Parcourir par tags

Tous les tags » Effets sur la santé » Secteur de l'industrie extractive » Secteurs d'activités (RSS)
Effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust on acute myocardial infarction
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to respirable quartz (RQ) on first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). RQ causes pulmonary diseases like silicosis and has also been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation is hypothesised as the underlying pathway. Methods: We performed a 1:3 matched case–control study nested in a cohort of male uranium miners. We included cases (identified from hospital records and validated according to WHO criteria) who had suffered their first AMI while still employed and <65 years of age. Controls were...
Agents fibrogènes et cancérogènes dans les mines d’or et de fer du Québec - Étude exploratoire
De récentes études ont mis en évidence que les travailleurs des mines d’or du Dakota et des mines de fer du Minnesota sont exposés à des particules minérales allongées (PMA). En particulier, les mineurs du Minnesota présentent un risque plus élevé de décès par cancer du poumon, par mésothéliome et par maladies cardiaques que la population générale. Comme l’intérêt renouvelé pour l’exploration de nouveaux gisements d’or et de fer dans le Nord...
Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners From 3 Clinics in Virginia
Since 1970, the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP), administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has offered periodic chest radiographs to working US coal miners.1 The primary purpose of the CWHSP is early detection of coal workers' pneumoconiosis to prevent progression to disabling lung disease, including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). By the late 1990s, PMF was rarely identified among miners participating in the CWHSP. However, a 2014 report documented an increase in the prevalence of PMF in Appalachia.2 On February 1, 2017, the director...
Coal miner participation in a job transfer program designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis, United States, 1986–2016
The Part 90 program was designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis in U.S. coal miners by establishing their right to transfer to a less dusty job in the mine. We calculated the proportion of Part 90-eligible miners who participated during 1986–2016, examined participation by region, and compared characteristics of miners by participation status. Of the 3,547 eligible miners, 14.4% exercised their Part 90 option. Miners working in states outside central Appalachia, and those with more severe pneumoconiosis, were more likely to participate. The primary goal of respiratory health surveillance...
Evaluation of high blood pressure and obesity among US coal miners participating in the Enhanced Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program
Since 2005, the Enhanced Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (ECWHSP) has offered respiratory examinations to coal miners in a mobile examination unit. As little is known about the cardiovascular health of coal miners, we describe the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and obesity among ECWHSP participants. During 2015, 1402 ECWHSP health examinations were performed. The prevalence of BP consistent with hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg), prehypertension (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg), and hypertensive crisis (systolic...
Resurgence of Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Coal Miners - Eastern Kentucky, 2016
The prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis fell precipitously after implementation of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act and reached historic lows in the 1990s, with the most severe form, progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), nearly eradicated. Since that time, increases in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis have occurred, especially in central Appalachia. During January 1, 2015–August 17, 2016, a total of 60 patients identified through a single radiologist's practice had radiographic findings consistent with PMF; 49 had their radiograph taken during...
Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions
Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along...
Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen
Smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case–control studies Objectives: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and quarrymen. Methods: We estimated lung cancer risks of coal and ore miners and quarrymen among 14 251 lung cancer cases and 17 267 controls from the SYNERGY pooled case–control study, controlling for...
Is There an Association of Circulatory Hospitalizations Independent of Mining Employment in Coal-Mining and Non–Coal-Mining Counties in West Virginia?
Objective: Exposures associated with coal mining activities, including diesel fuel exhaust, products used in coal processing, and heavy metals and other forms of particulate matter, may impact the health of nearby residents. We investigated the relationships between county-level circulatory hospitalization rates (CHRs) in coal and non–coal-mining communities of West Virginia, coal production, coal employment, and sociodemographic factors. Methods: Direct age-adjusted CHRs were calculated using West Virginia hospitalizations from 2005 to 2009. Spatial regressions were conducted to explore...
Debilitating Lung Disease Among Surface Coal Miners With No Underground Mining Tenure
Objective: To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Methods: Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Results: Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest...
Cancer burden of diesel exhaust steep for exposed workers
Almost five per cent of all lung cancers diagnosed in Canadian males each year are attributable to occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). This burden was uncovered by Occupational Cancer Research Centre (OCRC) researchers as part of a wider project to estimate the current overall burden of occupational cancers suffered by Canadian workers. The OCRC released preliminary data recently estimating the proportion of new DEE-related diagnosed lung cancers to be 4.92% for males, 0.29% for females and 2.70% overall. Considering it can take years, even decades, from initial exposure to carcinogens...
Expression Levels of Surfactant-Associated Proteins and Inflammation Cytokines in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Among Coal Miners
A Case-Control Study Objective: To investigate whether the Th1/Th2 balance and expressions of surfactant-associated proteins and cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are associated with the development of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 72 CWP cases and 68 controls. Th1 and Th2 populations were measured by flow cytometry. Expressions of surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SPA and SPD) and cytokines in serum and BALF were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. Data were analyzed by t test and logistic...
Cross-Sectional Study on Respiratory Morbidity in Workers After Exposure to Synthetic Amorphous Silica at Five German Production Plants
Exposure Assessment and Exposure Estimates Objectives: Synthetic amorphous silicas (SASs) are nanostructured polymorphs of silicon dioxide. We compared two different exposure assessments. Methods: This study estimated cumulative exposure to inhalable SAS dust in 484 male workers from five German SAS-producing plants. Two procedures (P1 and P2) were applied. P1 was based on an expert assessment. P2 was a multiple exposure assessment (15 scenarios) anchored by a recent measurement series (1375 personal measurements of inhalable SAS dust concentration) and used expert assessments. Results: Cumulative...
Occupation and environmental heat-associated deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: a case-control study
Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death...
Radiation Sources in Natural Gas Well Activities
More attention and monitoring of occupational radiation exposure in the natural gas industry are warranted . The boom in the natural gas industry across the nation, made possible by recent advances in hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") methodology, has resulted in increased concern for public and environmental safety. This, in turn, has resulted in a series of recommendations for minimizing the risk to the public and the environment (Secretary of Energy, 2011). The natural gas industry has responded to environmental concerns by cleaning and recycling frack water, which can take the form...
Pneumoconiosis and Advanced Occupational Lung Disease Among Surface Coal Miners
16 States, 2010–2011 Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic occupational lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust, which triggers inflammation of the alveoli, eventually resulting in irreversible lung damage. CWP ranges in severity from simple to advanced; the most severe form is progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Advanced CWP is debilitating and often fatal. To prevent CWP, the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established the current federal exposure limit for respirable dust in underground and surface coal mines. The Act also established a surveillance system...
Using Digital Chest Images to Monitor the Health of Coal Miners and Other Workers
Under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, NIOSH administers a long-standing chest radiographic (x-ray) monitoring program for underground coal miners (The Coal Workers X-ray Surveillance Program [CWXSP]). Conventional screen-film chest radiographic imaging has been an indispensable tool for monitoring the lung health of miners and other dust-exposed workers. In these surveillance programs, trained readers assess a worker's chest radiograph for the presence and severity of occupational lung disease (parenchymal a...

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives