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Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
Asbestos: Modern Insights for Toxicology in the Era of Engineered Nanomaterials
Asbestos fibers are naturally occurring silicates that have been extensively used in the past, including house construction, but because of their toxicity, their use has been banned in 63 countries. Despite this, more than one million metric tons of asbestos are still consumed annually in countries where asbestos use has not been banned. Asbestos-related disease incidence is still increasing in several countries, including those countries that banned the use of asbestos more than 30 years ago. We highlight here recent knowledge obtained in experimental models about the mechanisms leading to tumor...
Types and Health Hazards of Fibrous Materials Used as Asbestos Substitutes
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 125 million people are exposed to asbestos at worksites around the world, and more than 107,000 people die of asbestos-related diseases, including lung cancer, mesothelioma, or asbestosis, due to occupational exposure to asbestos. Substitute materials have been studied and developed for a long time because of the hazards of asbestos, and many people have recently shown interests in the hazards of substitute materials. Fibrous materials may be considered as an alternative to asbestos. There are many kinds of fiber materials, which can be largely...
Bilan du programme de contrôle de la qualité de la numération des fibres – 1992 à 2011
L'exposition aux fibres aéroportées en milieu de travail est mesurée à l'aide d'une technique de numération par microscopie optique à contraste de phase. La numération des fibres comporte un biais et une très grande variabilité qui peuvent être limités par de bonnes pratiques de contrôle de la qualité. Conformément aux exigences des méthodes officielles, québécoise et internationales, les laboratoires (ou les compteurs) effectuant de telles analyses doivent participer...
Size-resolved characterization of particles and fibers released during abrasion of fiber-reinforced composite in a workplace influenced by ambient background sources
We demonstrate the use of high- to low-resolution microscopy and particle chemical analysis during normal vacuum and cryo-conditions to identify the nature and relative abundances of process-generated particles and fibers from sanding of a glass and carbon fiber epoxy layer-composite in a workplace influenced by both indoor and ambient background sources. The study suggests that a proper exposure characterization requires multiple techniques covering wide size ranges to reach a conclusion. Besides a rise in number concentration due to release of particles during the sanding, a significant contribution...

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