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NF EN 17199-3 - Mesurage du pouvoir de resuspension des matériaux en vrac contenant des nano-objets et leurs agrégats et agglomérats (NOAA) ou autres particules en fraction alvéolaire
Le présent document décrit la méthodologie permettant de mesurer le pouvoir de resuspension de matériaux en vrac contenant ou émettant des NOAA ou autres particules en fraction alvéolaire dans des conditions normalisées et reproductibles et spécifie, à cette fin, le but de la méthode de la chute continue. Le présent document spécifie le choix des instruments et dispositifs ainsi que les procédures de calcul et d'expression des résultats. Il fournit également des lignes directrices concernant...
Types and Health Hazards of Fibrous Materials Used as Asbestos Substitutes
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 125 million people are exposed to asbestos at worksites around the world, and more than 107,000 people die of asbestos-related diseases, including lung cancer, mesothelioma, or asbestosis, due to occupational exposure to asbestos. Substitute materials have been studied and developed for a long time because of the hazards of asbestos, and many people have recently shown interests in the hazards of substitute materials. Fibrous materials may be considered as an alternative to asbestos. There are many kinds of fiber materials, which can be largely...
Aérosols semi-volatils
De l'identification au prélèvement Des études récentes concernant les aérosols semi-volatils ont révélé des interactions entre les particules et les vapeurs. Encore faut-il être capable d'identifier le caractère semi-volatil d'une substance pour développer une méthode de prélèvement et d'analyse prenant en compte les deux phases, particulaire et vapeur. Cet article a pour but de donner une définition adaptée de ce qu'est un aérosol semi-volatil et d'appliquer...
Review of vapour cloud explosion incidents
Major incidents worldwide have involved large vapour cloud explosions, including the Buncefield explosion in 2005. It is important to learn from historical incidents to understand the risk profile of installations. Following the Buncefield explosion, a large body of published research has improved scientific understanding of the release event, the flammable cloud formation and the explosion. This report describes work done by HSE with US safety regulators to consolidate previous research and to incorporate recently published analysis into a single, systematic review of historical incidents. Important...
Evaluation of the DRIFT gas dispersion model version 3.6.4
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) uses gas dispersion modelling in its assessment of the hazards and risks posed by toxic and flammable substances stored at major hazards sites. To update its dispersion modelling capability, HSE recently commissioned ESR Technology to develop a new version of the gas dispersion model DRIFT (Dispersion of Releases Involving Flammables or Toxics). The new version of the model, DRIFT Version 3 (DRIFT 3), includes a significant number of modelling enhancements over the version of DRIFT previously used within HSE (DRIFT 2.31). These include the extension of the...
Size-resolved characterization of particles and fibers released during abrasion of fiber-reinforced composite in a workplace influenced by ambient background sources
We demonstrate the use of high- to low-resolution microscopy and particle chemical analysis during normal vacuum and cryo-conditions to identify the nature and relative abundances of process-generated particles and fibers from sanding of a glass and carbon fiber epoxy layer-composite in a workplace influenced by both indoor and ambient background sources. The study suggests that a proper exposure characterization requires multiple techniques covering wide size ranges to reach a conclusion. Besides a rise in number concentration due to release of particles during the sanding, a significant contribution...
A case-control study of airways obstruction among construction workers
Background: While smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) increase COPD risk. This case-control study estimated the risk of COPD attributable to occupational exposures among construction workers. Methods: The study population included 834 cases and 1243 controls participating in a national medical screening program for older construction workers between 1997 and 2013. Qualitative exposure indices were developed based on lifetime work and exposure histories. Results: Approximately 18% (95%CI ...
Métrologie en temps réel de substances chimiques au poste de travail
Intérêts et limites Les gaz, vapeurs et aérosols peuvent aujourd'hui être mesurés en temps réel à un poste de travail. Les techniques utilisées sont nombreuses et, pour certaines, de plus en plus simples à utiliser. Après avoir présenté les enjeux liés à l'utilisation de ces techniques pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, cet article en explique les intérêts et les limites par type de substances chimiques (gaz/vapeur et aérosols). Source: http://www...
Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions
Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along...
Consultation on monitoring of water-miscible metalworking fluid (MWF) mists
The aim of this research was to examine metal working fluid (MWF) exposure limits and guidance set by other countries, summarise studies and investigations that examined water-miscible MWF mist as well as new techniques to monitor mist. Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1044.htm
Aerosol Transmission of Infectious Disease
Objective: The concept of aerosol transmission is developed to resolve limitations in conventional definitions of airborne and droplet transmission. Methods: The method was literature review. Results: An infectious aerosol is a collection of pathogen-laden particles in air. Aerosol particles may deposit onto or be inhaled by a susceptible person. Aerosol transmission is biologically plausible when infectious aerosols are generated by or from an infectious person, the pathogen remains viable in the environment for some period of time, and the target tissues in which the pathogen initiates infection...
Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop
Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo...
Optimisation de SATURISK, l’outil de calcul du temps de service des cartouches de protection respiratoire contre les vapeurs organiques
L'exposition des travailleurs aux solvants, ou plus largement aux vapeurs organiques, doit être maîtrisée sinon maintenue en deçà des valeurs limites réglementaires. Lorsque l'ensemble des mesures administratives, d'ingénierie et de protection collective ne permet pas d'atteindre des niveaux d'exposition sans danger pour la santé, les travailleurs concernés doivent être équipés d'appareils de protection respiratoire (APR). En l'absence de situations de danger immédiat pour la vie...
Chemical Vapour Deposition In The Semiconductor Industry
This Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) precursors in the semiconductor industry. The document presents standard approaches for estimating environmental releases and occupational exposures, and discusses the typical engineering controls used to mitigate exposure to CVD precursors. Source: http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2015)5&doclanguage...
Further validation of the ACE instantaneous source model
ACE (Airborne Concentration Estimate) is a model originally developed by WS Atkins on behalf of HSE for computing source terms arising from instantaneous flashing releases. The model has since been reviewed and enhanced through a series of extensive tests that have been performed by HSL. Inputs to ACE are the substance, its mass and storage conditions and ambient weather conditions. The model then computes the formation of a vapour cloud assuming total loss of containment. This is done in two distinct stages; an explosion phase, which models the initial flashing process and a turbulent growth stage...
Risk of Preeclampsia From Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Speciation Chemicals During Pregnancy
Objective: To determine whether maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation chemicals during pregnancy is associated with the risk of preeclampsia. Methods: We allocated average daily exposure values for 36 ambient particulate matter speciation chemicals to mothers during their first trimester and their entire pregnancy. The main outcome of interest was preeclampsia occurrence. Adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Results: The odds for preeclampsia were increased per interquartile range increase in pollutants for exposure to elemental carbon during the...
Standardisation of the measurement of capture efficiency of on-gun extraction for welding
The inhalation of welding fume is recognised as being a real threat to workers' health due to the development of occupational illnesses such as welding fume fever and asthma. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) is an effective method to control worker exposure to welding fume and previous work has indicated the merit of the use of on-gun extraction systems. The aim of the present study was to improve and refine the existing on-gun extraction methodology and has resulted in the development of two alternative methods for measuring the efficiency of on-gun fume extraction systems. There are distinct...
Biological Effects of Emissions From Resistance Spot Welding of Zinc-Coated Material After Controlled Exposure of Healthy Human Subjects
Objective: Do emissions from a resistance spot welding process of zinc-coated materials induce systemic inflammation in healthy subjects after exposure for 6 hours? Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects were exposed once for 6 hours either to filtered ambient air or to welding fume from resistance spot welding of zinc-coated material (mass concentration approximately 100 μg m−3). Biological effects were measured before, after, and 24 hours after exposure. Results: At the concentrations used in this study, however, the suspected properties of ultrafine particles did not lead to systemic...
L'ANSES confirme les risques sanitaires liés à l'exposition aux bitumes
L'ANSES vient de publier un rapport formulant un certain nombre de recommandations pour prévenir les divers risques affectant la santé des travailleurs exposés aux bitumes. Au-delà du potentiel cancérogène des produits bitumineux et de leurs émissions, les experts de l'ANSES ont mis en évidence dans leur expertise l'existence d'effets respiratoires et suspectent également des effets cardiovasculaires et immunotoxiques. Selon les postes de travail, les niveaux d'exposition sont plus ou moins importants. La température...
Questions-réponses sur le bisphénol A (BPA)
Qu’est-ce que le BPA ? Quels sont ses effets sur la santé ? Comment prévenir les risques d’expositions ? L'INRS vous propose des réponses à ces questions. Le bisphénol A (BPA) Effets du BPA sur la santé Prévention Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/header/actualites/questions-reponses-bisphenol-A.html
LNG source term models for hazard analysis
A review of the state-of-the-art and an approach to model assessment In 2006, the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) undertook a research project to develop tools for the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) Liquefied Natural Gas Technical Committee to evaluate liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion models. The work was commissioned by the Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF) and delivered a Model Evaluation Protocol (Ivings et al., 2007) which included a checklist of model evaluation criteria and a structure for complete model evaluation. A partial evaluation of some common current dispersion...
Review of FLACS version 9.0
Dispersion modelling capabilities FLame ACceleration Simulator (FLACS) is a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code developed and marketed by Global Explosion Consultants (GexCon), based in Bergen, Norway. The software has been developed to model the dispersion and combustion of flammable liquids, gases and dust clouds in open and bounded geometries. The first version of FLACS, released in 1986, was developed by CMI (Christian Michelsen Research Institute). CMI continued the development of FLACS until 1992 at which time its development was passed to CMR (Christian Michelsen Research...

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