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Développement d’un nouveau dispositif d’échantillonnage des aérosols de diisocyanate-4-4’ de diphénylméthane (MDI)
La pulvérisation de produits à base de MDI est une pratique commune à laquelle s'adonnent de nombreux travailleurs. Un exemple d'application de produits à base de MDI est le revêtement de mousse isolante commercial et résidentiel. Durant l'application de ce type de produit, les travailleurs sont exposés aux aérosols de MDI. Le MDI est un produit chimique reconnu comme étant un agent sensibilisant pouvant provoquer l'asthme professionnel. Afin de minimiser l'exposition des travailleurs au MDI, une surveillance environnementale...
Allergies respiratoires professionnelles chez les professionnels du bois
Les professionnels du bois exercent de multiples activités allant de la sylviculture et exploitation forestière à la construction, en passant par le sciage, la manufacture du bois, le travail artisanal sur bois ou encore l'industrie du papier et du carton. Au cours de leur exercice, leurs expositions professionnelles sont multiples et peuvent occasionner des manifestations respiratoires. Les plus fréquentes sont les asthmes et rhinites, déclenchés par les poussières de bois mais aussi par des produits chimiques utilisés lors de la transformation...
Genetic Variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Genes Are Associated With Diisocyanate-Induced Asthma
Objective: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). Methods: The study population consisted of 140 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina GoldenGate major histocompatibility complex panels. Results: The HLA-E rs1573294 and HLA-DPB1 rs928976 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of DA under dominant (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37 to 16.6; OR, 2.79, 95% CI, 0.99 to 7.81, respectively) and...
Isocyanate paint spraying
Safely managing spray booths and rooms This guidance is aimed at vehicle bodyshop owners, managers and supervisors, their employees (particularly paint sprayers) and suppliers. It will also be useful to industries other than motor vehicle repair where there is spraying of isocyanate-containing paints and lacquers. Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/hsg276.htm
Cross-Sectional Survey of Workers Exposed to Aliphatic Diisocyanates Using Detailed Respiratory Medical History and Questions Regarding Accidental Skin and Respiratory Exposures
Objectives: To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates. Methods: Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma. Results: No cases of occupational asthma were identified...
OSHA Focuses on Isocyanates Via National Emphasis Program
OSHA has announced a new National Emphasis Program for occupational exposure to isocyanates that will focus outreach and inspections on specific hazards in the manufacturing, maritime and construction industries. OSHA's new National Emphasis Program for isocyanates will target the serious health effects from occupational exposure to isocyanates. OSHA develops national emphasis programs to focus outreach efforts and inspections on specific hazards in an industry for a 3-year period. Through this NEP, OSHA will focus on workplaces in manufacturing, construction and maritime industries that use...
Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products
Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected...
Pour une utilisation sécuritaire des isocyanates, 2e éd.
Inspirée d’une démarche d’hygiène du travail, cette deuxième édition du Guide de prévention pour une utilisation sécuritaire des isocyanates – Démarche d’hygiène du travail vient faciliter la prévention des maladies professionnelles en permettant entre autres d’identifier, d’évaluer, de maîtriser les facteurs de risque associés à l’exposition à ces substances toxiques qui entrent dans la composition de produits telle la peinture pour automobiles. S’appuyant...
Isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying: evidence from biological monitoring
Aims: The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. Methods : Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on biological monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000...
Investigation of techniques to discriminate between TDI and TDA exposures in biological samples
Isocyanates continue to be one of the leading causes of occupational asthma in the UK and biological monitoring (BM) is a valuable tool in assessing exposure to them. BM for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is based on the measurement of toluene diamine (TDA) in urine after acid hydrolysis of any conjugates (‘total TDA’). The work described here has shown some progress in being able to differentiate between TDA and TDI exposures through the analysis of urine samples. Although none of the outcomes are conclusive, there are some tests that can be applied to positive ‘total TDA’...
Development of analytical methods for low molecular weight isocyanates in workplace air: Part 2 – Isocyanic Acid and Methyl Isocyanate
Monoisocyanates cause irritation to the eyes, skin and respiratory system. Existing methods for the determination of isocyanates were developed primarily to detect large di-isocyanate molecules and the analytical techniques employed are such that low molecular weight mono-isocyanates are not detected. The current work describes a modified detection method that enables separation, and therefore quantification, of mono isocyanates. This modified method can be applied to suitable samples to enable an assessment of the contribution of monoisocynates (isocyanic acid and methyl isocyanate) to the total...
Occupational eosinophilic cough conditions
This project was to improve understanding of emerging occupational respiratory conditions typified by chronic cough and airway eosinophilia. Chronic cough is associated with impaired quality of life and eosinophilic airway disorders may be associated with accelerated lung function decline. It is clear from the case reports that workplace allergens may induce cough-variant asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. These conditions may be more difficult to recognise as being occupational in nature given that by definition they lack some of the classical symptoms of asthma and the most common...
Occupational exposure to MbOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis-ortho-chloroaniline) and isocyanates in polyurethane manufacture
HSE has initiated workstrands that aim to deliver evidence that will help HSE to identify carcinogens of concern, to improve the control of carcinogens, and to provide a sound baseline for evaluating strategies for intervention. This project aimed to review the effectiveness of interventions (past and present) with respect to their impact upon the use of and exposure to carcinogens and carcinogenic processes - by providing up to date intelligence on levels of exposure control in the MbOCA (methylene-bis-ortho-chloro-aniline) user industry. During the period 2005/06 20 of the estimated 25 sites...
Determining current health and safety practices, awareness of HSE initiatives and economic trends in relation to isocyanate paint use in the MVR sector
This report contains the main results of research carried out for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), by the Institute for Employment Studies examining health and safety practices and procedures in relation to the use of isocyanate-based paints in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) sector. The main objective of this research was to determine current health and safety practices in the motor vehicle repair sector in relation to the use of isocyanate paint spray, focusing in particular on the use of masks and the use of spray booths. The intention was to gather data about practice, in order to gain...
Automated system for indicating spray clearance times of MVR spray booths/rooms
This report describes the design and assembly of an automated device that will alert sprayers of isocyanate based paints of the presence of spray mist inside paint spray booths /rooms used in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) and other industries. Source: http://news.hse.gov.uk/2009/10/21/rr742-an-automated-system-for-indicating-spray-clearance-times-of-mvr-spray-booths-and-rooms/?rss=Research
MALDI/TOF/MS analysis of isocyanates and other hazardous workplace chemicals
Mass spectrometry has long been used to analyse samples taken in the workplace, and can be combined with other techniques to increase sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy. The work summarised in this report examines the application of the recently developed Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization/ time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) technique to the analysis of isocyanates and biocides. Isocyanates were measured on filters (to represent air monitoring) and as isocyanate/protein conjugates (representing biological monitoring). Selected biocides bound to soil samples were analysed...
Controlling isocyanate exposure in spray booths and spray rooms
This guidance is aimed at owners and managers of bodyshops and will be of use to employees (particularly paint sprayers) as well as suppliers. It supplements other HSE guidance relating to protecting people’s health from isocyanate exposure in spray booths and rooms, and the statutory 14-monthly thorough examination and test carried out on spray booths and rooms. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/web36.pdf

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