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Protocole de mise au point des méthodes de prélèvement surfacique et d’analyse des substances chimiques sur les surfaces de travail
Ce guide décrit un protocole pour la mise au point et la validation des méthodes de prélèvement et d'analyse des substances chimiques présentes sur les surfaces de travail. Ce protocole peut être appliqué par tout laboratoire souhaitant mettre au point ses propres méthodes. Il est conforme aux exigences normatives et aux pratiques courantes sur le sujet. Ce protocole répond à plusieurs objectifs :  - permettre à tout laboratoire d’effectuer lui-même la mise au point d’une méthode, dans le respect...
ASTM E3193 - Standard Test Method for Measurement of Lead (Pb) in Dust by Wipe, Paint, and Soil by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS)
This test method covers the determination of lead (Pb) in dust by wipe, paint, and soil collected in and around buildings and related structures by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) and is derived from Test Methods D4185 and E1613. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3193.htm
NF ISO 4037- Radioprotection - Rayonnements X et gamma de référence pour l'étalonnage des dosimètres et des débitmètres
Le présent document donne des indications concernant les aspects complémentaires de la caractérisation des rayonnements de photons de faible énergie et les procédures pour l'étalonnage et la détermination de la réponse des dosimètres ou débitmètres de zone et individuels en fonction de l'énergie des photons et de l'angle d'incidence. Le présent document traite de la détermination précise des coefficients de conversion du kerma dans l'air en équivalents de dose H p...
SysDEA: Systematic analysis of dermal exposure to hazardous chemical agents at the workplace
The overall objective of the SysDEA study is to generate scientific knowledge for improvement and standardization of measurement methods for dermal exposure to chemicals at the workplace. To this end, five different tasks (transfer, spreading, spraying, handling immersed objects, and handling contaminated objects) were performed with three different product types: a dusty powder (solids) and high viscosity (HV) and low viscosity (LV) liquids. The investigated exposure situations (product-task combinations) were: dumping powder, pouring LV and HV (transfer), rolling LV and HV (spreading), surface...
Human exposure to uranium in South African gold mining areas using barber-based hair sampling
Uranium (U) measurements in water, soil, and food related to gold mining activities in populated areas in Gauteng Province, South Africa, suggest the possibility of exposure levels that may lead to adverse health consequences, including cancer. Theoretical considerations on pathways of human uptake of significant exposures are plausible, but few data on directly measured human exposure are available. A cross-sectional study was conducted using human measurements to compare U levels with other settings around the globe (based on literature review), to explore potential exposure variability within...
Halogenated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in the air of electronic waste recycling facilities
Evidence of high concentrations and multiple exposures Background: In response to a worldwide increase in production of electronic waste, the e-recycling industry is rapidly rowing. E-recycling workers are exposed to many potentially toxic contaminants, among which flame retardants (FRs), mainly suspected of being endocrine disruptors, are thought to be the most prevalent. Objective: To conduct an exposure assessment of four chemical groups of FRs in Canadian e-recycling facilities, and to identify the main cofactors of exposure. Methods: Personal air samples were collected over a workday for 85...
Caractérisation des émissions de bitume haute résistance au désenrobage (HRD) avec dope d'adhésivité
Produit de distillation du pétrole, le bitume est chauffé puis mélangé à de la matière minérale broyée (le granulat) pour former l'enrobé bitumineux qui est utilisé pour le pavage de la grande majorité des routes. Les gaz, vapeurs et particules émis lorsque le bitume ou l'enrobé est chauffé sont constitués d'un groupe complexe de composés chimiques réglementés sous le nom de fumées d'asphalte (ou de bitume), notamment dans le Règlement sur la...
Transformation du granit - Caractérisation et contrôle de la poussière de la silice émise par le polissage
La présente étude contribue à l'avancement des connaissances nécessaires pour déterminer des moyens d'élimination et de réduction à la source des poussières fines et ultrafines contenant de la silice cristalline et qui sont émises lors de la transformation du granit. L'élimination et la réduction à la source des émissions sont les moyens privilégiés pour assurer un environnement de travail sain et sécuritaire; l'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle...
Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Organic Flame Retardants: A Systematic Review
Background: Flame retardants (FRs) are widespread in common goods, and workers in some industries can be exposed to high concentrations. Numerous studies describe occupational exposure to FRs, but the diversity of methods and of reported results renders their interpretation difficult for researchers, occupational hygienists, and decision makers. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to compile and summarize the scientific knowledge on occupational exposure to FRs as well as to identify research gaps and to formulate recommendations. Methods: Five databases were consulted for this systematic...
Assessment of nanofibre dustiness by means of vibro-fluidization
Dustiness testing probes for the propensity of a powdery material to release dust particles following agitation. For high aspect-ratio materials like nanotubes, the most important dust fraction is that of potentially carcinogenic fibres(WHO-fibres).Wedeveloped the fluidizer particularly for fibres thatmakes use of vibro-fluidization in order to effectively disentangle single fibres and agglomerates of multi-walled carbon nanotube powders. Counting rules for morphological characterization of collected particles by means of electron microscopywere established, allowing quantifying the WHO-fibre fraction...
NF X43-215 - Prélèvement et analyse des aérosols semi-volatils
Exigences et méthodes d'essai Le présent document décrit les procédures de mise au point, de validation et de mise en oeuvre de méthodes de prélèvement et d'analyse d'agents chimiques présents sous la forme d'un mélange de particules aériennes et de vapeur pour l'évaluation des expositions professionnelles. Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x43-215/qualite-de-l-air-air-des-lieux-de-travail-prelevement-et-analyse-des-aerosols-semi-volatils-exigences-et-methodes-d-essai/article/909349/fa191295
ASTM E2563 - 18 - Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method
This practice allows for the recovery and enumeration of viable and culturable, non-tuberculosis, rapidly growing Mycobacteria ( M. immunogenum , M. chelonae , M. absessus , M. fortuitum , and M. smegmatis ) in the presence of high Gram-negative background populations in metalworking fluid field samples. During the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population. This population is predominantly comprised of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids has been...
Development of a bar code-based exposure assessment method to evaluate occupational exposure to disinfectants and cleaning products
A pilot study Objective: Healthcare workers are highly exposed to various types of disinfectants and cleaning products. Assessment of exposure to these products remains a challenge. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a method, based on a smartphone application and bar codes, to improve occupational exposure assessment among hospital/cleaning workers in epidemiological studies. Methods: A database of disinfectants and cleaning products used in French hospitals, including their names, bar codes and composition, was developed using several sources: ProdHyBase (a database of disinfectants managed...
Agreement in Occupational Exposures Between Men and Women Using Retrospective Assessments by Expert Coders
Objectives: To estimate the level of agreement and identify notable differences in occupational exposures (agents) between men and women from retrospective assessments by expert coders. Methods: Lifetime occupational histories of 1657 men and 2073 women from two case–control studies, were translated into exposure estimates to 243 agents, from data on 13882 jobs. Exposure estimates were summarized as proportions and frequency-weighted intensity of exposure for 59 occupational codes by sex. Agreement between metrics of exposure in men’s and women’s jobs was determined with intraclass...
Development of a Coding and Crosswalk Tool for Occupations and Industries
Introduction: Job coding into a standard occupation or industry classification is commonly performed in occupational epidemiology and occupational health. Sometimes, it is necessary to code jobs into multiple classifications or to convert job codes from one classification to another. We developed a generic tool, called CAPS-Canada ( http://www.caps-canada.ca/ ), that combines a computer-assisted coding tool covering seven International, Canadian and US occupation and industry classifications and an assistant facilitating crosswalks from one classification to another. The objectives of this paper...
Exposition professionnelle des personnels de santé hospitaliers aux médicaments cytotoxiques
Biométrologie et mesure de la contamination des surfaces Utilisés dans le traitement des cancers, les médicaments cytotoxiques présentent une toxicité intrinsèque, du fait de leurs propriétés génotoxiques, cancérogènes et tératogènes. Une étude réalisée dans 12 établissements hospitaliers, pour évaluer les expositions à ces substances, a montré que plus de la moitié des professionnels suivis avait des niveaux quantifiables de cytotoxiques dans leurs...
Développement d’une approche par séquençage de nouvelle génération pour l’étude de la diversité fongique des bioaérosols
Afin d'explorer l'association entre les bioaérosols, l'exposition aux moisissures et les effets sur la santé respiratoire, l'objectif général de cette activité de recherche était de proposer une méthode d'analyse permettant de déterminer, de manière quantitative, la diversité fongique des bioaérosols, sans égard à leur culture. D'une manière plus spécifique, deux marqueurs génomiques fongiques ont été ciblés par l'approche de séquençage...
Standard Terminology for Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos
This terminology standard is a collective vocabulary relating to sampling and analysis of asbestos. As a convenience to general interest, it contains most of the standard terms, definitions, and nomenclature under the jurisdiction of Committee D22. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D7712.htm
Development of and Selected Performance Characteristics of CANJEM, a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix Based on Past Expert Assessments of Exposure
Objectives: We developed a job-exposure matrix called CANJEM using data generated in population-based case–control studies of cancer. This article describes some of the decisions in developing CANJEM, and some of its performance characteristics. Methods: CANJEM is built from exposure information from 31673 jobs held by study subjects included in our past case–control studies. For each job, experts had evaluated the intensity, frequency, and likelihood of exposure to a predefined list of agents based on jobs histories and descriptions of tasks and workplaces. The creation of CANJEM involved...
NF X43-014 - Qualité de l'air - Air ambiant - Détermination des retombées atmosphériques totales - Échantillonnage - Préparation des échantillons avant analyses
Le présent document décrit plusieurs méthodes d'échantillonnage et de traitement des dépôts atmosphériques : traitement global des phases solides et liquides ; traitement de la phase solide séparée : soit par centrifugation ; soit par filtration ; traitement de la phase liquide. Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x43-014/qualite-de-l-air-air-ambiant-determination-des-retombees-atmospheriques-totales-echantillonnage-preparation-des-echantil/article/876382/fa187366
Standard Guide for Using Probability Sampling Methods in Studies of Indoor Air Quality in Buildings
ASTM D5791 - 95 Studies of indoor air problems are often iterative in nature. A thorough engineering evaluation of a building (1-4)3 is sometimes sufficient to identify likely causes of indoor air problems. When these investigations and subsequent remedial measures are not sufficient to solve a problem, more intensive investigations may be necessary. This guide provides the basis for determining when probability sampling methods are needed to achieve statistically defensible inferences regarding the goals of a study of indoor air quality. The need for probability sampling methods in a study of...
Occupational exposures to solvents and metals are associated with fixed airflow obstruction
Our study is the first to investigate the associations between exposures to solvents and metals using lifetime work history calendars and fixed airflow obstruction (AO). We have shown that increasing cumulative exposure-unit years to chlorinated solvents is associated with fixed AO. We found that women were at increased risk of fixed AO with increasing cumulative exposed-unit-years to chlorinated solvents but not men. Source: Alif SM, Dharmage SC, Benke G, Dennekamp M, Burgess JL, Perret, Lodge CJ, Morrison S, Johns DP?, Giles GG, Gurrin LC, Thomas PS, Hopper JL, Wood-Baker R, Thompson BR, Feather...
Aérosols semi-volatils
De l'identification au prélèvement Des études récentes concernant les aérosols semi-volatils ont révélé des interactions entre les particules et les vapeurs. Encore faut-il être capable d'identifier le caractère semi-volatil d'une substance pour développer une méthode de prélèvement et d'analyse prenant en compte les deux phases, particulaire et vapeur. Cet article a pour but de donner une définition adaptée de ce qu'est un aérosol semi-volatil et d'appliquer...
Une nouvelle méthodologie pour vérifier les compteurs de noyaux de condensation
Les compteurs de noyaux de condensation, instruments de mesure en temps réel de la concentration en nombre des particules submicroniques dispersées dans l'air, présentent de nombreux avantages. Afin de vérifier les performances des instruments disponibles sur le marché, l'INRS a mis au point une méthode, le dispositif de contrôle des compteurs. Cet article en présente le fonctionnement, les avantages et un exemple d'application. Source: http://www.hst.fr/dms/hst/data/articles/HST/TI-NT-51/nt51.pdf
Development of a source-exposure matrix for occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields in the INTEROCC study
To estimate occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the INTEROCC study, a database of source-based measurements extracted from published and unpublished literature resources had been previously constructed. The aim of the current work was to summarize these measurements into a source-exposure matrix (SEM), accounting for their quality and relevance. A novel methodology for combining available measurements was developed, based on order statistics and log-normal distribution characteristics. Arithmetic and geometric means, and estimates of variability and maximum exposure were...
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