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Dutch Committee On Occupational Safety Releases Report On Diesel Engine Exhaust
The Dutch Committee on Occupational Safety (DECOS) of the Health Council of the Netherlands has released a report summarizing the health effects of diesel engine exhaust. The report includes estimates of health-based occupational cancer risk values, and concludes that there is no safe exposure concentration below which no adverse health effects occur. Source : https://www.healthcouncil.nl/documents/advisory-reports/2019/03/13/diesel-engine-exhaust
OCRC report: assessment of diesel exhaust exposure in municipal fire halls in Ontario
This report summarizes the diesel exhaust exposure levels assessed in 12 fire halls from six fire services departments in Ontario and reviews how these exposures vary among the fire halls. The report also includes information on the exposure control strategies currently in place in the participating fire departments. The study was requested and funded by the Prevention Office of the Ontario Ministry of Labour. The research was performed in collaboration with Dr. Tracy Kirkham from the University of Toronto's Dalla Lana School of Public Health. Source : http://www.occupationalcancer.ca/wp-content...
Historical changes in chemical exposures encountered by Danish firefighters
Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the possibility of using history science methods in occupational studies by evaluating overall historical changes in Danish firefighting modifying chemical exposures from smoke and fire trucks. Methods: Data on changes in Danish firefighting after World War II were searched for in both museums and the Danish library catalogue REX, accessing collections of literature from all institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Royal Library. Results: Several historical changes were identified either increasing or reducing chemical exposures in Danish...
ASTM D6877 - Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace
This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm
Burden of lung cancer attributable to occupational diesel engine exhaust exposure in Canada
Objective: To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of incident and fatal lung cancers in Canada from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: DEE exposure prevalence and level estimates were used with Canadian Census and Labour Force Survey data to model the exposed population across the risk exposure period (REP, 1961–2001). Relative risks of lung cancer were calculated based on a meta-regression selected from the literature. PAFs were calculated using Levin's equation and applied to the 2011 lung cancer statistics obtained from the Canadian...
Diesel engine exhaust exposure in underground mines
Comparison between different surrogates of particulate exposure Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is frequently assessed by measuring indicators of carbon speciation, but these measurements may be affected by organic carbon (OC) interference. Furthermore, there are still questions regarding the reliability of direct-reading instruments (DRI) for measuring DPM, since these instruments are not specific and may be interfered by other aerosol sources. This study aimed to to assess DPM exposure in two underground mines by filter-based methods and DRI; and to assess the relationship between...
Prévention des expositions liées aux émissions des moteurs thermiques
Les moteurs thermiques sont largement utilisés sur les véhicules routiers ou non routiers ainsi que pour des applications fixes (compresseurs, groupes électrogènes). Les émissions de ces moteurs peuvent entraîner des effets néfastes sur la santé du fait des nombreuses substances dangereuses qu'elles contiennent. Les expositions professionnelles à ces émissions sont fréquentes et peuvent atteindre des niveaux bien supérieurs aux expositions environnementales de la population générale car les moteurs...
Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer
An Evaluation of Recent Epidemiological Evidence for Quantitative Risk Assessment This report contains the intensive review and analysis of the newest studies of mine and truck workers exposed to older diesel engine exhaust conducted by an Expert Panel appointed by the HEI Board of Directors. In its report, HEI's Diesel Epidemiology Panel concluded that the studies are well prepared and are useful for applying the data to calculate the cancer risk due to exposure to diesel exhaust. The Panel noted, however, that efforts to apply these studies to estimate human risk at today's ambient levels...
Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment
Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m−3, with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m−3). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was...
Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions
Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along...
Cancer burden of diesel exhaust steep for exposed workers
Almost five per cent of all lung cancers diagnosed in Canadian males each year are attributable to occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). This burden was uncovered by Occupational Cancer Research Centre (OCRC) researchers as part of a wider project to estimate the current overall burden of occupational cancers suffered by Canadian workers. The OCRC released preliminary data recently estimating the proportion of new DEE-related diagnosed lung cancers to be 4.92% for males, 0.29% for females and 2.70% overall. Considering it can take years, even decades, from initial exposure to carcinogens...
Non destructive techniques for analysis of diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) on filters
Diesel engine exhaust emissions represent a hazard to worker health. The amount of elemental carbon (EC) is the routine measure of DEEE. Historically, an instrument, the Bosch meter, has been used in underground mines in the UK. The meter measures ‘blackness' of a filter paper as a proxy for EC and HSL showed that there was a relationship between blackness and EC. The Bosch meter is no longer available and this report details the investigations into a replacement system. The instruments tested were those that were commercially available at the time the research was undertaken: a Magee...
Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace
This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM ). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection. Source : http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm
L'OMS estime que les gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel sont cancérigènes
Les gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel sont désormais classés parmi les cancérogènes certains pour les humains par le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer (CIRC), qui dépend de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS). Source : http://www.etui.org/fr/Themes/Sante-et-securite/Actualites/L-OMS-estime-que-les-gaz-d-echappement-des-moteurs-diesel-sont-cancerigenes
IARC: Diesel engine exhaust carcinogenic
After a week-long meeting of international experts, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. Source : http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/iarcnews/2012/mono105-info.php
Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer death in miners
In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The study was carried out by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, both parts of HHS. Source : http://www.ishn.com/articles/92691-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-linked-to-lung-cancer-death-in-miners
Diesel Aerosols and Gases in Underground Mines: Guide to Exposure Assessment and Control
Diesel engines are a major contributor to concentrations of submicron aerosols, CO, CO2, NOX, SO2 and hydrocarbons (HC) in underground coal and metal/nonmetal mines. The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in underground mines makes it challenging to control workers´ exposure to submicron aerosols and noxious gases emitted by those engines. In order to protect workers, mines need to establish a comprehensive program based on a multifaceted and integrated approach. Many of the technologies and strategies available to the coal and metal/nonmetal underground mining industries to control...
Work exposure to diesel fumes tied to lung cancer
The study has a number of key limitations, one being a lack of data on the subjects' actual exposure to diesel exhaust. Moreover, case-control studies can offer only limited evidence of an association between two variables (in this case, diesel-exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk). And they cannot establish the extent to which diesel exhaust might affect any one worker's absolute risk of developing lung cancer. Studies that follow a population of initially healthy people over time offer stronger evidence of whether a particular exposure is related to a disease risk. Straif noted that...
Best Practice Guide for Above-Ground Fuel Storage on Farms
The Department of Labour and the Environmental Risk Management Authority New Zealand (ERMA New Zealand) have produced a joint revision of their previously separate guidelines on safe above-ground fuel storage on farms. Farmers have legal obligations under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act 1996 in relation to the handling and storage of fuel on farms. In addition, farmers are required to provide a safe place of work under the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. The purpose of this guideline is to assist farmers to evaluate above ground farm fuel storage systems, to ensure...
Émission diesel
Performances des filtres à particules pour engins non routiers L'exposition aux fumées et gaz d'échappement diesel est estimée comme la plus fréquente des expositions à un cancérogène sur le lieu de travail en France. Ces émissions sont classées comme cancérogènes probables pour l'homme (groupe 2A) par le CIRC (Centre international de recherche contre le cancer). L'émission diesel forme une pollution chimiquement complexe comprenant des gaz et des particules fines carbonées sur lesquelles...
Real-time measurement of nitrogen monoxide in tunnels and its oxidation rate in diluted diesel exhaust
Exposure to oxides of nitrogen (NOx which denotes the mixture of nitrogen monoxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2) commonly arises in the tunnelling industry from diesel engine exhaust emissions and from the use of explosives. The British Tunnelling Society (BTS) guidance levels for NO are 5 ppm for an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) and 15 ppm for a 15 minute short term exposure limit (STEL). Real-time monitors are used by the construction industry as they provide a means of checking that controls are effective. Previous laboratory work at HSL evaluated various commercial detectors potentially...
Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review
Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v19/n5/full/jes200921a...
NO2 Emission Increases Associated with the Use of Certain Diesel Particulate Filters in Underground Mines
In response to new exposure standards to lower miners' exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and others have conducted research into control technologies to reduce DPM emissions. The mining industry—and specifically dieselized mines—also continue to work toward finding feasible controls to implement in their mines. Although emissions of and exposure to DPM can sometimes be controlled through the use of newer diesel engines, better engine maintenance, use of alternative fuels, or ventilation upgrades, some mines...
Diesel exhaust
NIOSH has determined that diesel exhaust is a potential human carcinogen, based on a combination of chemical, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. In addition, acute exposures to diesel exhaust have been linked to health problems such as eye and nose irritation, headaches, nausea, and asthma. Currently, underground miners can be exposed to over 100 times the typical environmental concentration of diesel exhaust and over 10 times that measured in other workplaces. In addition, miner exposure to diesel emissions promises to become more widespread as diesel equipment becomes more popular within...

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