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SysDEA: Systematic analysis of dermal exposure to hazardous chemical agents at the workplace
The overall objective of the SysDEA study is to generate scientific knowledge for improvement and standardization of measurement methods for dermal exposure to chemicals at the workplace. To this end, five different tasks (transfer, spreading, spraying, handling immersed objects, and handling contaminated objects) were performed with three different product types: a dusty powder (solids) and high viscosity (HV) and low viscosity (LV) liquids. The investigated exposure situations (product-task combinations) were: dumping powder, pouring LV and HV (transfer), rolling LV and HV (spreading), surface...
SysDEA: Systematic analysis of dermal exposure to hazardous chemical agents at the workplace
The overall objective of the SysDEA study is to generate scientific knowledge for improvement and standardization of measurement methods for dermal exposure to chemicals at the workplace. To this end, five different tasks (transfer, spreading, spraying, handling immersed objects, and handling contaminated objects) were performed with three different product types: a dusty powder (solids) and high viscosity (HV) and low viscosity (LV) liquids. The investigated exposure situations (product-task combinations) were: dumping powder, pouring LV and HV (transfer), rolling LV and HV (spreading), surface...
NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Atrazine
As the largest organ of the body, the skin performs multiple critical functions, such as serving as the primary barrier to the external environment. For this reason, the skin is often exposed to potentially hazardous agents, including chemicals, which may contribute to the onset of a spectrum of adverse health effects ranging from localized damage (such as irritant contact dermatitis and corrosion) to induction of immune-mediated responses (such as allergic contact dermatitis and pulmonary responses), or systemic toxicity (such as neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity). Understanding the hazards related...
A Review of Workplace Risk Management Measures for Nanomaterials to Mitigate Inhalation and Dermal Exposure
This review describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management Measures (RMM) for nanomaterials in the workplace. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of workplace RMM for nanomaterials and to determine whether established effectiveness values of conventional chemical substances applied for modelling purposes should be adopted or revised based on available evidence. A literature review was conducted to collate nano-specific data on workplace RMM. Besides the quantitative efficacy values, the library was populated with important covariables such as the study design, measurement type...
A Systematic Review of the Routes and Forms of Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials
Background: Establishing the routes of exposure is a fundamental component of the risk assessment process for every dangerous substance. The present study systematically reviews the available literature to assess the relevance of the different routes and forms of exposure that are of concern for the protection of workers during the manufacture, handling, or end-use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Methods: A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2015 was completed. Only studies including measurements of inhalation or dermal exposure were selected and used...
Travaux de revêtement routier: de multiples risques à prendre en compte
Travailler à la fabrication de routes n'est pas sans risque pour les opérateurs, car ils manipulent des enrobés bitumineux chauds qui peuvent présenter des effets sur la santé, soit par les fumées dégagées, soit par contact cutané. Ce dossier présente un état des lieux des différents travaux menés par la profession et les organismes de prévention pour améliorer la prévention de ces risques, ainsi que des méthodes d'évaluation des expositions des travailleurs aux...
Évaluation des risques des professionnels exposés aux produits utilisés dans les activités de soin et de décoration de l’ongle
L'Anses publie ce jour les résultats de son expertise sur l'évaluation des risques pour la santé des professionnels exposés aux produits utilisés dans les activités de soin et de décoration de l'ongle. Au vu du grand nombre de substances auxquelles sont exposés les professionnels, l'Agence émet une série de recommandations à destination des différents acteurs concernés : les metteurs sur le marché, les professionnels du secteur, les pouvoirs publics, les institutions et organismes de...
Comparative study on exposure of workers and bystanders during pest control of the Oak Processionary Moth by spray application
Biocidal products used for spray application against the oak processionary moth (OPM) require authorisation in accordance with Regulation (EU) No. 528/2012 of the European Parliament for that use. For authorisation, a risk assessment based on exposure estimation is performed for all intended uses of the respective product. Detailed information on the application process and the resulting exposure of operators and of bystanders was lacking until now. It is expected that the main routes of exposure are dermal and inhalation. Spray applications carried out for control of OPM show significant differences...
Harvesters in strawberry fields
A literature review of pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and a model for exposure prediction Strawberry harvesters hand-pick fruit that may result in pesticide exposure from hand foliar contact. This paper included a review of publications on harvester pesticide exposure, an observation of their work activities, and development of an alternative model for pesticide exposure prediction. Previous studies monitored the dermal pesticide exposure of strawberry harvesters and found most of the exposure (>70%) was on the hands. Exposure rates (ERs) were calculated as pesticide...
DERMaL eToolkit
Emergency response personnel are often at risk of getting dangerous chemicals on their skin. Despite the availability of numerous high-quality resources designed to guide emergency management and operations personnel, data gaps continue to exist on specific hazards or scenarios. Available resources contain an overwhelming quantity of data on inhalation exposures, but data related to dermal exposures are more challenging to find. Dermal contact is an important exposure pathway and can present significant health risks [Dotson et al. 2015]. The goal of the DERMaL eToolkit is to provide informational...
Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products
Part 2, exploration of exposure processes and methods of assessment In the first of a series of two papers (Larese Filon et al., 2016), we focused our attention on identifying conditions or situations, i.e. a combination of nanoparticle physico-chemical properties, skin barrier integrity, and occupations with high prevalence of skin disease, which deserve further investigation. This second paper focuses on the broad question of dermal exposure assessment to nanoparticles and attempts to give an overview of the mechanisms of occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products...
Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products
Part I - Factors affecting skin absorption The paper reviews and critically assesses the evidence on the relevance of various skin uptake pathways for engineered nanoparticles, nano-objects, their agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA). It focuses especially in occupational settings, in the context of nanotoxicology, risk assessment, occupational medicine, medical/epidemiological surveillance efforts, and the development of relevant exposure assessment strategies. Skin uptake of nanoparticles is presented in the context of local and systemic health effects, especially contact dermatitis, skin barrier...
Cross-Sectional Survey of Workers Exposed to Aliphatic Diisocyanates Using Detailed Respiratory Medical History and Questions Regarding Accidental Skin and Respiratory Exposures
Objectives: To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates. Methods: Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma. Results: No cases of occupational asthma were identified...
Cross-Sectional Survey of Workers Exposed to Aliphatic Diisocyanates Using Detailed Respiratory Medical History and Questions Regarding Accidental Skin and Respiratory Exposures
Objectives: To identify possible cases of occupational asthma and assess accidental skin and inhalation exposures to aliphatic diisocyanates. Methods: Seventy-three employees from two plants, manufacturing or producing aliphatic diisocyanates, were surveyed using a detailed respiratory history questionnaire with additional questions on accidental skin and inhalation exposures. Further reviews of medical records and interviews were used to determine whether any of 15 employees with questionable responses had developed occupational asthma. Results: No cases of occupational asthma were identified...
Health-care workers and antineoplastic drugs
Evaluating the risks and identifying determinants of exposure Health-care workers may be exposed to hazardous antineoplastic drugs—i.e. drugs used in chemotherapy—when handling them and/or when touching surfaces contaminated by them. Most studies looking at exposures to antineoplastic drugs in hospitals have been limited to select departments and/or workers with certain job titles. This may lead to an underestimation of the risk if all exposures during the circulation of the drug within a facility from cradle to grave (known as the hospital medication system) are not taken into account...
Application of skin contamination studies of ammonia gas for management of hazardous material incidents
In an atmospheric HAZMAT release unprotected public dermal exposure is often of short duration, but with potential secondary exposure if not decontaminated promptly. Mass decontamination is resource intensive and needs to be justified. For many HAZMAT agents there is no evidence-base on which to provide guidance on decontamination, particularly for non-symptomatic worried well. It is important to understand the influence of street clothing and environmental and other factors. Ammonia is a common HAZMAT agent and was selected for in vitro human skin studies of absorption, penetration and off-gassing...
Evaluation of Systemic Health Effects Following Dermal Exposure to Chemicals - TR 119
Risk assessment of chemicals, including the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) legislation, also cover assessments of dermal risk arising from exposure to chemicals. The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has produced this guidance consisting of a tiered approach for the risk assessment of dermal exposure to a chemical. The process developed by the Task Force consists of three linked decision trees, i.e.: Derivation of a health-based reference value; Initial risk characterisation; Refined risk characterisation. It is...
New study of nanoparticle skin penetration
As engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) become increasingly common in consumer products and the environment, concern over their possible effects on human health also rises. There is concern over the possible penetration of human skin by ENPs. "However, the evidence whether nanoparticles can infiltrate into underlying tissues is conflicting . . . clarification of the issue is essential. . .." With this in mind, Christopher. S.J. Campbell of Mango Business Solutions, L. Roderigo Contreras-Rojas, M. Begona Delgado-Charro, and Richard H. Guy, of the University of Bath Department of Pharmacy &...
Mists created by the use of compressed airlines for the removal of metalworking fluids - Assessment of the possible exposure health risks
The potential impact of the use of compressed air for the removal of residual metalworking fluids on health was investigated using a test chamber approach followed by a workplace study. The former had the advantage in that the background levels of particles could be reduced significantly. The greatest risk was found to be dermal exposure due to large droplets of MWF coating the worker's torso and arms. The visualisation of respirable mist using back lighting was not a reproducible phenomenon in either setting but in the test chamber, the use of particle counters revealed that a reduction in...
Skin...Exposed!
Take a postage stamp. Stick it to your arm. You've just covered 16 million cells, 55 hairs, 8 meters of nerves, 17,000 nerve endings, 5 meters of blood vessels, 500 sweat glands, and 83 oil glands. You've also just wasted 44 cents. Your skin is marvelously complex. It is your largest organ, accounting for 10% of your body's mass. It is also the site of 15 to 20 percent of all reported work-related illnesses according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Skin can suffer direct, sensitizing, or systemic effects when exposed to hazardous chemicals. Direct exposure can corrode, irritate...
Skin diseases and dermal exposure: policy and practice overview
Skin diseases are the second most common work-related health problem in Europe. They represent more than 7% of all occupational illnesses and are one of the most important emerging risks related to the exposure to chemical, physical and biological risk factors. The fact that there is no scientific method to measure the level of the body’s exposures to risks via dermal contact and their physiological consequences, increases the importance of recognising risk factors and developing methods of assessing the level of exposure and controlling it. This report presents an overview of dermal exposures...

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