmental surfaces and noncritical shared medical devices are decontaminated by low-level disinfectants, most...
Industrial Use Of Industrial Cleaners
This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and release pathways of chemicals used in industrial cleaning, so as to help estimate the amounts of chemicals released into the environment. Source: http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2015)3&doclanguage=en
Precautionary Practices of Healthcare Workers Who Disinfect Medical and Dental Devices Using High-Level Disinfectants
BACKGROUND: High-level disinfectants (HLDs) are used throughout the healthcare industry to chemically disinfect reusable, semicritical medical and dental devices to control and prevent healthcare-associated infections among patient populations. Workers who use HLDs are at risk of exposure to these chemicals, some of which are respiratory and skin irritants and sensitizers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exposure controls used and to better understand impediments to healthcare workers using personal protective equipment while handling HLDs. DESIGN: Web-based survey. ARTICIPANTS: A targeted sample of members...
Ozone-initiated Terpene Reaction Products in Five European Offices
Replacement of a Floor Cleaning Agent Cleaning agents often emit terpenes that react rapidly with ozone. These ozone-initiated reactions, which occur in the gas-phase and on surfaces, produce a host of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds with possible adverse health effects in the eyes and airways. Within the European Union (EU) project OFFICAIR, common ozone-initiated reaction products were measured before and after the replacement of the regular floor cleaning agent with a preselected low emitting floor cleaning agent in four offices located in four EU countries. One reference office...
Risques associés aux préparations bactériennes et enzymatiques pour le dégraissage et le nettoyage
En remplacement des dégraissants et nettoyants traditionnels, qu'ils soient à base de solvants ou de tensioactifs, on retrouve actuellement sur le marché des préparations à base de bactéries et d'enzymes pour le nettoyage de surfaces en milieux industriel et institutionnel. Des préparations enzymatiques sont également utilisées en milieu de soins pour le nettoyage d'instruments chirurgicaux et diagnostiques. Mises à part les fiches de données de sécurité et les fiches techniques fournies par les...

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