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Protéger les travailleurs du froid : mieux comprendre pour mieux agir
Dans de nombreux secteurs industriels, les travailleurs sont confrontés à des contraintes thermiques extrêmes et en particulier à des froids pouvant être intenses. Des normes internationales définissent le travail au froid à des températures égales ou inférieures à 10°C. Par exemple, les ouvriers de l'industrie alimentaire de transformation sont exposés, plusieurs heures par jour, à des températures comprises entre 0 et +10°C pour maintenir la chaine du froid (à des fins de conservation...
Heat Index: When humidity makes it feel hotter
NIOSH and OSHA recently released the redesigned, co-branded OSHA-NIOSH Heat Safety Tool App. This version replaces the app previously created by OSHA in 2011. The app calculates the heat index at outdoor worksites using the smartphone's geolocation capabilities to pull current weather conditions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Based on the calculated heat index, users are provided specific sets of recommendations for protections against the heat. Workers and managers can use these recommendations to adjust their work environment. The app recommendations...
Fire Simulation and Cardiovascular Health in Firefighters
Background: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. Methods: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes. After each exposure, ex vivo thrombus formation, fibrinolysis...
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments
Occupational exposure to heat can result in injuries, disease, reduced productivity, and death. To address this hazard, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has evaluated the scientific data on heat stress and hot environments and has updated the Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments. This document was last updated in 1986, and in recent years, including during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response of 2010, questions were raised regarding the need for revision to reflect recent research and findings. This revision includes...
Ambiances thermiques
Quand le travail quitte sa zone de confort Que ce soit à l'extérieur ou à l'intérieur des locaux, la température du lieu de travail influe sur le confort des opérateurs. Si elle est particulièrement élevée ou basse, ce sont la santé et la sécurité de chacun qui peuvent être mises en jeu. La maîtrise des ambiances thermiques et de l'organisation à mettre en place joue alors un rôle essentiel dans la prévention des risques professionnels. Source: Travail & Sécurité...
Individualized prediction of heat stress in firefighters
A data-driven approach using classification and regression trees The purpose of this study was to explore data driven models, based on decision trees, to develop practical and easy to use predictive models for early identification of firefighters who are likely to cross the threshold of hyperthermia during live-fire training. Predictive models were created for three consecutive live-fire training scenarios. The final predicted outcome was a categorical variable: will a firefighter cross the upper threshold of hyperthermia - Yes/No. Two tiers of models were built, one with and one without taking...
Température estivale, concentrations d’ozone et lésions professionnelles acceptées au Québec
Les changements climatiques sont indéniables et leurs impacts sur la santé de la population préoccupent de plus en plus les scientifiques et les décideurs publics. Les spécialistes prévoient des hausses de température au Québec et que les durées et l’intensité des périodes de chaleur accablante et de canicules augmenteront. D’autres paramètres environnementaux seront possiblement modifiés à la suite de l’augmentation de la température extérieure, comme la hausse des...
Characterizing occupational heat-related mortality in the United States, 2000–2010
An analysis using the census of fatal occupational injuries database BACKGROUND: Occupational heat-related mortality is not well studied and risk factors remain largely unknown. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the US 2000-2010. METHODS: Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry. RESULTS: Between 2000...
Évaluations des astreintes thermiques à l'aide de la fréquence cardiaque
Les méthodes classiques d'évaluation des astreintes thermiques sont peu adaptées lors des expositions brèves, intenses à la chaleur ou lors du port de tenue étanche. Au cours d'études de terrain sur le travail à la chaleur, les extrapulsations cardiaques thermiques (EPCT) et la température buccale (tbu, en °C) ont été mesurées chez 98 salariés occupant 18 postes de travail différents. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que les EPCT rendent compte avec précision de...
Pertinence et conditions d'utilisation des indices thermiques dans le contexte québécois
Cette étude s’intéresse à l’ensemble des contraintes thermiques, depuis les grands froids typiques du nord du Québec, jusqu’aux ambiances excessivement chaudes retrouvées dans certaines industries. Six indices thermiques ont été analysés en détail; trois d’entre eux s’appliquent au froid, un au confort thermique et deux visent les conditions excessivement chaudes. Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-indices-thermiques-contexte-quebecois-r-824.html
Heat Strain and Hydration Status of Surface Mine Blast Crew Workers
Objective: Dehydration and symptoms of heat illness are common among the surface mining workforce. This investigation aimed to determine whether heat strain and hydration status exceeded recommended limits. Methods: Fifteen blast crew personnel operating in the tropics were monitored across a 12-hour shift. Heart rate, core body temperature, and urine-specific gravity were continuously recorded. Participants self-reported fluid consumption and completed a heat illness symptom inventory. Results: Core body temperature averaged 37.46 ± 0.13°C, with the group maximum 37.98 ± 0.19°C...
The use of infra-red (tympanic) temperature as a guide to signs of heat stress in industry
Previous IOM research, showed that the use of a simple infra-red (IR) ear thermometer did not provide a reliable prediction of core body temperature for use in industrial situations (Graveling et al, 2009). The aim of this research was to explore the use of an IR ear thermometer further, and to determine whether the consistency and accuracy of the measurements obtained could be improved sufficiently to provide a reliable indication of the risk of an individual suffering from heat strain. Published studies where IR temperature has been compared with core temperature benchmarks such as rectal temperature...
Contraintes thermiques et substances chimiques
Bilan des connaissances et emplois les plus à risque au Québec L'exposition au froid ou à la chaleur déclenche une série de réponses physiologiques compensatrices qui permettent à l'organisme humain de maintenir sa température interne malgré un stress thermique. Ces mécanismes de thermorégulation sont bien documentés et les changements physiologiques qu'ils impliquent peuvent modifier les fonctions de plusieurs organes liées à l'absorption et au métabolisme des substances chimiques...
Do Older Firefighters Show Long-Term Adaptations to Work in the Heat?
Older experienced firefighters may show signs of heat adaptation, and thus reduced physiological strain, due to repeated occupational heat stress exposure. The aim was to examine physiological and perceptual strain, and hydration, responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 12 older Non-Firefighter (Non-FF) and experienced Firefighter (FF) males, pair matched for age (Group mean ± SE: Non-FF = 51.7 ± 1.5, FF = 49.8 ± 1.1 years), VO2peak (Non-FF = 39.4 ± 2.2, FF = 40.7 ± 1.8 mL·kg−1·min−1), body surface area (Non-FF = 1.94 ±...
Core temperature and heart rate response to repeated bouts of firefighting activities
During live-fire firefighting operations and training evolutions, firefighters often consume multiple cylinders of air and continue to wear their personal protective equipment even after fire suppression activities have ceased. However, most studies have only reported core temperature changes during short-term firefighting activities and have shown a very modest increase in core temperature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate core temperature and heart rate (HR) during repeated bouts of firefighting activity over ∼3 h. The results of this study show that core temperatures increase...
Occupation and environmental heat-associated deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: a case-control study
Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death...
Advisory: Heat Stress and Type 3 Asbestos Operations
In Ontario, asbestos remediation requires full-body protective coveralls, head coverings, and other personal protective equipment such as respirators, gloves, and boots. These types of protective clothing can put workers at increased risk of developing heat-related illnesses. The Insulators Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee, in partnership with IHSA, has developed a Health and Safety Advisory on this issue Source : http://www.ihsa.ca/images/pfiles/532_W152.pdf
The effect of prescribed fluid consumption on physiology and work behavior of wildfire fighters
The purpose of this study was to examine 1) wildfire fighters' ability to consume the prescribed fluid volume (1200 mL h−1), 2) the effect of fluid intake on plasma sodium and hydration, and 3) the effect of fluid intake on firefighters' heart rate, core temperature and activity during emergency suppression shifts. Methods : Thirty-four firefighters were divided into ad libitum (AD, n = 17) and prescribed (PR, n = 17) drinking groups. Results : PR drinkers did not meet the prescribed fluid target, yet consumed over double the volume of AD drinkers. No differences between groups in...
Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers
Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to...
Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate: Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada
The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005–2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited...
Occupational Health Impacts of Climate Change: Current and Future ISO Standards for the Assessment of Heat Stress
The current system of International Standards (ISO) is assessed to consider whether standards are fit for purpose for the future in the context of climate change. ISO 7243, ISO 7933 and ISO 9886 provide the current ISO system for the assessment of heat stress. These involve a simple monitoring index, an analytical approach and physiological monitoring, respectively. The system relies on accurate measurement of the thermal conditions experienced by the worker (ISO 7726); and estimations of metabolic heat production due to work (ISO 8996) and the thermal properties of clothing (ISO 9920). As well...
The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment
The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model...
Acute Cardiovascular Effects of Firefighting and Active Cooling During Rehabilitation
Objectives : To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and postexposure active cooling. Methods : Forty-four firefighters were evaluated before and after a 12-minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters performing the same drill were randomized to undergo postfire forearm immersion in 10[degrees]C water or standard rehabilitation. Results: In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin, or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase...
Sensory displeasure reduces complex cognitive performance in the heat
The aim of this study was to verify that in a hot environment, the subjective state could affect cognitive performance before any increase in core temperature. Eighteen volunteers performed a planning (OTS) and a reaction time task in hot and control environments. Before starting the cognitive assessment, subjects completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and provided subjective measures of thermal comfort and thermal sensation. Our results showed that while simple tasks were not affected, complex cognitive task performance was significantly reduced in the HOT. Furthermore, although...
Review of Health Risks for workers in the Waste and Recycling Industry
This study was commissioned by the British Occupational Health Research Foundation on the behalf of the Environmental Services Association Education Trust (ESAET). In recent years the waste and recycling industry has moved away from its reliance on disposal in landfill to much higher levels of recycling and recovery. In addition, new materials and technologies are entering the waste chain. These changes are likely to have led to significant changes in the nature and magnitude of the associated risks to worker health. Source : http://www.bohrf.org.uk/downloads/Review_of_Health_Risks_for_workers_in_the_Waste_and_Recycling_Industry...
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