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Occupational Exposure to Bioaerosols in Norwegian Crab Processing Plants
Introduction: Aerosolization of components when processing king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and edible crab (Cancer pagurus) may cause occupational health problems when inhaled by workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three king crab plants and one edible crab plant. Personal exposure measurements were performed throughout work shifts. Air was collected for measurement of tropomyosin, total protein, endotoxin, trypsin, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). T-tests and ANOVAs were used to compare the levels of exposure in the different plants and areas in the...
Pulmonary illness as a consequence of occupational exposure to shrimp shell powder
OBJECTIVES: An employee with no prior history of allergy or asthma, experienced respiratory and flu-like symptoms during production of shrimp shell powder in a seafood savory factory in Norway. We aimed to clarify the diagnosis and to identify the cause of the symptoms by specific inhalation challenge (SIC) and by characterizing the powder's biocontaminants, particle size fractions and inflammatory potential. METHODS: Respiratory and immunological responses were measured the day before and after each of four challenges with 20-150g shrimp shell powder during three consecutive days. The powder...
Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Female Textile Workers in Shanghai, China, Exposed to Metals, Solvents, Chemicals, and Endotoxin
Follow-Up to a Nested Case-Cohort Study Objective: We studied associations between pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures to metals, solvents, chemicals, and endotoxin in a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China. To assess the longer-term influences of these agents on pancreatic cancer we extended follow-up of this previously studied cohort. Methods: We utilized a job exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures for 481 pancreatic cancer cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort of 3191 non-cases. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional...
Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to particles may be associated with increased inflammation of the airways. Animal experiments suggest that inhaled particles also induce a pulmonary acute phase response, leading to systemic circulation of acute phase proteins. Greenhouse workers are exposed to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined in serum...
Endotoxin in metal working fluid (MWF) mist
The risks to respiratory health from exposure to bacterial endotoxins are well established. The aims of this research were to: Review the evidence used to develop the health based recommended occupational exposure limit (HBROEL) for endotoxin of 90 endotoxin units per cubic metre (EU/m3) over an 8-hour period proposed by the Health Council for the Netherlands (DECOS); and to assess its relevance as a ‘benchmark' to assess risks to respiratory health caused by endotoxin in metal working fluid mists. Assess whether the published evidence on endotoxin concentration in metal working fluids...
Particulate Matter, Endotoxin, and Worker Respiratory Health on Large Californian Dairies
Objective: To assess respiratory exposures and lung function in a cross-sectional study of California dairy workers. Methods: Exposure of 205 dairy and 45 control (vegetable processing) workers to particulate matter and endotoxin was monitored. Pre- and postshift spirometry and interviews were conducted. Results: Geometric mean inhalable and PM2.5 concentrations were 812 and 35.3 μg/m3 versus 481.9 and 19.6 μg/m3, respectively, for dairy and control workers. Endotoxin concentrations were 329 EU/m3 or 1122 pmol/m3 and 13.5 EU/m3 or 110 pmol/m3, respectively, for dairy and control workers....
Dust, Endotoxin, Fungi, and Bacteria Exposure as Determined by Work Task, Season, and Type of Plant in a Flower Greenhouse
Background: Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure. Methods: Seventy-six personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 38 employees in a Danish flower greenhouse producing Campanula...
Investigation of respiratory and dermal symptoms associated with metal working fluids at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility
Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods Four hundred seven...
Occupational Hygiene implications of processing waste at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs): Exposure to bioaerosol and dust - RR977
This report presents the findings of a study to investigate exposures to dust and its microbiological components amongst workers employed at Materials Recycling Facilities (MRFs). The report shows the potential for workers to be exposed to general airborne dust above the level where it is considered a substance hazardous to health (10 mg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA). Also, there is the potential for exposure to fungi and bacteria, as well as endotoxins, which are agents known to have harmful effects on human health. Endotoxin exposures may be at levels greater than the health-based limit identified by the...
Station d'épuration des eaux usées : prévention des risques biologiques
Le personnel travaillant en station d'épuration des eaux usées est exposé à des micro-organismes, leurs toxines et composants (en particulier les endotoxines) présents dans les eaux usées, les boues, sur les surfaces et dans l'air. Après un rappel sur les micro-organismes et la façon dont le personnel peut être exposé, ce document décrit les différentes mesures de prévention des risques biologiques à chaque étape du procédé d'épuration. Ces mesures touchent la...
Measurement of Endotoxins in Bioaerosols at Workplace
Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria. Worker exposure to endotoxins has been shown in a number of work situations and is associated with both respiratory and systemic pathologies. The lack of an occupational exposure limit is mainly due to the absence of a standard protocol at the international level for sampling and analyzing airborne endotoxins. The bibliographic review in this article takes an exhaustive look at the current knowledge on measuring airborne endotoxins. It shows that, despite several reference documents...
Cancer and Lung Disease in Relation to Sawfiling and Endotoxin Exposure among Sawmill Workers
Exposure to hard metal and endotoxin may lead to adverse health effects in sawfilers and sawmill workers. This study examined the association between occupational exposure to these substances and the risk of lung disease and cancer. Subjects from a previous cohort study of BC sawmill workers were linked to information from hospital records and cancer registries. Employment as a sawfiler was found to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Workers exposed to endotoxin showed a decreased risk of lung cancer, a finding which replicated the results of previous research. Source :...
Risques microbiologiques dans les espaces fermés : exemple d’un centre de compostage et de cultures en serres
La manipulation de végétaux ou de débris végétaux dans des espaces fermés (hangar pour le compostage, serres pour les cultures) est fréquemment effectuée en France. Néanmoins, le niveau d’exposition des travailleurs des différentes filières concernées aux bioaérosols dégagés par ces substrats, est peu connu. Dans cette note, deux études ont été choisies pour illustrer l’ampleur de ce type d’exposition dans des espaces fermés. La première publication...
Endotoxins - Nordic expert group and Dutch DECOS publish criteria document
The document on endotoxins is an update of a report published by the Dutch Health Council in 1998 and has been reviewed by DECOS as well as by NEG. The members of both committees are listed in Appendix 1. Endotoxins are components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and have been recognised as an important biologically active component in most organic dusts. Such bacteria-containing dust particles originate mainly from animal faeces and contaminated plant materials. Occupational exposure to endotoxins therefore occurs primarily in the agriculture industry and related sectors, and sectors...
Endotoxines en milieu de travail. I. Origine et propriétés toxiques des endotoxines. Métrologie
Les endotoxines, composants de la paroi des bactéries Gram négatif, sont libérées lors de la lyse (ou destruction) de ces bactéries. Elles sont responsables des manifestations systémiques, telles qu'un choc septique, lors des infections à ce type de bactéries. Les lipopolysaccharides, éléments biologiquement actifs de ces endotoxines, ont des actions sur le système immunitaire, la coagulation et l'inflammation. Les endotoxines sont également impliquées dans la survenue d'un syndrome de détresse...
Current control standards for tasks with high exposure to grain dust
Six sectors of the British grain industry were investigated to try to identify and characterise exposure-significant tasks in terms of the inhalable dust, microorganism, endotoxin and mycotoxin exposures associated with these tasks. Information was collected from stakeholders in the industry by telephone interviews and during visits to company premises. In addition, the available scientific literature was reviewed to identify relevant exposure data. Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr829.htm
Skin and Respiratory Symptoms in Peanut Inspectors with Peanut Dust and Endotoxin Exposure
The HHE Program evaluated employees' exposures in a peanut-grading operation. Investigators found endotoxin in air conditioner filter dust, peanut grading room air, and outdoor air. Peanut grading machines were found to be releasing dust indoors. Investigators recommended that peanut grading room dust be vented outdoors and that air conditioner filters be changed routinely. It was also recommended that employees be provided with NIOSH-approved N95 respirators and participate in a respiratory protection program. Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2008-0052-3115.pdf
Health-based occupational exposure limit for endotoxins
At the request of the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment, the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety (DECOS), a committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands, recommends health-based occupational exposure limits for airborne substances to which people are exposed in the workplace. These recommendations serve as a basis in setting legally binding occupational exposure limits by the Minister. In this report, the Committee considers the implications of exposure to endotoxins and recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for these substances. Source: http://osha.europa...

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