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Current state of knowledge on the health effects of engineered nanomaterials in workers
A systematic review of human studies and epidemiological investigations Objectives: The widespread application of nano-enabled products and the increasing likelihood for workplace exposures make understanding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) effects in exposed workers a public and occupational health priority. The aim of this study was to report on the current state of knowledge on possible adverse effects induced by ENM in humans to determine the toxicological profile of each type of ENM and potential biomarkers for early detection of such effects in workers. Methods: A systematic review of human...
ASTM D6877 - Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace
This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm
Reproductive and developmental toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials
A literature review We summarized the findings of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies on carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs). Placental transfer of fullerenes in rats and single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs in mice was shown after intravenous injection. SWCNTs appeared to be embryolethal and teratogenic in mice when given by intravenous injection and induced death and growth retardation in chicken embryos. In mice-administered MWCNTs, fetal malformations after intravenous and intraperitoneal injections and intratracheal instillation, fetal loss after intravenous injection, behavioral...
Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Exposure Assessments
An Analysis of 14 Site Visits Recent evidence has suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects that could result from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for CNT and CNF: 1 µg m-3 as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA) of elemental carbon (EC) for the respirable size fraction. The purpose of this study was to conduct an industrywide exposure assessment among US CNT and CNF manufacturers and users. Fourteen total sites were visited to assess...
Engineered Nanomaterials
An update on the Toxicology and Work Health Hazards This publication provides updated information about the toxicology and work health hazards of engineered nanomaterials. Safe Work Australia commissioned ToxConsult Pty Ltd to undertake this project. This report updates and builds on the findings of the 2009 report Engineered nanomaterials – a review of the toxicology and health hazards and provides specific information about the health hazards of: •Carbon nanotubes •Titanium dioxide •Zinc oxide •Cerium oxide, and •Silver The report provides suggestions for workplace...
Characterization of exposure to carbon nanotubes in an industrial setting
While production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is increasing, workers exposure to CNTs is expected to increase as well, with inhalation being potentially the main pathway for uptake. However, there have been few studies reporting results about workers' personal exposure to CNTs. In this study, worker exposure to single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) during the production of conductive films in a modern up-scaling factory was assessed. Particulate matter concentrations (2.5–10 μm) and concentrations of CO and CO2 were monitored by using real-time instruments. Workers' exposure levels...
Risk of Preeclampsia From Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Speciation Chemicals During Pregnancy
Objective: To determine whether maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation chemicals during pregnancy is associated with the risk of preeclampsia. Methods: We allocated average daily exposure values for 36 ambient particulate matter speciation chemicals to mothers during their first trimester and their entire pregnancy. The main outcome of interest was preeclampsia occurrence. Adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Results: The odds for preeclampsia were increased per interquartile range increase in pollutants for exposure to elemental carbon during the...
Standard Test Method for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Exhaust in the Workplace
This test method covers determination of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the particulate fraction of diesel engine exhaust, hereafter referred to as diesel particulate matter (DPM ). Samples of workplace atmospheres are collected on quartz-fiber filters. The method also is suitable for other types of carbonaceous aerosols and has been widely applied to environmental monitoring. It is not appropriate for sampling volatile or semi-volatile components. These components require sorbents for efficient collection. Source : http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6877.htm
Safe handling of carbon nanotubes in the workplace
The potential risks from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been highlighted in numerous studies, including a recent review of the toxicology and health hazards associated with nanomaterials commissioned by Safe Work Australia (Toxikos 2009, see Appendix A for a list of references). Therefore, in order to help people work safely with carbon nanotubes, Safe Work Australia commissioned the CSIRO to develop guidance on the safe handling and use of carbon nanotubes. This document provides two approaches to manage the risks: - Risk management with detailed hazard analysis and exposure assessment...
Pour prévenir une intoxication au monoxyde de carbone, attention aux chariots élévateurs
Le monoxyde de carbone (CO) est un gaz sournois parce qu'il est invisible, inodore et toxique. On l'appelle aussi le tueur silencieux. Le CO pénètre dans le corps humain par les voies respiratoires et prend la place de l'oxygène. Les chariots élévateurs au propane sont souvent la cause des intoxications au CO dans les milieux de travail. Il est possible de contrôler les émanations de CO et de prévenir une intoxication. Voici un aide-mémoire des principales mesures de prévention à adopter. Source : http://www...
Matériaux composites à base de fibres de carbone
Vers un repérage des situations potentiellement à risque L'Afsset publie ce jour les résultats d'une expertise collective sur les risques pour la santé des travailleurs liés aux composites de carbone associés à la fabrication et l'usinage des fibres de carbone et des matériaux composites. Cette technologie est en expansion et est déjà utilisée dans le secteur de l'aéronautique mais aussi dans celui des sports et des loisirs, du génie civil, de l'automobile, de la construction navale, de...
Comparison of risks from carbon dioxide and natural gas pipelines
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is likely to form a significant part of the UK's strategy for achieving its Kyoto targets for CO2 emission reduction. CO2 is not currently regulated as a dangerous fluid under the Pipeline Safety Regulations (PSR) so further investigation is required to determine if it should be re-classified. Source : http://news.hse.gov.uk/2009/12/11/rr749-comparison-of-risks-from-carbon-dioxide-and-natural-gas-pipelines/?rss=Research
Evaluation of Carbon Monoxide Exposure Among Airport Cargo Material Handlers
he Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Programme evaluated airport cargo handlers' exposure to carbon monoxide. Investigators found that all airport terminal service employees' carbon monoxide levels measured in the evaluation were above recommended limits but transportation security and air logistics employees' carbon monoxide levels were not. Investigators recommended replacing fuel-driven forklifts and tugs with electric ones, reminding drivers to turn off vehicle engines when at the dock doors, increasing warehouse ventilation, and installing carbon monoxide alarms. Source: http://www...

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