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The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases
An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement Rationale: Workplace inhalational hazards remain common worldwide, even though they are ameliorable. Previous American Thoracic Society documents have assessed the contribution of workplace exposures to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on a population level, but not to other chronic respiratory diseases. The goal of this document is to report an in-depth literature review and data synthesis of the occupational contribution to the burden of the major nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including airway...
Heme oxygenase 1 polymorphism, occupational vapor, gas, dust, and fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Danish population-based study
Objectives: The number of dinucleotide repeats (GT)n modulate expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), a stress response gene. Multiple repeats might affect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. We aimed to investigate the association of this polymorphism with COPD and its interaction with occupational exposures (vapor, gas, dust, or fumes). Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4703 Danes, aged 45–84 years. HMOX1 (GT)n was genotyped and grouped as short: ≤26, medium: 27–32 and long: ≥33 alleles. COPD was defined by the lower limit...
Study on reprotoxic chemicals
A range of legislative instruments are in place at EU level to manage and minimise the risks from occupational exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances. Carcinogenic chemicals can cause or promote cancers. Mutagenic chemicals can cause genetic mutations. Reprotoxic chemicals can damage the reproductive process. This study assesses a number of options for moderning the current EU legislation, in particular regarding reprotoxic chemicals Source: https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=8220&furtherPubs=yes
Programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM)
Vingt années de surveillance (1998-2017) des cas de mésothéliome, de leurs expositions et des processus d'indemnisation En 1998, la Direction générale du travail (DGT) et la Direction générale de la santé (DGS) des ministères respectifs ont saisi Santé publique France pour mettre en place un programme national de surveillance des effets sanitaires de l'amiante : le programme national de surveillance du mésothéliome pleural (PNSM), marqueur spécifique des expositions passées à l'amiante...
Effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust on acute myocardial infarction
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz (RQ) on first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). RQ causes pulmonary diseases like silicosis and has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation is hypothesised as the underlying pathway. Methods: We performed a 1:3 matched case–control study nested in a cohort of male uranium miners. We included cases (identified from hospital records and validated according to WHO criteria) who had suffered their first AMI while still employed and <65 years of age. Controls were...
La lambda-cyhalothrine comme insecticide en milieu agricole
Étude de la toxicocinétique de biomarqueurs pour le suivi de l'exposition des travailleurs L'objectif général du présent projet de recherche a été de combler le manque de connaissance sur la toxicocinétique de biomarqueurs d'exposition à la lambda-cyhalothrine chez l'humain, pour une meilleure interprétation des données de biosurveillance des travailleurs exposés à ce pesticide et une meilleure évaluation des risques associés. Ce projet a été divisé en deux...
Dangers, expositions et risques relatifs à la silice cristalline
L'expertise visait à déployer les actions suivantes : - Réaliser un état des lieux des études et données concernant les dangers et effets sur la santé de la silice cristalline en se focalisant en particulier sur les études de cancérogénicité, la silice cristalline ayant été classée par le CIRC en cancérogène de Catégorie 1 ; - Identifier l'ensemble des pathologies associées à une exposition à la silice cristalline et en évaluer la pertinence...
Current state of knowledge on the health effects of engineered nanomaterials in workers
A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations Objectives: The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods: A systematic review of human...
Occupational Exposure to Metals in Shooting Ranges: A Biomonitoring Study
Background Lead (Pb) exposure in shooting ranges has been reduced by various measures such as jacketed ammunition and lead-free primers. Nevertheless, this may lead to exposure to other metals, potentially resulting in adverse health effects. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 35 subjects from seven different shooting ranges were studied: four shooting instructors, 10 police officers, 15 Special Forces, and six maintenance staff members. Metals and metalloids were determined in blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of most elements did...
Investigation d’un syndrome collectif inexpliqué parmi le personnel d’un centre de recherche dans l’Hérault
En février 2017, Santé publique France (région Occitanie) est contactée pour un signalement concernant un problème d'odeur dans un centre de recherche. Depuis le mois d'avril 2016, des épisodes d'odeurs (décrites comme des odeurs de solvants ou d'éther) incommodent fortement les personnels travaillant dans le bâtiment de l'animalerie. La plupart de ces personnels décrit des symptômes tels que maux de tête, nausées, vomissement, irritations des voies aériennes… Une réunion...
Dutch Committee On Occupational Safety Releases Report On Diesel Engine Exhaust
The Dutch Committee on Occupational Safety (DECOS) of the Health Council of the Netherlands has released a report summarizing the health effects of diesel engine exhaust. The report includes estimates of health-based occupational cancer risk values, and concludes that there is no safe exposure concentration below which no adverse health effects occur. Source : https://www.healthcouncil.nl/documents/advisory-reports/2019/03/13/diesel-engine-exhaust
Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
Exposure-response relationships for silicosis and its progression in industrial sand workers
Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the relationship between radiographic silicosis and exposure to respirable quartz and determine how exposure affects disease progression. Methods: Surveillance chest radiographs from a cohort of 1902 workers were examined to identify 67 cases of radiographic silicosis and 167 matched controls. Exposures were estimated by linking work histories to a job exposure matrix (JEM) based on samples collected by the participating companies and historical estimates. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine exposure-response relationships. Sequential...
Comparison of Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation as Testing Methods for Characterisation of Granular Biopersistent Particles (GBP)
Comparison of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) data The comparison of the inflammatory potency of the 6 GBP candidates came out with a good accordance of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) levels in the differential cell count for µ-TiO2. On day 3 post-treatment, PMN were not increased statistically significantly in the low and high dose groups, neither after instillation nor after inhalation. Thus, a very low inflammogenicity confirmed µ-TiO2 as GBP. µ-BaSO4 (low dose groups) showed a behaviour similar to µ-TiO2. However, for nano-TiO2 P25 an evident difference was...
Carcinogenicity of some nitrobenzenes and other industrial chemicals
In October, 2018, 14 experts from six countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ortho-phenylenediamine and its dihydrochloride salt, 2-chloronitrobenzene, 4-chloronitrobenzene, 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 2,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, 2-amino-4-chlorophenol, para-nitroanisole, and N,N-dimethylacetamide. These assessments will be published in Volume 123 of the IARC Monographs. Source: (2018). The Lancet Oncology . https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30823-4
Asbestos: Modern Insights for Toxicology in the Era of Engineered Nanomaterials
Asbestos fibers are naturally occurring silicates that have been extensively used in the past, including house construction, but because of their toxicity, their use has been banned in 63 countries. Despite this, more than one million metric tons of asbestos are still consumed annually in countries where asbestos use has not been banned. Asbestos-related disease incidence is still increasing in several countries, including those countries that banned the use of asbestos more than 30 years ago. We highlight here recent knowledge obtained in experimental models about the mechanisms leading to tumor...
Cancer de la vessie et expositions professionnelles aux fluides de coupe
Étude épidémiologique parmi les travailleurs de la sidérurgie en France L'objectif de cette étude est de rechercher s'il existe un risque de cancer de la vessie associé à des expositions professionnelles à des brouillards d'huiles, issus de l'utilisation d'huiles entières ou de fluides aqueux. Une étude cas-témoins a été mise en place au sein d'une cohorte de 22 795 travailleurs de la sidérurgie du Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Les cas de cancer de vessie ont été diagnostiqués...
Welding, Molybdenum Trioxide, and Indium Tin Oxide
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 118 This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of welding and welding fumes, molybdenum trioxide, and indium tin oxide. Worldwide, an estimated 11 million workers have a job title of welder, and around 110 million additional workers probably incur welding-related exposures. Welding can involve exposures to fumes, gases, ultraviolet radiation and electromagnetic fields, and co-exposures to asbestos and solvents. The extent and type of exposure can depend on the process used, the material...
Occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based study
Objectives: While several monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are classified as definite or possible carcinogens to humans, little data exist on their role in prostate cancer (PCa). We examined occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and styrene and PCa risk in a population-based case–control study in Montreal, Canada. Methods: Cases aged ≤75 years diagnosed with PCa in 2005–2009 (n=1920) and population controls frequency-matched on age (n=1989) provided detailed work histories. Experts evaluated the certainty, frequency and concentration of exposure to monocyclic aromatic...
Priorisation des zoonoses au Québec dans un contexte d’adaptation aux changements climatiques à l’aide d’un outil d’aide à la décision multicritère
Au Québec comme ailleurs dans le monde, les maladies transmises entre les animaux et les humains (zoonoses) sont en émergence, notamment du fait des changements climatiques. Elles représentent environ 60 % des maladies infectieuses émergentes chez l'humain. Devant les enjeux zoonotiques qui se multiplient, l'Observatoire multipartite québécois sur les zoonoses et l'adaptation aux changements climatiques (Observatoire) a initié en 2015 une démarche de priorisation des zoonoses, afin d'orienter les besoins en recherche et les...
Identifying occupational carcinogens: an update from the IARC Monographs
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971–2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational...
Occupational exposures and cancer: a review of agents and relative risk estimates
Objectives: The contribution of occupational exposures to the cancer burden can be estimated using population-attributable fractions, which is of great importance for policy making. This paper reviews occupational carcinogens, and presents the most relevant risk relations to cancer in high-income countries using France as an example, to provide a framework for national estimation of cancer burden attributable to occupational exposure. Methods: Occupational exposures that should be included in cancer burden studies were evaluated using multiple criteria: classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic...
Potential Health Risk of Endocrine Disruptors in Construction Sector and Plastics Industry
A New Paradigm in Occupational Health Endocrine disruptors (EDs) belong to large and diverse groups of agents that may cause multiple biological effects associated with, for example, hormone imbalance and infertility, chronic diseases such as diabetes, genome damage and cancer. The health risks related with the exposure to EDs are typically underestimated, less well characterized, and not regulated to the same extent as, for example, carcinogens. The increased production and utilization of identified or suspected EDs in many different technological processes raises new challenges with respect to...
Evaluation of the Impact of Ambient Temperatures on Occupational Injuries in Spain
Background: Extreme cold and heat have been linked to an increased risk of occupational injuries. However, the evidence is still limited to a small number of studies of people with relatively few injuries and with a limited geographic extent, and the corresponding economic effect has not been studied in detail. Objectives: We assessed the relationship between ambient temperatures and occupational injuries in Spain along with its economic effect. Methods: The daily number of occupational injuries that caused at least one day of leave and the daily maximum temperature were obtained for each Spanish...
Expositions professionnelles à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires chez les salariés en 2010
Introduction – Les cancers respiratoires sont les plus fréquents des cancers professionnels, mais très peu de données sont disponibles pour quantifier l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes respiratoires. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer en France la proportion de salariés exposés à des agents cancérogènes respiratoires et d'identifier les groupes professionnels les plus exposés, à des fins de prévention. Méthode – À partir des données...
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