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Heme oxygenase 1 polymorphism, occupational vapor, gas, dust, and fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Danish population-based study
Objectives: The number of dinucleotide repeats (GT)n modulate expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a stress response gene. Multiple repeats might affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. We aimed to investigate the association of this polymorphism with COPD and its interaction with occupational exposures (vapor, gas, dust, or fumes). Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4703 Danes, aged 45–84 years. HMOX1 (GT)n was genotyped and grouped as short: ≤26, medium: 27–32 and long: ≥33 alleles. COPD was defined by the lower limit...
Caractérisation des émissions de bitume haute résistance au désenrobage (HRD) avec dope d'adhésivité
Produit de distillation du pétrole, le bitume est chauffé puis mélangé à de la matière minérale broyée (le granulat) pour former l'enrobé bitumineux qui est utilisé pour le pavage de la grande majorité des routes. Les gaz, vapeurs et particules émis lorsque le bitume ou l'enrobé est chauffé sont constitués d'un groupe complexe de composés chimiques réglementés sous le nom de fumées d'asphalte (ou de bitume), notamment dans le Règlement sur la...
Revue de la littérature épidémiologique sur le risque de cancer chez les pompiers
Une revue des publications sur le cancer chez les pompiers parues depuis l'analyse documentaire réalisée en 2007 par le CIRC a été entreprise dans le but de mettre en évidence de nouvelles preuves de liens ou des indicateurs d'associations possibles entre la profession de pompier et le cancer. Cette revue de la littérature a porté sur 21 sièges de cancer à l'égard desquels certaines preuves de lien non concluantes étaient ressorties des revues antérieures. Plus de 600 publications sur l'exposition...
Historical changes in chemical exposures encountered by Danish firefighters
Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the possibility of using history science methods in occupational studies by evaluating overall historical changes in Danish firefighting modifying chemical exposures from smoke and fire trucks. Methods: Data on changes in Danish firefighting after World War II were searched for in both museums and the Danish library catalogue REX, accessing collections of literature from all institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Royal Library. Results: Several historical changes were identified either increasing or reducing chemical exposures in Danish...
Control of exposure to hexavalent chromium concentration in shielded metal arc welding fumes by nano-coating of electrodes
Background: Cr(VI) is a suspected human carcinogen formed as a by-product of stainless steel welding. Nano-alumina and nano-titania coating of electrodes reduced the welding fume levels. Objective: To investigate the effect of nano-coating of welding electrodes on Cr(VI) formation rate (Cr(VI) FR) from a shielded metal arc welding process. Methods: The core welding wires were coated with nano-alumina and nano-titania using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Bead-on plate welds were deposited on SS 316 LN plates kept inside a fume test chamber. Cr(VI) analysis was done using an atomic absorption...
Travaux de revêtement routier: de multiples risques à prendre en compte
Travailler à la fabrication de routes n'est pas sans risque pour les opérateurs, car ils manipulent des enrobés bitumineux chauds qui peuvent présenter des effets sur la santé, soit par les fumées dégagées, soit par contact cutané. Ce dossier présente un état des lieux des différents travaux menés par la profession et les organismes de prévention pour améliorer la prévention de ces risques, ainsi que des méthodes d'évaluation des expositions des travailleurs aux...
Occupational Exposure to Vapor-Gas, Dust, and Fumes in a Cohort of Rural Adults in Iowa Compared with a Cohort of Urban Adults
Problem/Condition: Many rural residents work in the field of agriculture; however, employment in nonagricultural jobs also is common. Because previous studies in rural communities often have focused on agricultural workers, much less is known about the occupational exposures in other types of jobs in rural settings. Characterizing airborne occupational exposures that can contribute to respiratory diseases is important so that differences between rural and urban working populations can be assessed. Reporting Period: 1994–2011. Description of System: This investigation used data from the baseline...
Impact et prévention des risques relatifs aux fumées d’incendie pour les sapeurs-pompiers
Fin 2015, un groupe de travail sur les risques liés aux fumées d'incendie a été mis en place par le conseil d'administration de la CNRACL. Ce groupe de travail se compose d'administrateurs de la CNRACL, de représentants de la DGSCGC (direction générale de la sécurité civile et de la gestion des crises) et des SDIS (services départementaux d'incendie et de secours) ainsi que d'experts et de représentants du service gestionnaire. Les travaux ont porté dans un premier temps sur la réalisation...
Rhinite et asthme en relation avec les activités de soudage et de brasage
Les différents procédés de soudage et techniques connexes ont la particularité de générer des fumées dont la composition et l'intensité d'émission varient selon la technique employée et la nature des métaux travaillés. Si le caractère irritant des fumées de soudage peut en lui-même induire ou aggraver une rhinite ou un asthme, certains de leurs constituants peuvent également être impliqués dans l'apparition de rhinite et d'asthme par l'intermédiaire...
Characterisation of Exposure to Ultrafine Particles from Surgical Smoke by Use of a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer
Electrosurgery is a method based on a high frequency current used to cut tissue and coagulate small blood vessels during surgery. Surgical smoke is generated due to the heat created by electrosurgery. The carcinogenic potential of this smoke was assumed already in the 1980's and there has been a growing interest in the potential adverse health effects of exposure to the particles in surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is known to contain ultrafine particles (UFPs) but the knowledge about the exposure to UFPs produced by electrosurgery is however sparse. The aims of the study were therefore to characterise...
Measured Pulmonary and Systemic Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Following Wildland Firefighter Simulations
Objective: A controlled human exposure study was conducted to investigate the impact of inhalational exposures to wood smoke PM2.5 on measured concentrations of airway and systemic inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: Mimicking wildland firefighter activities, 10 participants were exposed to three doses of wood smoke PM2.5 (filtered-air, 250?μg/m3, and 500?μg/m3) while exercising on a treadmill. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and blood plasma samples were obtained pre-, immediately post-, and 1-hour postexposure. 8-isoprostane, pH, and myeloperoxidase were measured in EBC, while H2O2, surfactant...
A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers
Background: While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods: The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results: Approximately 18% (95%CI ...
Assessment of the Biological Effects of Welding Fumes Emitted From Metal Active Gas and Manual Metal Arc Welding in Humans
Objective: Emissions from a particular welding process, metal inert gas brazing of zinc-coated steel, induce an increase in C-reactive protein. In this study, it was investigated whether inflammatory effects could also be observed for other welding procedures. Methods: Twelve male subjects were separately exposed to (1) manual metal arc welding fumes, (2) filtered air, and (3) metal active gas welding fumes for 6 hours. Inflammatory markers were measured in serum before, and directly, 1 and 7 days after exposure. Results: Although C-reactive protein concentrations remained unchanged, neutrophil...
Captage des fumées de bitume
Vers une évolution des finisseurs Comment améliorer la protection des travailleurs contre les fumées de bitume, lorsque celui-ci est appliqué sur les chaussées ? À cette question, un groupe de travail composé de différents organismes apporte une réponse : intégrer des systèmes de captage aux finisseurs. Cet article présente les principales conclusions des travaux menés par ce groupe. Source: http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=NT%2015
Standardisation of the measurement of capture efficiency of on-gun extraction for welding
The inhalation of welding fume is recognised as being a real threat to workers' health due to the development of occupational illnesses such as welding fume fever and asthma. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is an effective method to control worker exposure to welding fume and previous work has indicated the merit of the use of on-gun extraction systems. The aim of the present study was to improve and refine the existing on-gun extraction methodology and has resulted in the development of two alternative methods for measuring the efficiency of on-gun fume extraction systems. There are distinct...
Biological Effects of Emissions From Resistance Spot Welding of Zinc-Coated Material After Controlled Exposure of Healthy Human Subjects
Objective: Do emissions from a resistance spot welding process of zinc-coated materials induce systemic inflammation in healthy subjects after exposure for 6 hours? Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects were exposed once for 6 hours either to filtered ambient air or to welding fume from resistance spot welding of zinc-coated material (mass concentration approximately 100 μg m−3). Biological effects were measured before, after, and 24 hours after exposure. Results: At the concentrations used in this study, however, the suspected properties of ultrafine particles did not lead to systemic...
Relationship Between Welding Fume Concentration and Systemic Inflammation After Controlled Exposure of Human Subjects With Welding Fumes From Metal Inert Gas Brazing of Zinc-Coated Materials
Objectives: It has been shown that exposure of subjects to emissions from a metal inert gas (MIG) brazing process of zinc-coated material led to an increase of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the blood. In this study, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for such emissions was assessed. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects were exposed for 6 hours to different concentrations of MIG brazing fumes under controlled conditions. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in the blood. Results: For welding fumes containing 1.20 and 1.50 mg m−3 zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein...
NIOSH Puts Health Hazards to Bed at Metal Furniture Manufacturer
Researchers and investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health offer an insider's glimpse into a health hazard evaluation of a workplace where metal furniture such as beds and cabinets are manufactured. Employees of a metal furniture manufacturer asked the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to evaluate health hazards at their workplace. They were concerned about exposures to welding fumes and dust from powder painting and grinding operations. Some employees reported breathing problems, excessive tiredness and dust in their noses at the...
Females Welding and the Unborn Child
The number of women in Canada employed as welders and participating in welding apprenticeship programs is growing. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to metals and other welding tasks on women’s fertility and pregnancy. This project examined the feasibility of conducting a cohort study of female welders, and developed tools to assess workplace exposure and reproductive outcomes. Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/research_results/res_60_10_1220.asp http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/funding_decisions/assets/pdf/2010/RS2010-DG04.pdf
Un aide-mémoire technique sur les fumées de soudage
Les procédés de soudage, coupage, projection thermique ou brasage émettent des fumées susceptibles d’être inhalées par les opérateurs et les personnes travaillant à proximité. Ces fumées peuvent, selon leur composition, leur concentration et la durée d’exposition, présenter des effets néfastes pour la santé et être à l’origine de pathologies professionnelles. Cet aide-mémoire permet de faire le point sur la composition des fumées en fonction du procédé...
Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to manganese and iron among welders
We investigated airborne and internal exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) among welders. Personal sampling of welding fumes was carried out in 241 welders during a shift. Metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mn in blood (MnB) was analyzed by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry. Determinants of exposure levels were estimated with multiple regression models. Respirable Mn was measured with a median of 62 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8.4–320) μg/m3 and correlated with Fe (r=0.92, 95% CI 0.90–0.94). Inhalable Mn was measured with similar...
Occupational eosinophilic cough conditions
This project was to improve understanding of emerging occupational respiratory conditions typified by chronic cough and airway eosinophilia. Chronic cough is associated with impaired quality of life and eosinophilic airway disorders may be associated with accelerated lung function decline. It is clear from the case reports that workplace allergens may induce cough-variant asthma and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. These conditions may be more difficult to recognise as being occupational in nature given that by definition they lack some of the classical symptoms of asthma and the most common...
Researchers: Welders May Be at Increased Risk for Brain Damage
New research suggests that workers exposed to welding fumes may be at risk for developing brain damage in an area of the brain also affected in Parkinson's disease. Fumes produced by welding contain manganese, a chemical element that, even at low levels, has been linked to neurologic problems including Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. Source : http://ehstoday.com/health/news/welders-increased-risk-brain-damage-0407/
Mise à jour d’une étude de cohorte sur le risque de cancer chez des travailleurs exposés aux fumées de bitume
Cancers pulmonaires : expositions professionnelles et types histologiques Une étude française sur le cancer du poumon s'est focalisée sur l'association entre certaines expositions professionnelles et le type histologique de cancer. Cette étude fait l'objet de deux publications récentes, l'une sur le lien entre les adénocarcinomes pulmonaires et le sexe, l'âge, le tabagisme et les facteurs professionnels ; l'autre est ciblée sur les caractéristiques des cancers pulmonaires chez les patients n'ayant jamais fumé...
Bitumes : l´Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l´environnement et du travail évalue les risques pour la santé des travailleurs
L´agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l´environnement et du travail (Afsset) a été saisie par la Confédération générale du travail (CGT) dans le but de réaliser une évaluation des risques pour la santé des travailleurs liés à l’usage des bitumes. La saisine de l´Afsset ne porte pas sur le cas d´EUROVIA, mais a une portée générale. Source: http://www.afsset.fr/index.php?pageid=452&newsid=566&MDLCODE=news
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